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THE LATIN SCHOOL BOOKS prepared by Prof. E. A. Andrews, exclu 
sive of his Latin-English Lexicon, founded on the Latin-German Lexicon of 
Dr. Freund, constitute two distinct series, adapted to different and distinct pur- 
poses. The basis of the First Series is Andrews' First Latin Book; of the 
Second, Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar. 


This Series is designed expressly for those who commence the study of Latin 
at a very early age, and for such as intend to pursue it to a limited extent only, 
or merely as subsidiary to the acquisition of a good English education. It con- 
sists of the following works, viz. : — 

1. Andrews' First Latin Book ; or Progressive Les- 
sons in Reading and Writing Latin. This small volume contains most of the 
leading principles and grammatical forms of the Latin language, and, by the 
logical precision of its rules and definitions, is admirably fitted to serve as an 
introduction to the study of general grammar. The work is divided into les- 
sons of convenient length, which are so arranged that the student will, in all 
cases, be prepared to enter upon the study of each successive lesson, by pos- 
sessing a thorough knowledge of those which preceded it. The lessons gen- 
erally consist of three parts: — 1st. The statement of important principles in 
the form of rules or definitions, or the exhibition of orthographical or etymo- 
logical forms; 2d. Exercises, designed to illustrate such principles or forms; 
and 3d. Questions, intended to assist the student in preparing his lesson. In 
addition to the grammatical lessons contained in this volume, a few pages 
of Reading Lessons are annexed, and these are followed by a Dictionary com- 
prising all the Latin words contained in the work. This book is adapted to 
the use of all schools above the grade of primary schools, including also Acad- 
emies and Female Seminaries. It is prepared in such a manner that it can be 
used with little difficulty by any intelligent parent or teacher, with no previous 
knowledge of the language. 

2. The Latin Reader, with a Dictionary and Notes, 
containing explanations of difficult idioms, and numerous references to the 
Lessons contained in the First Latin Book. 

3. The VM Romae, with a Dictionary and Notes, re- 
ferring, like those of the Reader, to the First Latin Book. This series of three 
small volumes, if faithfully studied according to the directions contained in them, 
will not only render the student a very tolerable proficient in the principles of 
the Latin language and in the knowledge of its roots, from which so many words 
of his English language are derived, but will constitute the best preparation for 
a thorough study of the English grammar. 


Note.— The " Latin Reader" and the " Viri Romse," in this series, are the same as in 
the first series. 

This Series is designed more especially for those who are intending to become 
thoroughly acquainted with the Latin language, and with the principal classical 
authors of that language. It consists of the following works: — 

1. • Latill Lessons. This small volume is designed for the 

younger classes of Latin students, who intend ultimately to take up the larger 
Grammar, but to whom that work would, at first, appear too formidable. It 
contains the prominent principles of Latin grammar, expressed in the same 
language as in the larger Grammar, and likewise Reading and Writing Lessons, 
with a Dictionary of the Latin words and phrases occurring in the Lessons. 


2. Latin Grammar. Revised, with Corrections and Ad- 
ditions. A Grammar of the Latin Language, for the use of Schools and Col- 
leges. By Professors E. A. Andrews and S. Stoddard. This work, which 
for many years has been the text-book in the department, of Latin Grammar, 
claims the merit of having first introduced into the schools of this country the 
subject of grammatical analysis, which now occupies a conspicuous place in 
so many grammars of the English language. More than twenty years have 
elapsed since the first publication of this Grammar, and it is hanlly necessary 
to say that its merits — placing it in a practical view, preeminently above every 
other Latin Grammar — have been so fully appreciated that it has been adoptecl 
as a Text Book in nearly every College and Seminary in the country. The 
present edition has not only been thorouyldy revised and corrected (Uvo years of 
continuous labor having been devoted to its careful revision and to the purpose if 
rendering it conformable in all respects to the advanced position which it aims to 
occupy,) but it contains at least one third more matter than the previous editions. 
To unite the acknowledged excellencies of the older English manuals, and of 
the more recent German grammars, was the special aim of the authors of this 
work; and to this end particular attention was directed: — 1st. To the prepara- 
tion of more extended rules for the pronunciation of the language ; 2d. To a clear 
exposition of its inflectional changes ; 3d. To a proper basis of its syntax; and 
4th. To greater precision in rules and definitions. 

3. Questions on the Grammar. This little volume is 

intended to aid the student in preparing his lessons, and the teacher in con- 
ducting his recitations. 

4. A Synopsis of Latin Grammar, comprising the 

Latin Paradigms, and the Principal JRules of Latin Etymology and Syntax. 
The few pages composing this work contain those portions of the Grammar to 
which the student has occasion to refer most frequently in the preparation of 
his daily lessons. 

5. Latin Reader. The Reader, by means of two separate 

and distinct sets of notes, is equally adapted for use in connection either with 
the First Latin Book or the Latin Grammar. 

6. Viri Itomse. This volume, like the Reader, is furnish- 
ed with notes and references, both to the First Latin Book and to the Latin 
Grammar. The principal difference in the two sets of notes found in each of 
these volumes consists in the somewhat greater fulness of those which belong 
to the smaller series. 

7. Latin Exercises. This work contains exercises in 
every department of the Latin Grammar, and is so arranged that it may be 
studied in connection with the Grammar through every stage of the prepara- 
tory course. It is designed to prepare the way for original composition in the 
Latin language, both in prose and verse. 

8. A Key to Latin Exercises. This Key, in which 

all the exercises in the preceding volume are fully corrected, is intended for 
the use of teachers only. 

9. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War, with a 

Dictionary and Notes. The text of this edition of Csesar has been formed by 
reference to the best German editions. The Notes are principally grammatical. 
The Dictionary, which, like all the others in the series, was prepared with great 
labor, contains the usual significations of the words, together with an explana- 
tion of all such phrases as might otherwise perplex the student. 

10. Sallust. Sallust's Jugurthine War and Conspiracy 

of Cataline, with a Dictionary and Notes. The text of this work, which was 
based upon that of Cortius, has teen modified by reference to the best modern 
editions, especially by those of Krita and Geriach ; and its orthography is, in 



general, conformed to that of Pottier and Planche. The Dictionaries of Csesar 
and Sallust connected with this series are original works, and, in connection 
with the Notes in each volume, furnish a very complete and satisfactory appa- 
ratus for the study of these two authors. 

11. Ovid. Selections from the Metamorphoses and Heroides 
of Ovid, with Notes, Grammatical References, and Exercises in Scanning. 
These selections from Ovid are designed as an introduction to Latin poetry. 
They are accompanied with numerous brief notes explanatory of difficult 
phrases, of obscure historical or mythological allusions, and especially of gram- 
matical difficulties. To these are added such Exercises in Scanning as serve 
fully to introduce the student to a knowledge of Latin prosody, and especially 
of the structure and laws of hexameter and pentameter verse. 

12. Virgil. The Eclogues and Georgics of Virgil, with 

Notes and a Metrical Key. The text of this edition is, in general, that of Heyne as re- 
vised by Wagner. Particular attention has been given to the orthography and punc- 
tuation. The orthography has been made to conform to the standard of prevalent 
usage, discarding the forms is for es, in the terminations of some accusatives plural, 
cum for quam and the like, as they tend to embarrass the learner, while they give but 
a very imperfect idea of the peculiarities of the author's orthography, as will be seen by 
examination of the Orthograpkia Vcrgiliana^ at the end of this edition. The notes are 
very numerous, and in their preparation the editor has drawn freely from the best com- 
mentaries on Virgil, both German and English, including those of Heyne, Wagner, For- 
biger, Ladewig, Marty n, Keightley, Bryce Conington and others. The notes contain 
many references to the Grammar, which will be found useful. 

In announcing the Revised Edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin 

Grammar, the Publishers believe it to be quite unnecessary to speak of the 
merits of the work. The fact that in the space of about Twenty Years, Sixty- 
Five Editions, numbering above Two Hundred Thousand Copies, 

have been required for the purpose of meeting the steadily increasing demand 
for the work, sufficiently evinces the estimation in which it has been held. 
In preparing this Revised and Enlarged Edition, every portion of the original 
work has been reconsidered in the light of the experience of twenty years 
spent by the present editor in studies connected with this department of edu- 
cation, and with the aid of numerous publications in the same department, 
which, during this period, have issued from the European press. The results 
of this labor are apparent on almost every page, in new modifications of the 
old materials, and especially in such additional information in regard to its 
various topics as the present advanced state, of classical education in this 
country seemed obviously to demand. The publishers commend this new 
edition to the attention of Teachers throughout the country, and express the 
hope that in its present form it will be deemed worthy of a continuance of the 
favor which it has so long received. 

The following are extracts from a few of the many letters the Publishers 
have received from teachers from all parts of the country in commendation 
of this work : — 

The revised edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar is without doubt the 
best published in America I have no doubt that the time is near at hand when this 
series of works will, by all lovers of the classics, be considered as the ' National Series.' 
The pronunciation is now by the same class considered the American Standard. I will 
hail with joy the day when every college and school in our country shall have adopted 
Prof Andrews' series as the foundation of true classic knowledge. As such I consider 
it, and for that reason have I used it since I first knew its existence. — Martin Armstrong, 
Potomac Seminary, Romney, Va. 

Allow me to say, after a careful examination, that, in my judgment, it is the best 
manual of Latin Grammar to be found in the English language. In revising it the 
author has preserved the happy medium between saying too much and too little, so de- 
sirable for a Latin text-book for this country. In philosophical arrangement, simplicity 
of expression, and for brevity and fulness, it must entitle the author to the first rank 
in American classical scholarship. I shall use it in my classes, and recommend it to all 
teachers of Latin in this country — N. E. Cobleigh, Professor of Ancient Languages and 
Literature, in Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis. 



I have reason to believe that the improvements, introduced into the last edition of 
Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar by my respected and lamented trie; id Dr. An- 
drews, a little before his death, add very decidedly to the value of a work, which has 
done more to give the knowledge of that language to the youth of this country tlxan auy, 
perhaps than all others. — Theodore W. Woolsey, President of Yale. College, New Haven. 

No book, probably, has done more to improve classical training in. American schools 
than Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar. Its use is almost universal; and where it 
has not itself been adopted as a manual, it has made grammars of similar excellence 
necessary. The last edition, the sixty -fifth, was carefully revised by the lamented Dr. 
Andrews, not long before his death, by whom it was greatly enlarged by the incorpora- 
tion of much valuable information, derived mainly from the last edition of the Latin 
Grammar of Professor Zumpt. It will therefore be found to be much improved as a re- 
pository of the principles and facts of the Latin language. — Thomas A. Tuacher, Profes- 
sor of Latin in Yale College , New Haven. 

It is unnecessary to commeud a Latin Grammar, which has been for twenty years in 
common use in our Colleges, and has generally supex*seded all others. The Revised 
Edition contains the results of the labors of Dr. Andrews, during all that time, on va- 
rious Latin Classics, and on his great Latin Lexicon; and cannot, therefore, but be 
greatly improved. — Edward Robinson, D. D., LL. D., Prof, of Biblical Literature in 
Union Theol. Seminary, Neiv York City. 

I regard Andrews' and Stoddard's new Latin Grammar, as an exceedingly valuable 
work. It evidently contains the results of the Author's careful and long continued in- 
vestigation, and from itz fulness, clearness, and accuracy, will undoubtedly become the 
Standard Latin Grammar of this Continent. In Western New York, we have for a long 
time been using the earlier editions, and they have rapidly won upon the public regard. 
This new edition will give it a stronger claim upon our favor. It must rapidly super- 
sede all others. I can unhesitatingly recommend the New Grammar as the best in use. — 
Lewis H. Clark, Principal of Sod us Academy, Wayne Co., N. Y. 

I have looked over the new edition of the Grammar with great interest. It is now 
eighteen years since I introduced it into this college, and I have never felt inclined to 
change it for any other. The revision, without changing its general character, has added 
greatly to its fulness and completeness. It is now fully equal to Zumpt's in these re- 
spects, and far superior to it in adaptation to the class room. There is no other school 
grammar that can pretend to compare with it. I have introduced the new edition here, 
and have no idea I shall ever wish to substitute another. The services of Prof. Andrews 
in the cause of classical learning hi the United States cannot be over estimated. — M. Stur- 
gus, Professor in Hanover College, Indiana 

I am willing to say that I am decidedly in favor of Andrews' Latin Series. — Geo. Gale, 
Galesville University , Wisconsin. 

Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar I consider decidedly the best Latin Grammar 
ever published. — Ransom Norton. North Livermore. Maine. 

Such a work as Andrews and Stoddard's Revised Latin Grammar needs no recommend- 
ation, it speaks for itself. — A. A. Keen, Professor of Greek and Latin, Tufts College, 
Med ford. Ms. 

I have examined the revised edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, and 
think it a complete success. I see it has all of Zuxnpt's merits and none of his defects, 
and welcome its advent with great pleasure. — James M. Whiton, Hopkins Grammar 
School, New Haven, Conn. 

I have examined Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, and say. without hesita- 
tion, that the principles of the Latin language can be more easily and systematically 
acquired from it than any work I have ever seen. The arrangement and simplicity of its 
terms are such as to make it easily comprehended by the beginner, while, at the same 
time, it's copiousness is sufficient for the most advanced student. The author has evi- 
dently noted and profited by the defects in this respect of most of the Latin Grammars 
now in use. — C. W. Field, Mauch Chunk. Pa. 

The superior merits of the original work are too well known and appreciated to need 
any commendation from me. I have had some means of knowing how great pains and 
labor Dr Andrews has bestowed upon this final revision and improvemerxt of the work, 
and. therefore, was not unprepared to find its acknowledged excellence materially in- 
creased, and I do not hesitate to say, that its value has been greatly enhanced, and that 
it has been brought as near as practicable to the present state of philological science. — 
John D. Philbrick, Superintendent of Public Schools, city of Boston. 

I have looked the Grammar thi'ough with much care and a great degree of satisfaction, 
and I unhesitatingly pronounce it superior to any Latin Grammar in method and man- 
ner of discussion, and happily adapted to the wants of both teachers and pupils.- J". W. 
Simonds, Principal of New England Christian Institute, Andover, N. H. 



We have lately introduced the Revised Edition, and regard it as a great improvement 
upon former editions. We shall use it exclusively in future. — E. Flinty Jr^ Principal 
of Lee High School. 

After a due examination, I am happy to state that the Author has admirably accom- 
plished the objects which he aimed at in making this last revision. He has added much 
that is in the highest degree valuable without materially changing the arrangement of 
the original work. The work appears to me well adapted to the daily use of our Classi- 
cal Schools, and I shall hereafter direct my classes to use it. — C. L. Cushman, Principal 
of Peabody High School, South Danvers, Ms. 

The Revised Grammar seems to me greatly improved and to be every thing a scholar 
could wish. — Z. B. Sturgis, Charlestown, Indiana. 

I have subjected the Revised Edition to the test of actual use in the recitation room, 
and am persuaded that in its present form it decidedly surpasses every other Latin Gram- 
mar in point of adaptation to the wants of students in our Academies, High Schools 
and Colleges. — William S. Palmer, Central High School, Cleaveland, Ohio. 

I think Andrews' Series of Latin Works the most systematic and best arranged course I 
have ever seen, — and believe if our pupils would use them altogether, we should find 
them much better scholars. I shall use them wholly in my school. — A. C. Stockin, 
Principal of Monmouth Academy, Maine. 

The examination of the Revised Edition has afforded me very great pleasure, and leads 
me to express the deep and sincere conviction that it is the most complete Grammar of 
the Latin language with which I am acquainted, and best adapted for ready consultation, 
upon any subject connected with the study of Latin Authors. The paper, the typography, 
and the binding, — the whole style of publication — are such as to commend the good taste 
and judgment of the Publishers. — /. R. Boy J, Principal of Maplewood Young Ladies 
Institute, Pittsfitld, Mass. 

I find the Revised Edition to be just what is needed for a Latin Grammar,— clear, com- 
prehensive, yet concise, in the subject matter. I shall introduce it as a permanent text- 
book. — B. F. Dake, Principal of Clyde High School, Wayne Co., N. Y. 

I have carefully examined your Revised Edition throughout, particularly the Correc- 
tions and Additions. It now appears to me all that can be desired. It seems like part- 
ing with a familiar friend to lay aside the old edition, with its many excellencies, and 
adopt the new. but I shall cheerfully make the sacrifice for the greater benefit that will 
accrue to those commencing the study of Latin from time to time. — J. H. Graham, Prin- 
cipal of Northfield Institution, Vermont. 

I thought before that the old edition was entitled to the appellation of " The Latin 
Grammar," but I perceive its value has been much increased by the numerous emenda- 
tions and additions of Prof. Andrews. The Grammar is now fitted to be a complete 
hand-book for the Latin scholar during his whole course — E. W. Johnson, Canton Acad- 
emy, Canton, N. Y 

I unhesitatingly pronounce the Revised Edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin 
Grammar the best Grammar of the Latin Language, and shall certainly use my influence 
in its behalf.— if. E. J. Clvte, Edinboro\ Pa. 

After a thorough examination, I have no hesitation in pronouncing it the best Latin 
Grammar for the purposes of the recitation room that I have ever examined. In its 
present form it ought certainly to displace a large majority of the Grammars in common 
use". Its rules of Syntax are expressed with accuracy and precision, and are in fact, 
what all rules ought to be. reliable guides to the learner. — James W. Andrews, Principal 
of Hopewell Academy, Penn. 

Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, in the arrangement and adaptation to the 
learner, has excelled all others, and the revised edition is certainly a great improvement, 
and I do believe is better adapted to the wants of the student than any other. The 
whole seems to be critically revised and corrected. Prof. Andrews was truly the stu- 
dent's benefactor. — M. L. Severance, North Troy, Vermont. 

It gives me great pleasure to bear my testimony to the superior merits of the Latin 
Grammar edited by Professor Andrews and Mr. Stoddard. I express most cheerfully, 
unhesitatingly, and decidedly, my preference of this Grammar to that of Adam, which 
has, for so long a time, kept almost undisputed sway in our schools. — Dr. C. Beck, Cam- 

I know of no Grammar published in this country, which promises to answer so well 
the purposes of elementary classical instruction, and shall be glad to see it introduced 
into our best schools. — Charles K. Dillaway, Boston. 

Your new Latin Grammar appears to me much better* suited to the use of students 
than any other grammar I am acquainted with.— Prof. Wm. M. Holland, Hartford, Ct 



I have adopted the Latfn Grammar of Andrews and Stoddard in the school under my 
charge, believing it better adapted, upon the whole, for elementary instruction than any 
similar work which I have examined. It combines the improvements of the recent Ger- 
man works on the subject with the best features of that old favorite of the schools, Dr. 
Adam's Latin Grammar. — Henry Drisler, Professor of Latin in Columbia College. 

A careful review of the Revised Edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, 
shows that this favorite text-book still continues to deserve the affections and confidence 
of Teachers and Pupils, incorporating as it does the results of Prof. Andrews' own con- 
stant study for many years with the investigations of English and German Philologists. 
No other Grammar is now so well fitted to meet the wants of the country as the rapid 
demand for it will show beyond doubt. — A. S. Hartwell, University of St. Louit. 

This Grammar of the Latin Language, now universally pronounced the very best, is 
greatly improved by the corrections, revisions and additions of this revised edition. We 
do not believe a text-book was ever written which introduced so great an improvement 
in the method of teaching Latin, as this has done. We wish the revised edition the 
greatest success, which we are sure it merits. — Rhode Island Schoolmaster. 

I have examined your revised edition with considerable care, and do not hesitate to 
pronounce it a great improvement upon the old editions, and as near perfection as we 
are likely to have. I have no doubt it will come into general use. — A. Williams, Professor 
of Latin, Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa. 

I have been much interested in the Revised Edition. The improvement is very striking, 
and I shall no longer think of giving it up and putting Zumpt in its place. I am much 
pleased with the great improvement in the typography. You have given to our schools a 
Dook fifty per cent better in every respect, and I trust you will have your reward in 
largely increased sales. — William J. Rolfe, Master of Oliver High School, Lawrence, Ms. 

I can with much pleasure say that your Grammar seems to me much better adapted 
to the present condition and wants of our schools than any one with which I am ac- 
quainted, and to supply that which has long been wanted— a good Latin Grammar for 
common use. — F. Gardner, Principal of Boston Latin School. 

The Latin Grammar of Andrews and Stoddard is deserving, in my opinion, of the ap- 
probation which so many of our ablest teachers have bestowed upon it. It is believed 
that, of all the grammars before the public, this has greatly the advantage, in regard 
both to the excellence of its arrangement, and the accuracy and copiousness of its infor- 
mation. — H. B. Hackett, Prof, of Biblical Literature in Newton Theological Seminary. 

The universal favor with which this Grammar is received was not unexpected. It will 
bear a thorough and discriminating examination. In the use of well-defined and ex- 
pressive terms, especially in the syntax, we know of no Latin or Greek grammar which 
is to be compared to this. — American Quarterly Register. 

These works will furnish a series of elementary publications for the study of Latin 
altogether in advance of any thing which has hitherto appeared, either in this country 
or in England. — American Biblical Repository. 

I cheerfully and decidedly bear testimony to the superior excellence of Andrews and 
Stoddard's Latin Grammar to any manual of the kind with which I am acquainted. 
Every part bears the impress of a careful compiler. The principles of syntax are happily 
developed in the rules, whilst those relating to the moods and tenses supply an important 
deficiency in our former grammars. The rules of prosody are also clearly and fully ex- 
hibited. — Rev. Lyman Coleman, Manchester, Vt. 

This work bears evident marks of great care and skill, and ripe and accurate scholar- 
ship in the authors. We cordially commend it to the student and teacher.— Biblical 

Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar is what I expected it would be — an excellent 
book. We cannot hesitate a moment in laying aside the books now in use, and intro- 
ducing this. — Rev. J. Penney, D. D., New York. 

Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar bears throughout evidence of original and 
thorough investigation and sound criticism. It is, in my apprehension, so far as sim- 
plicity is concerned, on the one hand, and philosophical views and sound scholarship on 
the other, far preferable to other grammars; a work at the same time highly creditable to 
its authors and to our country. — Professor A. Packard, Bowdoin College, Maine. 

I do not hesitate to pronounce Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar superior to 
any other with which I am acquainted. I have never seen, any where, a greater amount 
of valuable matter compressed within limits equally narrow. — Hon. John Hall, Principal 
of Ellington School, Conn. 

We have no hesitation in pronouncing this Grammar decidedly superior to any now 
in use. — Boston Recorder. 



r. Vinson % §mmw. 

Robinson's Hebrew Lexicon. Sixth Edition, Revised 

and Stereotyped. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, in- 
cluding the Biblical Chaldee. Translated from the Latin of William Gesenius, 
late Professor of Theology in the University of Halle-Wittemberg B v Edward 
Robinson, D. D., LL. D., Professor of Biblical Literature in the Union The- 
ological Seminary, New York. A new edition, with corrections and large ad- 
ditions, partly furnished by the author in manuscript, and partly condensed 
from his larger Thesaurus, as compiled by Roediger. These corrections and 
additions were made by Dr. Gcsenius, during an interval of several years, 
while carrying his Thesaurus through the press, and were transcribed and fur- 
nished by him expressly for this edition. They will be found to be very 
numerous, every page having been materially corrected and enlarged, and a 
large number of articles having been re-written. It is printed on a new type, 
the face and cut of which is very beautiful, and has been highly commended 
and approved. 

Dr. Robinson had already been trained to the business of lexicographical labor, when 
he began the translation of the present work. He is, in an uncommon degree, master 
of his own native tongue. Ho has diligence, patience, perseverance — yea, the iron dili- 
gence of Gesenius himself. For aught that 1 have yet been able to discover, all that can 
reasonably be expected or desired, has been done by the translator; not only as to ren- 
dering the work into English, but as to the manner and the accuracy of printing. The 
work will speak for itself, on the first opening. It does honor, in its appearance, to edi- 
tor, printers, and publishers. I have only to add my hearty wish, that its beautiful 
white pages may be consulted and turned over, until they become thoroughly worn with 
the hands of the purchasers.— Prof. Stuart, in the Biblical Repository, 

There is no lexicon in English that can be put on a level with Robinson's. I recommend 
the present as tho best Lexicon of the Hebrew and Biblical Chaldee which an English 
scholar can have.— Rev. Dr. Sa?nuel Davidson, of London. 

Gesenius' Lexicon is known wherever Hebrew is studied. On the merits of this work 
criticism has long ago pronounced its verdict of approval.— London Jewish Chronicle. 

This is a very beautiful and complete edition of the best Hebrew Lexicon ever yet 
produced. Gesenius, as a Hebrew philologist, is unequalled.— London Clerical Journal. 

This is decidedly the most complete edition of Gesenius' Manual Hebrew Lexicon.— 
London Journal of Sacred Literature. 

^brasmt's Jiaraurag of % &|jels, w (greek. 

A Harmony of the Four Gospels, in Greek, accord- 
ing to the text of Hnhn. Newly arranged, with Explanatory Notes, bv Edward 
Robinson, 1). 1)., LL. D., Professor of Biblical Literature in the Union The- 
ologicul Seminary, New York. Revised Edition. 

This work of Dr. Robinson confines itself to the legitimate sphere of a Harmony of the 
Gospels ; and we do not hesitate to sav that in this sphere it will be found to be all that 
a Harmony need or can be. The original text is printed with accuracy and elegance. 
It is a feast to the eyes to look upon a page of so much beauty. Its arrangement is dis- 
tinguished tor simplicity and convenience. No one will ever be able to comprehend the 
relations of the Gospels to each other, or acquire an exact knowledge of their contents, 
unless he studies them with the aid of a Harmony. The present work furnishes in this 
respect just the facility which is needed; and we trust that among its other effects, it 
will serve to direct attention more strongly to the importance of this mode of study.— 
Prof. Hackett, of Newton Theological Seminary. 

Arithmetic, Oral and Written, practically applied by means 
of Suggestive Questions. By Thomas H. Palmer, Author of the Prize 
Essay on Education, entitled the " Teacher's Manual," " The Moral Instruc- 
tor," etc. 



Jfobftismt's Sarmoiro of % fepels, in €nglisjj. 

A Harmony of the Four Gospels, in English, accord- 
ing to the common version; newly arranged, with Explanatory Notes. By 
Edward Robinson, D. D., LL. D. 

The object of this work is to obtain a full and consecutive account of all the 
facts of our Lord's life and ministry. In order to do this, the four gospel nar- 
ratives have been so brought together, as to present as nearly as possible the 
true chronological order, and where the same transaction is described by more 
than one writer, the different accounts are placed side by side, so as to fill out 
and supply each other. Such an arrangement affords the only full and perfect 
survey of all the testimony relating to any and every portion of our Lord's his- 
tory. The evangelists are thus made their own best interpreters; and it is 
shown how wonderfully they are supplementary to each other in minute as 
well as in important particulars, and in this way is brought out fully and 
clearly the fundamental characteristics of their testimony, unity in diversity. 
To Bible classes, Sabbath schools, and all who love and seek the truth in their 
closets and in their families, this work will be found a useful assistant. 

I have used " Robinsorrs English Harmony '' in teaching a Bible Class. The result, in 
my own mind, is a conviction of the great merits of this work, and its adaptation to im- 
part the highest life and interest to Bible Class exercises, and generally to the diligent 
study of the Gospel. It is much to be desired that every one accustomed to searching 
the Scriptures should have this invaluable aid. — Rev. Dr. Skinner, New York. 

Robinson's Bible Dictionary. A Dictionary for the 

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The first edition of Sallust by the present editor having been favorably 
received by the public, no alteration in its plan has been thought necessary 
In preparing a second edition, however, every part has been carefully 

The text, in the former edition of the Jugurthine War was based upon that 
of Cortius. It was not until nearly the whole of that portion of the work was 
printed ofT that the editor was able to obtain the highly valuable editions, 
which, within a few years past, have issued from the German press. Of these 
such use was made in the remainder of the work, as the brief time allowed for 
thib purpose would permit. 

The text of Cortius was distinguished from those previously in common use 
by frequent ellipses, especially of particles, pronouns, and the substantive verb 
These ellipses gave to the author's style an appearance of peculiar harshness; 
and rendered the connexion at times obscure and difficult. Besides other 
valuable improvements in the text of this author, the German editors, after the 
most careful collation of manuscripts and early editions have in many instances 
restored the words omitted by Cortius. 

The text adopted in both parts of the present edition is, in general, that of 
Jtritz. but modified by reference to the editions of Planche, Burnouf, Gerlach, 
Herzog and the Bipont editors. The alterations made in this edition will, it is 
believed, commend themselves to all, who shall examine them with care, 
as serving to remove many of the difficulties found in the common 

The orthography of the first edition, which, with few exceptions, was that 
adopted by the Bipont editors and by Planche, has been retained. 

The following extracts from the preface to the first edition will sufficiently 
explain its general plan. 

"In arranging the two treatises of Sallust constituting the text of this work, 
the first place has been assigned to the War against Jugurtha. Such an 
arrangement seemed to be expedient in a work intended for the use of students 
not previously familiar with Roman history; inasmuch as the History of 
Catiline's Conspiracy, which occurred many years after the war against Jugur- 
tha, contains numerous allusions to persons engaged in that war, and to politi- 
cal events connected with it. 



As some of the most prominent difficulties in Latin syntax arise from me use 
of the oratio obliqua, the occi xrence of this construction has generally been 
denoted by rrieans of single inverted commas, while direct quotations are distin 
guished by the usual marks. 

To the preparation of the accompanying Dictionary, much time and laboi 
have been devoted. The design has been to unite, so far as a due regard to 
brevity would permit, the advantages of a Lexicon Sallustianum with those of 
a general dictionary." To this end the common significations of each word 
are given, whether occurring in Sallust or not, but in noting the constructions of 
words, those only are mentioned, which are found in this author. " The plan 
of the work did not permit the introduction of extended discussions relating to 
points of history or biography, customs or laws. For minute information on 
these and kindred subjects, it was thought better to refer the student to his 
Classical Dictionary and Roman Antiquities, and especially to some good 
Roman history ; such, for example, as Ferguson's Roman Republic. 

In preparing the notes of this edition, it has been the aim of the editor to 
supply such information only, as could not properly be inserted in the Dictionary 
He has endeavoured to furnish precisely such aid as he supposed a diligent sti* 
dent would need, and to present it in such a form as would direct his investiga- 
tions, instead of superseding them. A free use has been made of the materials 
contained in the notes of Burnouf, Planche and Kritz, and such other notes 
have been added as the design of the work seemed to require. In explaining 
the grammatical constructions, the editor has generally contented himself with 
a simple reference to that part of the grammar in which a solution of the diffi- 
culty may be found, leaving it to the student's own reflection to make the 


Sallust, the celebrated Roman historian, was born at Amiternum, a town* 
in the Sabine territory, in the year of Rome 668, 86 years before the birth of 
Christ, and in the consulship of Cinna and Carbo. While young he removed 
to Rome, where he devoted himself to literary pursuits, under the direction of 
Atteius Praetextatus, a celebrated Athenian grammarian, and an instructor in 
the art of rhetoric. 

At an early age, probably about the year of Rome 695, he obtained the 
questorship, and consequently became entitled to a seat in the senate. In the 
year 701, during a period of great civil commotion, he was made a tribune of 
the people ; and in the dissensions consequent upon the death of Clodius, he 
took an active part in opposition to Milo. To this course he was probably 
moved not less by personal hostility to Milo, whom he had greatly injured, and 
from whom he had received a severe, but well merited chastisement, than by 
attachment to the party of Clodius. In the year 704 the censors, Appius Clau- 
dius and Calpurnius Fiso, degraded him from his rank as senator, on account 
of the infamy of his private character. 

It was probably about this time, that he wrote the History of the Catilinarian 
Conspiracy, with the exception, perhaps, of the part relating to the characters 
of Caesar and Cato, though some ascribe to the whole work a later date. Ot 
most of the events connected with this conspiracy, Sallust had been an eye 
witness, and, with few exceptions, he appears to have recorded them with ex- 
emplary impartiality. Though at a later period, the bitter enemy of Cicero, he 
manifests no such hostility in his account of this conspiracy, unless it be found 
in the somewhat faint praise which he bestows upon that illustrious orator and 
patriotic statesman. 

Notwithstanding he expressed the determination in the introduction of this 
history, of spending the remainder of his days remote from the agitations of 
public life, he yet emered soon after with renewed ardor into the violent strug- 
gles which arose between the parties of Pompey and Caesar. In this contest he 
espoused the cause of Caesar, to whom he was personally attached, and through 
whose influence, in the year of the city 706, he was again made questor, and 
consequently reinstated in the senate. In the following year by the same influ- 
ence he was raised to the pretorship, and about this time also he married 
Terentia, whom Cicero had recently divorced. 

1* 5 


Soon after these events the civil war was renewed in Africa, where the rem- 
nants, of the senatorial party had been assembled under the command of Scipio 
and Cato. To oppose these Sallust was directed to conduct a detachment of 
several legions, by the way of Capua to the shores of Campania, where they 
were to embark for Africa. On arriving at the port of embarkation, a mutiny 
arose among the troops on account of their unwillingness to leave Italy, and to 
encounter anew the hardships and dangers to which they had been so long ex- 
posed. Sallust found his authority of no avail to suppress the insurrection, and 
was compelled to secure his own safety by a precipitate flight to Rome, 
whither he was followed by a great number of the troops. Order being 
at length restored by the presence and authority of Caesar, the legions consent- 
ed to embark, and shortly afterwards landed in Africa. Subsequently in an expe- 
dition entrusted to his Command, against the island of Cercina, Sallust is said 
to have evinced considerable courage, military skill and prowess. 

After the close of this war^he was appointed to the command of the African 
province, where he acquired immense riches by oppressing the people. On his 
return home, he was accused by the Numidians, of mal-administration of the 
affairs of his province, but escaped punishment through the friendship, of Caesar 
with whom he is reported to have shared his spoils. Scarcely, however, had he 
been acquitted, when Caesar, on whom all his fortunes depended, was 
assassinated, on the ides of March, in the year of Rome 710. 

With this event terminated the political career of Sallust, who thenceforward 
devoted himself wholly to the pursuits of private life. In his retirement, besides 
other historical works of which a few fragments now remain, he composed the 
History of the Jugurthine War, for which he had collected ample materials 
during his residence in Africa. He also erected a magnificent residence upon 
the Quirinal Hill, and laid out those beautiful gardens, which afterwards bore 
his name, and which were long considered as the pride and ornament of Rome 
After his decease, which occurred in the year 71 8? his house and gardens be*, 
came the favorite residence of successive Roman emperors. 

As a historian, Sallust has few equals. His style is in a high degree concise 
resembling in this and in other respects that of Thueydides, whom, he seems 
to have taken as his model. He is distinguished also for his uncommon talent 
at graphic description, and his masterly delineations of character. In his 
writings he is ever the advocate of virtue, and the stern, uncompromising toe 
of corruption in every form, whether exhibited in the »renal administration of 
government, or in the obscurer vices of private life. Unfortunately for his 
memory, the principles of virtue inculcated in his writings seem to have had 
but little influence in the conduct of his life ; and posterity has shown the less 
indulgence to his faults, from the contrast which they exhibit to his own moral 






I. Falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum, quod, 
imbecilla atque asvi brevis, forte potius quam virtute rega- 
tur. Nam contra reputando neque majus aliud neque 
praestabilius invenies, magisque naturae industriam homi- 
num quam vim aut tempus deesse. Sed dux atque impe- 
rator vitae mortalium animus est ; qui ubi ad gloriam vir- 
tutis via grassatur, abunde pollens potensque et clarus 
est, neque fortuna eget: quippe quae probUatem, indus- 
triam aliasque artes bonas neque dare neque eripere 
cuiquam potest. Sin, captus pravis cupidinibus, ad iner- 
tiam et voluptates corporis pessum datus est, perniciosa 
Hbidine paulisper usus, ubi per socordiam vires, tempus, 
ingenium defluxere, naturae infirmitas accusatur: suam 
quisque culpam auctores ad negotia transferunt. Quod 
si hominibus bonarum rerum tanta cura esset, quanto 
studio aliena ac nihil profutura multumque etiam pericu- 
losa petunt, neque regerentur rriagis, quam regerent casus, 
et eo magnitudinis procederent, uti pro mortalibus gloria 
aeterni fierent. 

II. Nam uti genus hominum compositum est ex corpore 
et anima, ita res cunctae studiaque omnia nostra, corpo 


ris alia, alia animi naturam sequuntur. Igitur praeclara 
facies, magnae divitiae, ad hoc vis corporis et alia omnia 
hujuscemodi brevi dilabuntur; at ingenii egregia facinora, 
sicuti anima, immortalia sunt. Postremo corporis et 
fortunae bonorum ut initium, sic finis est, omniaque orta 
occidunt, et aucta -senescunt : animus incorruptus, aeter- 
nus, rector humani generis, agit atque habet cuncta, neque 
ipse habetur. Quo magis pravitas eorum admiranda est, 
qui, dediti corporis gaudiis, per luxum atque ignaviam 
aetatem agunt, ceterum ingenium, quo neque melius neque 
amplius aliud in natura mortalium est, incultu atque socor- 
dia torpescere sinunt, quum praesertim tarn multag variae- 
que sint artes animi, quibus summa claritudo paratur. 

III. Verum ex his magistratus et imperia, postremo 
omnis cura rerum publicarum minime mihi hac tempes- 
tate cupienda videntur; quoniam neque virtuti honos 
datur, neque illi, quibus per fraudem is fuit, utique tuti, 
aut eo magis honesti sunt. Nam vi quidem regere pa- 
criam aut parentes quamquam et possis, et delicta corngas, 
tamen importunum est ; quum praesertim omnes rerum 
mutationes caedem, fugam aliaque hostilia portendant. 
Frustra autem niti, neque aliud se fatigando nisi odium 
quaerere, extremae dementiae est: nisi forte quern inho- 
nesta et perniciosa libido tenet potentiae paucorum decus 
atque libertatem suam gratificari. 

IV. Ceterum ex aliis negotiis, quae ingenio exercentur, 
in primis magno usui est memoria rerum gestarum : 
cujus de virtute quia multi dixere, prastereundum puto, 
simul, ne per insolentiam quis existimet memet studium 
meum laudando extollere. Atque ego* credo fore, qui, 
quia decrevi procul a republica setatem agere, tanto 
tamque utili labori meo nomen inertiae imponant ; certe. 


quibus maxima industria videtur salutare plebem et con- 
viviis gratiam quaerere. Qui si reputaverint, et quibus 
ego temporibus magistratus adeptus sim, et quales viri 
idem assequi nequiverint, et postea quae genera hominum 
in senatum pervenerint, profecto existimabunt me magis 
merito quam ignavia judicium animi mei mutavisse, ma- 
jusque commodum ex otio meo, quam ex aliorum nego- 
tiis,reipublicae venturum. Nam saepe ego audivi, Q. Max- 
imum, P. Scipionem, praaterea civitatis nostrae praeclaros 
viros^solitos ita dicere, * quum majorum imagines intue- 
rentur, vejiementissime sibi animum ad virtutem accendi/ 
Scilicet non ceram illam neque figuram tantam vim in 
sese habere, sed memoria rerum gestarum earn flammam 
egregiis viris in pectore crescere, neque prius sedari, 
quam virtus eorum famam atque gloriam adaequaverit. 
At contra quis est omnium his moribus, quin divitiis et 
sumptibus, non probitate neque industria cum majoribus 
suis contendat ? Etiam homines novi, qui antea per vir- 
tutem soliti erant nobilitatem antevenire, furtim et per 
latrocinia potiiis quam bonis artibus ad imperia et hono- 
res nituntur ; proinde quasi prastura et consulatus atque 
alia omnia hujuscemodi per se ipsa clara et magnifica 
sint, ac non perinde habeantur, ut eorum, qui ea sustinent, 
virtus est. Verum ego liberies altiusque processi, dum 
me civitatis morum piget taedetque: nunc ad inceptum 

V. Bellum scripturus sum, quod populus Romanus cum 
Jugurtha, rege Numidarum, gessit: primum, quia mag. 
num et atrox variaque victoria fuit : dein, quia tunc pri- 
mum superbiae nobilitatis obviam itum est. Quae conten- 
tio divina et humana cuncta permiscuit, eoque vecordiae 
processi t, uti studiis civilibus bellum atque vastitas Italian 


finem faceret. Sed priusquam hujuscemodi rei initium 
expedio, pauca supra repetam, quo ad cognoscendum 
omnia illustria magis magisque in aperto sint. Bello 
Punico secundo, quo dux Carthaginiensium Hannibal post 
magnitudinem nominis Romani Italise opes maxime attriv- 
erat, Masinissa rex Numidarum, in amicitiam receptus 
a P. Scipione, cui postea Africano cognomen ex virtute 
fuit, multa et prseclara rei militaris facinora fecerat, ob 
quae, victis Carthaginiensibus et capto Syphace, cujus in 
Africa magnum atque late imperium valuit, populujg Ro- 
man us, quascumque urbes et agros manu ceperat, regi 
dono dedit. Igitur amicitia Masinissse bona atque hones- 
ta nobis permansit : imperii vitaeque ejus finis idem fuit. 
Deinde Micipsa Alius regnum solus obtinuit, Manastabale 
et Gulussa fratribus morbo absumptis. Is Adherbalem et 
Hiempsalem ex sese genuit ; Jugurthamque, Manastabalis 
fratris filium, quern Masinissa, quod ortus ex concubina 
erat, privatum reliquerat, eodem cultu, quo liberos suos, 
domi habuit. 

VI. Qui ubi primum adolevit, pollens viribus, decora 
facie, sed multo maxime ingenio validus, non se luxu 
neque inertia3 corrumpendum dedit ; sed, uti mos gentis 
illius est, equitare, jaculari, cursu cum sequalibus certare: 
et, quum omnes gloria antei'ret, omnibus tamen carus 
esse; ad hoc pleraque tempora in venando agere, leonem 
atque alias feras primus aut in primis ferire ; plurimum 
fa cere, et minimum ipse de se loqui. Quibus rebus Micip- 
sa tametsi initio laetus fuerat, existimans virtutem Jugur- 
thce regno suo glorise fore, tamen, postquam hominem 
adolescentem, exacta sua astate, et parvis liberis, magis 
magisque crescere intellegit, vehementer eo negotio per- 
motus, multa cum animo suo volvebat. Terrebat eum 


natura mortalium avida imperii et praeceps ad explendam 
animi cupidinem, prasterea opportunitas suae liberorum- 
que a3tatis, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae trans- 
versos agit, ad hoc studia Numidarum in Jugurtham ac- 
censa, ex quibus, si talem virum interfecisset, ne qua se- 
ditioaut bellum oriretur, anxius erat. 

VII. His difficultatibus circumventus, ubi vide* neque 
per vim neque insidiis opprimi posse hominem t? ni accep- 
tum popularibus, quod erat Jugurtha manu p^omptus et 
appetens gloriae militaris, statuit eum objeciare periculis, 
et eo modo fortunam tentare. Igitur bello Numantino 
Micipsa quum populo Romano equitum atque peditum 
auxilia mitteret, sperans vel ostentando virtutem vel hos- 
tium saevitia facile eum occasurum, praefecit Numidis, 
quos in Hispaniam mittebat Sed ea res longe aliter, ac 
ratus erat, evenit. Nam Jugurtha, ut erat impigro atque 
acri ingenio, ubi naturam P. Scipionis, qui tunc Romanis 
imperator erat, et morem hostium cognovit, multo labore 
multaque cura, praeterea modestissime parendo et ssepe 
obviam eundo periculis in tantam claritudinem brevi per- 
venerat, ut nostris vehementer carus, Numantinis maximo 
terrori esset. " Ac sane, quod difficillimum in primis est, 
et proelio strenuus erat, et bonus consilio ; quorum alterum 
ex providentia timorem, alterum ex audacia temeritatem 
afferre plerumque solet. Igitur imperator omnes fere res 
asperas per Jugurtham agere, in amicis habere, magis 
magisque eum in dies amplecti ; quippe cujus neque consil- 
ium neque inceptum ullum frustra erat. Hue accedebat 
munificentia animi et ingenii solertia, quis rebus sibi mul- 
tos ex Romanis familiari amicitia conjunxerat. 

« VIII. Ea tempestate in exercitu nostro fuere complures 
novi atque nobiles, quibus divitiae bono honestoque potio- 


res erant, factiosi domi, potentes apud socios, clari magis 
quam honesti, qui Jugurthae non mediocrem animum pol- 
licitando accendebant, ' si Micipsa rex occidisset, fore, 
uti solus ifnperii Numidiae potiretur: in ipso maximam 
virtutem ; Romae omnia venalia esse.' Sed postquam, 
Numantia deleta, P. Scipiodimittereauxiliaet ipsereverti 
domum decrevit, donatum atque laudatum magnifice pro 
concione Jugurtham in praetorium abduxit, ibique secreto 
monuit, * uti potius publice quam privatim amicitiam 
populi Romani coleret, neu quibus largiri insuesceret; 
periculose a paucis emi, quod multorum esset. Si perma- 
nere vellet in suis artibus, ultro illi et gloriam et regnum 
venturum ; sin properantius pergeret, suamet ipsum pecu- 
nia praecipitem casurum.' 

IX. Sic locutus, cum litteris eum, quas Micipsae red- 
defet, dimisit. Earum sententia haac erat: "Jugurthse 
tui bello Numantino longe maxima virtus fuit ; quam rem 
tibi certo scio gaudio esse. Nobis ob merita sua carus 
est : uti idem senatui et populo Romano sit, summa ope 
nitemur. Tibi quidem pro nostra amicitia gratulor. En 
habes virum dignum te atque avo suo Masinissa." Igitur 
rex, ubi ea, quas fama acceperat, ex litteris imperatoris ita 
esse cognovit, quum virtute turn gratia viri permotus, 
flexit animum suum, et Jugurtham beneficiis vincere 
aggressus est; statimque eum adoptavit, et testamento 
pariter cum filiis heredem instituit. Sed ipse paucos post 
annos, morbo atque aetate confectus, quum sibi finem vitse 
adesse intelligeret, coram amicis et cognatis, itemque 
Adherbale et Hiempsale filiis, dicitur hujuscemodi verba 
cum Jugurtha habuisse. 

X. "Parvum ego te, Jugurtha, amisso patre, sine spe 
sine opibus in meum regnum accepi, existimans non 


minus me tibi quam [liberis,] si genuissem, ob beneficia 
car urn fore : neque ea res falsum me habuit. Nam, ut 
alia magna et egregia tua omittam, novissime, rediens 
Numantia, meque regnumque meum gloria honoravisti, 
tuaque virtute nobis Romanos ex amicis amicissimos 
fecisti ; in Hispania norhen familiae renovatum est ; pos- 
tremd, quod diffieillimum inter mortales est, gloria invid- 
iam vicisti. Nunc, quoniam mihi natura finem vitae 
facit, per banc dextram, per regni fidem moneo obtestor- 
que te, uti hos, qui tibi genere propinqui, beneficio meo 
fratres sunt, caros habeas; neu malis alienos adjungere, 
quam sanguine conjunctos .retinere. Non exereitus neque 
thesauri praesidia regni sunt, verum amici, quos neque 
armis cogere, neque auro parare queas; officio et fide 
pariuntur. Quis autem amicior, quam frater fratri ? aut 
quern alienum fidum invenies, si tuis hostis fueris ? Equi- 
dem ego vobis regnum trado iirmum, si boni eritis ; sin 
mali, imbecillum. Nam concordia parva3 res crescunt, 
discordia. maximae dilabuntur. Ceterum ante hos te, Ju- 
gurtha, qui aetate et sapientia prior es, ne aliter quid 
eveniat, providere decet; nam in omni certamine, qui 
opulentior est, etiam si accipit injuriam, tamen quia plus 
potest, facere videtur. Vos autem, Adherbal et Hiemp- 
sal, colite, observate talem hunc virum ; imitamini virtu- 
tem, et enitimini, ne ego meliores liberos sumpsisse videar, 
quam genuisse." 

XL Ad ea Jugurtha, tametsi regem ficta locutum in- 
telligebat, et ipse longe aliter animo agitabat, tamen pro 
tempore benigne respondit. Micipsa paucis post diebus 
moritur. Postquam illi more regio justa magnifice feee- 
rant, reguli in unum convenere, uti inter se de cunctis 
negotiis disceptarent. Sed Hiempsal, qui minimus ex illi? 



erat, natoa ferox, et jam ante ignobilitatem Jugurthas 
quia materno genere impar erat, despiciens, dextera 
Adherbalem assedit, ne medius ex tribus, quod apud 
Numidas honori ducitur, Jugurtha foret. Dein tamen utl 
setati concederet fatigatus a fratre, vix in partem alteram 
transductus est. Ibi quum multa de administrando impe- 
rio dissererent, Jugurtha inter alias res jacit, ' oportere 
quinquennii consulta et decreta omnia rescindi ; nam per 
ea tempora confectum annis Micipsam parum animo 
valuisse.' Turn ' idem' Hiempsal ' placere sibi' respondit; 
'nam ipsum ilium tribus proximis annis adoptatione in 
regnum pervenisse.' Quod verbum in pectus Jugurthae 
altius, quam quisquam ratus erat, descendit. Itaque ex 
eo tempore ira et metu anxius moliri, parare, atque ea 
modd animo habere, quibus Hiempsal per dolum capere- 
tur. Quae ubi tardiiis procedunt, neque lenitur animus 
ferox, statuit quovis modo ineeptum perficere. 

XII. Primo conventu, quern ab regulis factum supra 
memoravi, propter dissensionem placuerat dividi thesau- 
ros, finesque imperii singulis constitui. Itaque tempus ad 
utramque rem decernitur, sed maturius ad pecuniam dis- 
tribuendam. Reguli interea in loca propinqua thesauris, 
alius alio, concessere. Sed Hiempsal in oppido Thirmida 
forte ejus domo utebatur, qui.proxifnus lictor Jugurthae 
carus acceptusque ei semper fuerat. Quern ille casu 
ministrum oblatum promissis onerat, impellitque, ati tam- 
quam suam visens domum eat, portarum claves aduiteri- 
nas paret, nam verae ad Hiempsalem referebantur ; cete- 
rum, ' ubi res postularet, se ipsum cum magna manu ven- 
turum.' Namida mandata brevi confecit, atque, ut doc- 
tus erat, noctu Jugurthas milites introducit. Qui post- 
quam in aedes irrupere, diversi regem quierere, dormien- 


tes alios, alios occursantes interficere, scrutari loca abdita, 
clausa effringere, strepitu et tumultu omnia miscere; quum 
interim Hiempsal reperitur, occultans se in tugurio mu- 
lieris ancillse, quo initio pavidus et ignarus loci perfu- 
gerat, Numidas caput ejus, uti jussi erant, ad Jugurtham 

XIII. Ceterum fama tanti facinoris per omnem Africam 
brevi divulgatur : Adherbalem omnesque, qui sub imperio 
Micipsae fuerant, metus invadit. In duas partes disce- 
dunt Numidge: plures Adherbalem sequuntur, sed ilium 
alterum bello meliores. Igitur Jugurtha quam maximas 
potest copias armat, urbes partim vi, alias voluntate im- 
perio suo adjungit, omni Numidiae imperare parat. Ad- 
herbal, tametsi Romam legatos miserat, qui senatum do- 
cerent de caede fratris et fortunis suis, tamen fretus mul- 
titudine militum parabat armis contendere. Sed ubi res 
ad certamen venit, victus ex prcelio profugit in provin- 
ciam, ac deinde Romam contendit. Turn Jugurtha, pa- 
tratis consiliis, postquam omnis Numidiae potiebatur, in 
otio facinus suum cum animo reputans timere populum 
Romanum, neque ad versus iram ejus usquam, nisi in ava- 
ritia nobilitatis et pecunia sua, spem habere. Itaque pau- 
cis diebus cum auro et argento multo legatos Romam 
mittit, quis praecepit, primum ' uti veteres amicos muneri- 
bus expleant, deinde novos acquirant, postremo quaecum- 
que possint largiendo parare, ne cunctentur.' Sed ubi 
Romam legati venere, et ex praecepto regis hospitibus 
aliisque, quorum ea tempestate in senatu auctpritas polle- 
bat, magna munera misere, tanta commutatio incessit, 
uti ex maxima invidia in gratiam et favorem nobilitatis 
Jugurtha veniret, quorum pars spe, alii praemio induct] 
singulos ex senatu ambiendo nitebantur, ne gravius in 


eum consuleretur. .Igitur ubi legati satis confidunt, d»e 
constitute senatus utrisque datur. Turn Adherbalem hoc 
modo locutum accepimus : 

XIV. " Patres conscripti, Micipsa pater meus moriens 
mihi pra3cepit, ' uti regni Numidiae tantummodo procura- 
tionem existimarem meam, ceterum jus et imperium ejus 
penes vos esse: simul eniterer domi militiaeque quam max- 
imo usui esse populo Romano ; vos mihi cognatorum, vos 
affinium loco ducerem : si ea fecissem, in vestra amicitia 
exercitum, divitias, munimenta regni me habiturum.' Quae 
quum prascepta parentis mei agitarem, Jugurtha, homo 
omnium, quos terra sustinet, sceleratissimus, contempto 
imperio vestro, Masinissce me nepotem, et jam ab stirpe 
socium atque amicum populi Romani, regno fortunisque 
omnibus expulit. Atque ego, patres conscripti, quoniam 
eo miseriarum venturus eram, vellem potius ob mea quam 
ob majorum meorum beneficia posse a vobis auxilium 
petere, ac maxime deberi mihi beneficia a populo Roma- 
no, quibus non egerem ; secundum, ea si desideranda 
erant, uti debitis uterer. Sed quoniam parum tuta per se 
ipsa probitas est, neque mihi in manu fuit, Jugurtha qualis 
foret, ad vos confugi, patres conscripti, quibus, quod mihi 
miserrimum est, cogor prius oneri quam usui esse. Cet- 
eri reges aut bello victi in amicitiam a vobis recepti 
sunt, aut in suis dubiis rebus societatem vestram appeti- 
verunt: familia nostra cum populo Romano bello Cartha- 
giniensi amicitiam instituit, quo tempore magis fides ejus 
quam fortuna pe'.enda erat. Quorum progeniem vos, 
patres conscripti, nolite pati me, nepotem Masinissa? 
frustra a vobis auxilium petere. 

Si ad impetrandum nihil causa? haberem praater mise- 
randam fortunam, quod paulo ante rex genere, fama 


atque copiis potens, nunc deformatus £erumnis> mops, 
alienas opes exspecto, tamen erat majestatis populi Ro- 
man! prohibere injuriam, neque pati cujusquam regnum 
per scelus crescere. Verum ego his finibus ejectus sum, 
quos majoribus meis populus Romanus dedit ; unde pater 
et avus meus una vobiscum expulere Car- 
thaginienses. Vestra beneficia mihi erepta sunt, patres 
conscripti, vos in mea injuria despecti estis. Eheu me 
miserum ! Huccine, Micipsa pater, beneficia tua eva- 
sere, uti, quern tu parem cum liberis tuis, regniquepartic- 
ipem fecisti, is potissimum stirpis tuae extinctor sit? 
Numquam ergo familia nostra quieta erit? semperne 
in sanguine, ferro, fuga versabimur? Dum Carthagini- 
enses incolumes fueYe, jure omnia saeva patiebamur: 
nostes ab latere, vos amici procul,- spes omnis in armis 
erat. Postquam ilia pestis ex Africa ejecta est, lseti 
pacem agitabamus : quippe quis hostis nullus erat, nisi 
forte quern vos jussissetis. Ecce autem ex improviso Ju- 
gurtha intoleranda audacia, scelere atque superbia. sese 
effeiens, fratre. meo atque eodem propinquo suo inter- 
fecto, primum regnum ejus sceleris sui praedam fecit: 
post, ubi me iisdem dolis nequit capere, nihil minus quam 
vim aut bellum exspectantem in imperio vestro, sic uti 
videtis, extorrem patria, domo, inopem et coopertum 
miseriis effecit, ut ubivis tutius quam in meo regno essem. 
"Ego sic existimabam, patres conscripti, ut prsedican- 
tem audiveram patrem meum, * qui vestram amicitiam 
diligenter colerent, eos multum laborem suscipere, cete- 
rum ex omnibus maxime tutos esse.' Quod in familia 
nostra fuit, prsestitit, uti in omnibus bellis adesset vobis . 
nos uti per otium tuti simus, in manu vestra est, patres 

conscripti. Pater nos d aoe fratres reliquit ; tertium, Ju- 



gurtham, beneficiis suis ratus est conjunctum nobis fore. 
Alter eorum necatus est, alterius ipse ego manus impias 
vix effugi. Quid agam ? aut quo potissimum infelix 
accedam? Generis praesidia omnia exstincta sunt: pater, 
uti necesse erat, naturae concessit ; fratri, quern minime 
decuit, propinquus per scelus vitam eripuit ; affines, ami- 
cos, propinquos ceteros, alium alia clades oppressit : capti 
ab Jugurtha pars in crucem acti, pars bestiis objecti sunt ; 
pauci, quibus relicta est anima, clausi in tenebris cum 
moerore et luctu morte graviorem vitam exigunt. Si 
omnia, quae aut amisi, aut ex necessariis adversa facta 
sunt, incolumia manerent, tamen, si quid ex improviso 
mali accidisset, vos implorarem. patres conscripti, quibus 
pro magnitudine imperii jus et injurias omnes curae esse 
decet. Nunc vero exsul patria, domo, solus atque om- 
nium honestarum rerum egens, quo accidam, aut quos 
appellem ? nationesne an reges, qui omnes familiae nostras 
ob vestram amicitiam infesti sunt? an qu6quam mihi 
adire licet, ubi non majorum meorum hostilia monumenta 
plurima sint? aut quisquam nostri misereri potest, qui 
aliquando vobis hostis fuit ? 

Postremo Masinissa nos ita instituit, patres conscripti, 
* ne quern coleremus nisi populum Romanum, ne socie- 
tates, ne fcedera nova acciperemus ; abunde magna prae- 
sidia nobis in vestra amicitia, fore ; si huic imperio fortuna 
mutaretur, una nobis bccidendum esse.' Virtute ac dis 
volentibus, magni estis et opulenti, omnia secunda et obe- 
dientia sunt ; quo facilius sociorum injurias curare licet 
Tantum illud vereor, ne quos privata amicitia Jugurthaj 
parum cognita transversos agat, quos ego audio maxima 
ope niti, ambire, fatigare vos singulos, ' ne quid de ab- 
sente, incognita causa, statuatis: fingere me verba, et 


fugam simulare, cui Jicuerit in regno manere' Quod 
utinam ilium, cujus impio facinore in has miserias projec- 
tus sum, eadem ha3C simulantem videam, et aliquando auf 
apud vos, aut apud deos immortales rerum humanarum 
cura oriatur ! Nae ille, qui nunc sceleribus suis feroy 
atque prseclarus est, omnibus malis excruciatus, impietatis 
in parentem nostrum, fratris mei necis mearumque mise- 
riarum graves poenas reddet. Jam jam frater animo meo 
carissime, quamquam tibi immaturo, et unde minime dec- 
uit, vita erepta est, tamen lastandum magis quam dolen- 
dum puto casum tuum: non enim regnum, sed fugam, 
exsilium, egestatem et omnes has, quae me premunt, 
serumnas cum anima simul amisisti. At ego infelix, in 
tanta mala praecipitatus ex patrio regno, rerum humana- 
rum spectaculum praebeo, incertus quid agam, tuasne in- 
jurias persequar, ipse auxilii egens, an regno consulam, 
cujus vitae necisque potestas ex opibus alienis pendet. 
Utinam emori fortunis meis honestus exitus esset, neu 
vivere contemptus viderer, si defessus malis injuriae con- 
cessissem. Nunc neque vivere libet, neque mori licet 
sine dedecore. Patres conscripti, per vos, per liberos 
atque parentes vestros, per majestatem populi Romani, 
subvenite misero mihi, ite obviam injuriae, nolite pati reg- 
num Numidiaa, quod vestrum est, per scelus et sanguinem 
familiae nostrae tabescere." 

XV. Postquam rex finem loquendi fecit, legati Jugur- 
thae, largitione magis quam causa freti, paucis respon- 
dent : ' Hiempsalem ob saevitiam suam ab Numidis inter,, 
fee turn : Adherbalem ultro bellum inferentem, postquam 
superatus sit, queri, quod injuriam facere nequivisset 
Jugurtham ab senatu petere, ne se alium putarent, ae 
Numantiae cognitus esset, neu verba inimici ante facta 


sua ponerent.' Deinde utrique curia egrediuntur. Sena^ 
tus statim consulitur. Fautores legatorum, praeterea 
magna pars gratia depravata, Adherbalis dicta contem- 
nere, Jugurthse virtutem extollere laudibus ; gratia, voce, 
denique omnibus modis pro alieno scelere et flagitio, sua 
quasi pro gloria, nitebantur. At contra pauci, quibus 
bonum et aequum divitiis carius erat, ' subveniendum 
Adherbali, et Hiempsalis mortem severe vindicandam' 
censebant: sed ex omnibus maxime ^Emilius Scaurus, 
homo nobilis, impiger, factiosus, avidus potential, honoris, 
divitiarum, ceterum vitia sua callide occultans. Is post- 
quam videt regis largitionem famosam impudentemque, 
veritus, quod in tali re solet, ne polluta licentia invidiam 
accenderet, animum a consueta libidine continuit. 

XVI. Vicit tamen in senatu pars ilia, quae vero pretium 
aut gwtmm anteferebat. Decretum fit, ' uti decern legati 
regnum, quod Micipsa obtinuerat, inter Jugurtham et 
Adherbalem dividerent.' Cujus legationis princeps fuit 
L. Opimius, homo clarus et tunc in senatu potens ; quia 
consul, C. Graccho et M. Fulvio Flacco interfectis, acer- 
rime victoriam nobilitatis in plebem exercuerat. Eum 
Jugurtha tametsi Romse in inimicis habuerat, tamen accu- 
ratissime recepit: dando et pollicitando multa perfecit, 
uti famse, fidei, postremo omnibus suis rebus commodum 
regis anteferret. Reliquos legatos eadem via aggressus, 
plerosque capit: paucis carior fides quam pecunia fuit. 
In divisione, quse pars Numidiae 34auretaniam attingit, 
agro virisque opulentior, Jugurthos traditur; illam alteram 
specie quam usu potiorem, quae portuosior et aedificiis 
magis exornata erat, Adherbal possedit. 

XVII. Res postulare videtur Africse situm paucis ex- 
ponere, et eas gentes, quibuscum nobis bellumaut amicit- 


ia fuit, attingere. Sed quae loea et nationes ob calorem 
aut asperitatem item solitudine~s minus frequentata sunt, de 
iis haud facile compertum narraverim ; cetera quam pau-* 
cissimis absolvam. 

In divisione orbis terrae plerique in partem tertiam 
Africam posuere : pauci tantummodo Asiam et Europam 
esse, sed Africam in Europa. Ea fines habet ab occi- 
dente fretum nostri maris et Oceani ; ab ortu solis decli- 
vem latitudinem, quern locum Catabathmon incolae appel- 
lant. Mare saevum, importuosum ; ager frugum fertilis, 
bonus pecori, arbore infecundus ; coelo terraque penuria 
aquarum. Genus hominum salubri corpore, velox, patiens 
laborum : plerosque senectus dissolvit, nisi qui ferro aut 
bestiis interiere, nam morbus haud saepe quemquam su- 
perat. Ad hoc malefici generis plurima animalia. Sed 
qui mortales initio Africam habuerint, quique postea ac- 
cesserint, aut quomodo inter se permixti sint, quamquam 
ab ea fa ma, qua3 plerosque obtinet, diversum est, tamen, 
uti ex libris Punicis, qui regis Hiempsalis dicebantur, in- 
terpretatum nobis est, utique rem sese habere cultores 
ejus terrse putant, quam paucissimis dicam : ceterum fides 
ejus rei penes auctores erit. 

XVIII. Africam initio habuere Gastuli et Libyes, as- 
peri incultique, quis cibus erat caro ferinaatque humi pab- 
ulum, uti pecoribus. Hi neque moribus neque lege, aut 
imperio cujusquam regebantur: vagi, palantes, qua nox 
coegcrat, sedes habebant Sed postquam in Hispania 
Hercules, sicuti Afri putant, interiit, exercitus ejus, com- 
positus ex variis gentibus, amisso duce, ac passim multis 
sibi quisque, imperium petentibus, brevi dilabitur. Ex eo 
numero Medi, Persae et Armenii, navibus in Africam 
transvecti, proximos nostro mari locos occupavere, sed 


Persae intra Oceanum magis: hique alveos navium in- 
versos pro tuguriis habuere, quia neque materia in agris, 
'neque ab Hispanis emendi aut mutandi copia erat: mare 
magnum et ignara lingua commercia prohibebant. Hi 
paulatim per connubia Gaetulos secum miscuere ; et quia 
saepe tentantes agros, alia deinde alia loca petiverant, 
semet ipsi Nomadas appellavere. Ceteriim adhuc aedific- 
ia Numidarum agrestium, quae mapalia illi vocant, ob- 
longa, incurvis lateribus tecta, quasi navium carinas sunt. 
Medi autem et Armenii, accessere Libyes ; (nam hi pro- 
pius mare Africum agitabant, Gaetuli sub sole magis, 
haud procul ab ardoribus:) hique mature oppida habuere; 
nam freto divisi ab Hispania mutare res inter se institue- 
rant. Nomen eorum paulatim Libyes corrupere, barbara 
lingua Mauros pro Medis appellantes. Sed res Persarum 
brevi adolevit ; ac postea, nomine Numidae, propter mul- 
titudinem a parentibus digressi, possedere ea loca, quae 
proxime Carthaginem Numidia appellatur. Deinde utri- 
tjue alteris freti, finitimos armis aut metu sub imperium 
suum coegere, nomen gloriamque sibi addidere ; magis 
hi, qui ad nostrum mare processerant, quia Libyes quam 
Gaetuli minus bellicosi. Denique Africsu pars inferior 
pleraque ab Nurrvdis possessa est ; victi omnes in gentem 
nomenque imperantium concessere. 

XIX. Postea Phoenices, alii multitudinis domi minu- 
endae gratia, pars imperii cupidine, sollicitata plebe et 
aliis novarum rerum avidis, Hipponem, Hadrumetum, 
Leptim aliasque urbes in ora maritima condideie ; haeque 
brevi multum auctae, pars originibus suis praesidio, aliae 
decori fuere. Nam de Carthagine tacere melius puto 
quam parum dicere, quoniam alio properare tempus 
monet. Igitur ad Oatabathmon. qui locus iEgyptum ab 


Africa dividit, secundo mari prima Oyrene est colonia 
Theraeon, ac deinceps duae Syrtes, interque eas Leptis, 
deinde Philaenon arae, quern locum iEgyptum versus 
finem imperii habuere Carthaginienses ; post alias Punicoe 
* urbes. Cetera loca usque ad Mauretaniam Numidne 
tenent: prQxime Hispaniam Mauri sunt. Super Numid- 
iam Gaetulos accepimus, partim in tuguriis, alios incul- 
this vagos agitare, post eos iEthiopas esse, dein loca ex- 
usta solis ardoribus. Igitur bello Jugnrthino pleraque ex 
Punicis oppida et fines Carthagiensium, quos novissime 
habuerant, populus Romanus per magistratus adminis- 
trabat : Gaetulorum magna pars, et Numidas usque ad 
(lumen Mulucham sub Jugurtha erant : Mauris omnibus 
rex Bocchus imperitabat, praeter nomen cetera ignarus 
populi Romani, itemque nobis neque bello neque pace 
antea cognitus. De Africa et ejus incolis ad necessitudi- 
nem rei satis dictum. 

XX. Postquam, diviso regno, legati Africa decessere, 
et Jugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sceleris adep- 
tum sese videt, certum ratus, quod ex amicis apud Nu- 
mantiam acceperat, omnia Romae venalia esse, simul et 
illorum pollicitationibus accensus, quos paulo ante mu- 
neribus expleverat, in regnum Adherbalis animum inten- 
dit. Ipse acer, bellicosus ; at is, quern petebat, quietus, 
tmbellis, placido ingenio, opportunus injuriae, metuens 
magis quam metuendus. Jgitur ex improviso fines ejus 
cum magna, manu invadit ; multos mor tales cum pecore 
atque alia praeda capit, aedificia incendit, pleraque loca 
hostiliter cum equitatu accedit : deinde cum omni multi- 
tudine in regnum suum convertit; existimans dolore per 
motum Adherbalem injurias suas manu vindicaturrm 


eamque rem belli causam fore. At ille, quod neque se 
parem armis existimabat, et amicitia populi Romani ma- 
gis quam Numidis fretus erat, legatos ad Jugurtham de 
injuriis questum misit : qui tametsi contumeliosa dicta 
retulerant, prius tamen omnia pati decrevit, quam bellum 
sumere, quia tentatum antea secus cesserat. . Neque eo 
magis cupido Jugurthte minuebatur; quippe qui totum 
ejus regnum animo jam invaserat. Itaque non, ut antea. 
cum prsedatoria manu, sed magno exercitu comparato 
bellum gerere ccepit, et aperte totius Numidise imperium 
petere. Ceterum, qua pergebat, urbes, agros vastare, 
praadas agere ; suis animum, hostibus terrorem augere. 

XXL Adherbal ubi intellegit eo processum, uti reg- 
num aut relinquendum esset, aut armis retinendum,nec- 
essario copias parat, et Jugurthse obvius procedit. In- 
terim haud longe a mari, prope Cirtam oppidum, utrius- 
que consedit exercitus, et quia diei extremum erat, prae- 
iium non inceptum. Sed ubi plerumque noctis processit, 
obscuro etiamtum lumine, milites Jugurthini, signo dato, 
castra hostium invadunt ; semisomnos partim, alios arma 
sumentes fugant funduntque. Adherbal cum paucisequit- 
ibus Cirtam profugit ; et, ni multitudo togatorum fuisset, 
quae Numidas insequentes mcenibus pronibuit, uno die 
inter duos reges coeptum atque patratum bellum foret. 
Tgitur Jugurtha oppidum circumsedit^ vineis turribusque 
et machinis omnium generum expugnare aggreditur ; 
maxime festinans tempus legatorum antecapere, quos, 
ante prcelium factum, ab Adherbale Romammissosaudiv- 
erat. Sed postquam senatus de bello eorum accepit, 
tres adolescentes in Africam legantur, qui am bos reges 
adeant, senatus populique Romani verbis nuntient, vello 


* t censere eos ab armis discedere ; de controversiis suis 
jure potius quam bello disceptare : ita seque lllisque dig- 
num esse>' 

XXII. Legati in Africam maturantes veniunt, eo ma- 
gis, quod Romre, dum proficisci parant, de proelio facto 
et oppugnatione Cirt& audiebatur : sed is rumor clemens 
erat. Quorum, Jugurtha, accepta oratione, respondit: 

* sibi neque majus quicquam neque carius # auctoritate 
senati esse ; ab adolescentia ita se enisum, uti ab optimo 
quoque probaretur : virtute, non malitia P. Scipioni, sum- 
mo viro, placuisse; ob easdem artes ab Micipsa, non 
penuria, liberorum, in regnum adoptatum esse. Ceterum 
quo plura bene atque strenue fecisset, eo animum suuni 
fciijuriam minus tolerare. Adherbalem dolis vita3 suae 
insidiatum; quod ubi comperisset, sceleri ejus obviam 
esse. Populum Romanum neque recte neque pro bono 
facturum, si ab jure gentium sese prohibuerit. Postremo 
de omnibus rebus iegatos Romam brevi missurum/ Ita 
utrique digrediuntur. Adherbalis appellandi copia non 

XXIII. Jugurtha ubi eos Africa decessisse ratus est, 
neque propter loci naturam Cirtam armis expugnare 
pote'st, vallo atque fossa moenia circumdat, turres ex- 
struit, easque prasidiis firmat : praeterea dies noctesque 
aut per vim, aut dolis tentare ; defensoribus mcenium 
prsemia modo, modo formidinem ostentare ; suos hortan- 
do ad virtutem arrigere ; prorsus intentus cuncta parare. 
Adherbal ubi intellegit omnes suas fortunas in extreme 
sitas, hostem infestum, auxilii spem nullam, penuria. re- 
rum necessariarum bellum trahi non posse, ex his, qui 
una Cirtam profugerant, duos, maxime impigros delegit; 

eos multa polli.cendo ac miserando casum suum con- 



firmat, uti per hostium munitiones noctu ad proximuin 
mare, dein Romam pergerent. 

XXIV. Numidae paucis diebus jussa efficiunt ; litterae 
Adherbalis in senatu recitatae, quarum sententia hsec fuit. 

"Non mea, culpa ssepe ad vos oratum mitto, patres 
conscripti, sed vis Jugurthse subigit, quern tanta libido 
exstinguendi me invasit, uti neque vos neque deos im- 
mortales in animo habeat, sanguinem meum quam om- 
nia malit. Itaque quinturn jam mensem socius et ami- 
cus populi Romani armis obsessus teneor, neque mihi 
Micipsae patris mei beneficia. neque vestra decreta aux- 
iliantur: ferro an fame acrius urgear, incertus sum: 
flura de Jugurtha scribere dehortatur me fortuna mea, 
et jam antea expertus sum parum fidei miseris esse : nisi 
tamen intelligo ilium supra quam ego sum, petere, neque 
simul amicitiam vestram et regnum meum sperare: 
utrum gravius existimet, nemini occultum est. Nam 
initio occidit Hiempsalem, fratrem meum, deinde patrio 
regno me expulit. Quae san£ fuerint nostrae injuriae, 
nihil ad vos. Veriim nunc vestrum regnum armis tenet, 
me, quern vos imperatorem Numidis posuistis, clausum 
obsidet ; legatorum verba quanti fecerit, pericula mea 
declarant. Quid reliquum, nisi vis vestra, quo mdveri 
possit 1 Nam ego quidem vellem, et hsec, quae scribo, et 
ilia, quas antea in senatu questus sum, vana forent potiiis. 
quam miser ia mea fidem verbis facere.t. Sed quoniam eo 
natus sum, ut Jugurthae scelerum ostentui essem, non jam 
mortem neque aerumnas, tantummodo inimici imperium 
et cruciatus corporis deprecor. Regno Numidiae, quod 
vestrum est, uti libet, consulite : me manibus impiis erip- 
ite, per majestatem imperii, per amicitias fidem, si ulla 
npud vos memoria remanet avi mei Masinissse." 


XXV. His litteris recitatis, fueYe, qui 'exercitum in 
Africa m mittendum' censerent, ' et quam primum AHher- 
bali subveniendum : de Jugurtha interim uti consulere- 
tur, quoniam legatis non paruisset.' Sed ab iisdem illis 
regis fautoribus summa, ope enisam, ne tale decretum 
fieret. Ita bonum publicum, ut in plerisque negotiis so- 
let, privata gratia devictum. Legantur tamen in Africam 
majores natu, nobiles, amplis honoribus usi ; in quis fuit 
M. Scaurus, de quo supra memoravimus, consularis, et 
tunc in senatu princeps. Hi, quod res in invidia erat, 
simul et ab Numidis obsecrati, triduo navim ascendere : 
deinde brevi Uticam appulsi litteras ad Jugurtham mit- 
tunt, ' quam ocissime ad provinciam accedat, seque ad 
eum ab senatu missos/ Hie ubi accepit homines claros, 
quorum auctoritatem Romae pollere audiverat, contra 
inceptum suum venisse, primo commotus, metu atque 
libidine diversus agitabatur. Timebat iram senati, ni 
paruisset legatis : porro animus cupidine cascus ad incep* 
turn scelus rapiebat. Vicit tamen in avido ingenio pra- 
vum consilium. Igitur, exercitu circumdato, summa vi 
Cirtam irrumpere nititur ; maxime sperans, diducta manu 
hostium, aut vi aut dolis sese casum victoria3 inventurum. 
Quod ubi secus procedit, neque, quod intenderat, efficere 
potest, uti prius, quam legatos conveniret, Adherbalis 
potiretur, ne amplius morando Scaurum, quern plurimum 
metuebat, incenderet, cum paucis equitibus in provinciam 
venit. Ac tametsi senati verbis graves minae nuntiaban- 
tur, quod ab oppugnatione non desisteret, multa tamen 
oratione consumpta, legati frustra discessere. 

XXVI. Ea postquam Cirtae audita sunt, Italici, quo- 
rum virtute moenia defensabantur, confisi, deditione facta 
propter magnitudinem populi Romani inviolatos sese fore 


Adherbali suadent, ' uti seque et oppidum Jugurthse tra- 
dat ; tantum ab eo vitam paciscatur, de ceteris senatui 
curse fore.' At ille, tametsi omnia potiora fide Juguf thae 
rebatur, tamen, quia penes eosdem, si adversaretur, co~ 
gendi potestas erat, ita, uti censuerant Italici, deditionem 
facit. Jugurtha in prirnis Adherbalem excruciatum 
necat ; deinde omnes puberes Numidas et negotiatores 
promiscue, uti quisque armatis obvius fuerat, interfecit. 

XXVII. Quod postquam Romoe cognitum est, et res in 
senatu agitari ccepta ; iidem illi ministri regis interpellan- 
do, ac saspe gratia interdum jurgiis trahendo tempus, 
atrocitatem facti leniebant. Ac ni C. Memmius, tribu- 
nus plebis designatus, vir acer et infestus potential no 
bilitatis, populum Romanum edocuisset ' id agi, uti per 
paucos factiosos Jugurthae scelus condonaretur,' profecto 
omnis invidia prolatandis consultationibus dilapsa foret : 
tanta vis gratiae atque pecuniae regis erat. Sed ubi se- 
natus delicti conscientia populum timet, lege Sempronia 
provincial futuris consulibus Numidia atque Italia decretae, 
consules declarati P. Scipio Nasica, L. Bestia Calpur- 
nius. Calpurnio Numidia, Scipioni Italia obvenit. De- 
inde exercitus, qui in Africam portaretur, scribitur: sti- 
pendium aliaque, quae bello usui forent, decernuntur. 

XXVIII. At Jugurtha, contra spem nuntio accepto, 
quippe cui Romae omnia venum ire in animo hreseiat, 
filium et cum eo duos familiares ad senatum legatos mit* 
tit; hisque, ut illis, quos Hiempsale interfecto miserat, 
praocepit, ' omnes mortales pecunia aggrediantur.' Qui 
postquam Romam adventabant, senatus a Bestia consul- 
tus est, 'placeretne legatos Jugurthae recipi moenibus: 
iique decrev^re, * nisi regnum ipsumque deditum venis- 
sent, uti in diebus proximis decern Italia decederent 

- T UGURTHA. 23 

Consul. Numidis ex senati decreto nuntiari jubet: ita in* 
fectis rebus illi domum discedunt. Interim Calpurnius, 
parato" exercitu, l'egat sibi homines mobiles, factiosos, 
quorum auctoritate, quae deliquisset, munita fore spera- 
bat : in quis fuit Scaurus, cujus de natura et habit u supra 
memoravimus. Nam in consule nostro multse bonaeque 
artes animi et corporis erant, quas omnes avaritia praepe- 
diebat. Patiens laborum, acri ingenio, satis providens, 
belli haud ignarus, firmissimus contra pericula et insidias. 
Sed legiones per Italiam Rhegium atque inde Siciliam, 
porro ex Sicilia in Africam transvectse. Igitur Calpur- 
nius initio* paratis commeatibus, acriter Numidiam in- 
gressus est, multosque mortales et urbes aliquot pugnando 

XXIX. Sed ubi Jugurtha per legatos pecunia tentare, 
bellique, quod administrabat, asperitatem ostendere cce- 
pit, animus aeger avaritia facile conversus est. Cete 
rurn socius et administer omnium consiliorum assumitur 
Scaurus; qui tametsi a principio, plerisque ex factione 
ejus corruptis, acerrime regem impugnaverat, tamen 
magnitudine pecuniae a bono honestoque in pravum ab- 
stracts est. Sed Jugurtha primo tantummodo belli 
moram redimebat, existimans sese aliquid interim Romae 
pretio aut gratia efTecturum; postea vero quam partici- 
pem negotii Scaurum accepit, in maximam spem ad- 
ductus recuperandae pacis, statuit cum eis de omnibus 
pactionibus praesens agere. Ceterum interea fidei causa 
mittitur a consule Sextius quaestor in oppidum Jugurtha; 
Vaccam; cujus rei species erat acceptio frumenti, quod 
Calpurnius palam legatis imperaverat, quoniam deditio 
ms mora inducise agitabantur. Igitur rex, uti constitue- 
nt, in castra venit; ac pauca, praesenti consilio locutus 

3 * 


de invidia facti sui, atque in deditionem uti acciperetur 
reliqua cum Bestia et Scauro secreta transigit: dein pos- 
tero die, quasi per saturam exquisitis sententiis, in dedit- 
ionem accipitur. Sed, uti pro consilio imperatum erat, 
elephanti triginta, pecus atque equi multi cum parvo 
argenti pondere quaestori traduntur. Calpurnius Romam 
ad magistratus rogandos proficiscitur. In Numidia et 
exercitu nostro pax agitabatur. 

XXX. Postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo 
actae forent, fama divulgavit, Romae per omnes locos et 
conventus de facto consulis agitari. Apud plebem gra- 
vis invidia; patres solliciti erant; probarentne tantum 
flagitium, an decretum consulis subverterent, parum con- 
stabat: ac maxime eos potentia Scauri, quod is auctor ef 
socius Bestia3 ferebatur, a vero bonoque impediebat. At 
C. Memmius, cujus de libertate ingenii et odio potential 
nobilitatis supra diximus, inter dubitationem et moras 
senati concionibus populum ad vindicandum hortari, 
monere, ne rempublicam, ne libertatem suam desererent ; 
multa superba et crudelia facinora nobilitatis ostendere* 
prorsus intentus omni modo plebis animum accendebat. 
Sed, qupniam ea tempestate Romae Memmii facundia 
clara pollensque fuit, decere existimavi unam ex tarn 
multis orationem ejus perscribere, ac potissimum ea di- 
cam, quae in concione post reditum Bestiae hujuscemodi 
verbis disseruit. 

XXXI. "Multa me dehortantur a vobis, Quirites, ni 
studium reipublicae omnia superet, opes factionis, vestra 
patientia, jus nullum, ac maxime, quod innocentiae plus 
periculi quam honoris est. Nam ilia quidem piget dic- 
ere, his annis quindecim quam ludibrio fueritis super- 
biapj paucorum; quam foede quamque inulti perierinf 



vestri defensofes ; ut vobis animus ab ignavia atque so 
cordia corruptus sit, qui ne nunc quidem, obnoxiis in- 
imicis, exsurgitis, atque etiam nunc timetis eos,quibus vos 
decet terrori esse. Sed quamquam haec talia sunt, tamen 
obviam ire factionis potentiae animus subigit. Certe ego 
libertatem, quae mihi a parente tradita est, experiar : ve- 
rum id frustra an ob rem faciam, in vestra manu sifum 
est, Quirites. Neque ego vos hortor, quod saepe majores 
vestri fecere, uti contra injurias armati eatis. Nihil vi t 
nihil secessione opus est: necesse est, suomet ipsi more 
praecipites eant. Occiso Tiberio Graccho, quern reg- 
num parare aiebant, in plebem Romanam quaestiones 
habitae sunt. Post C. Gracchi et M. Fulvii caedem, item 
vestri ordinis multi mortales in carcere necati sunt* 
utriusque cladis non jex, verrim libido eo«'um finem fecit 
Sed sane fuerit regni paratio plebi sua restituere : quid 
quid sine sanguine civium u^cisci neqnitur, jure factum 
sit. Superioribus a>mis terAii indigaabamini a3rarium 
expilari, reges et populos liberos paucis nobilibus vectigal 
pendere, penes eosdem et summam gloriam, et maxima? 
divitias esse : tamen hsec talia facinora impune suscepisse 
parum habuere, itaque postremo leges, majestas vestra, 
divina et humana omnia hostibus tradita sunt. Neque 
eos, qui ea fecere, pudet aut poenitet, sed incedunt per 
ora vestra magnifici, sacerdotia et consulatus, pars trium- 
phos suos ostentantes, perinde quasi ea honori, non prae- 
das habeant. Servi aere parati imperia injusta domino- 
rum non perferunt : vos, Quirites, imperio nati, aequo ani- 
mo servitutem toleratis ? At qui sunt hi, qui rempublicam 
occupavere? Homines sceleratissimi, cruentis manibus, 
inimani avaritia, nocentissimi iidemque superbissimi ; 
quis fides ? decus, pietas, postremo honesta atque inho- 


nisfa, omi ia ycstui sunt. Pars corum occidisse tribu- 
iios j)lcbisf, alii qua?st:ones injustas, plerique eajdcm it) 
vos fecisse pro munimento luibjnt. ItL quam quisque 
|V;isime fecit, tain maxime tutus est; meium a seeiere 
Kiit» ad ignaviam vestram transtulJre: quos omncs eadein 
i u] ere, cadem odissc, cadc.n metuere in unum coegit: sed 
iuro inter bonos amicilia, inter malos factio est. Quod 
si tain vos libertatis curam babcrctis, quam illi ad domi- 
nationem accensi sunt, j.roiecto neque respublica. sicuti 
nunc, vastaretur, et beneficia vestra penes optimos, non 
audacissimos forent. Majores vestri parandi juris et inaj- 
cstatis conslituendcc gratia bis per secessionem annati 
Avcntinum occupavire: vos pro libertate, quam ab illi? 
acccpistis, nun summa ope nitemini ? atque eo vebemen 
tins, quod majus dedecus est parta amittere, quam cm- 
nino non paravisse. Dicet aliquis: "Quid igituV censes!" 
Vindicandum in cos, qui bos:i prodid^re rempubheam \ 
non manu neque vi, quod magis vos fecisse quam illis 
accidisse indignum es*, verum quaestionibus et indicio ip- 
sius Jugurthac, qui si dedititius est, profeeto jussis vestris 
obediens erit ; sin ea contemnit, scilicet existimabitis qua- 
lis ilia pax aut deditio sit, ex qua ad Jugurtham scelerun: 
impunitas. ad paucos potentes maxima? divitias, in rein- 
publicam damna atque dedecora pervenerint. Nisi forte 
nondum etiam vos dominationis eorum satietas tenet, et 
ilia quam hacc tempora magis placent, quum regna, pro- 
vincial, leges, jura, judicia, bella, atque, paces, postreme 
Jivina et humana omnia penes paucos erant ; vos autem, 
lioc est populus Romanus, invicti ab hostibus, impcraioiej 
omnium gentium, satis babebatis animam retinere ; nam 
seivitutem quidem quis vest rum recusare audebat? Atque 
ego, tametsi fiagitiosissimum existiino impune injuiiam 


accepisse, tamen vos hominibus sceleratissimis ignoscere, 
quoniam cives sunt, aequo animo paterer, nisi misericordia 
in perniciem casura esset. Nam et illis, quantum impor- 
tunitatis habent, parum est impune male fecisse, nisi de- 
inde faciendi licentia eripitur, et vobis aeterna sollicitudo 
remanebit, quum intelligetis aut serviendum esse, aut per 
manus libertatem retinendam. Nam fidei quidem aut 
concordiae quae spes est? Dominari illi volunt, vos liberi 
esse ; facere illi injurias, vos prohibere ; postremo sociis 
vestris veluti hostibus, hostibus pro sociis utuntur. Po- 
testne in tarn diversis mentibus pax aut amicitia esse? 
Quare moneo hortorque vos, ne tantum scelus impunitum 
omittatis. Non peculatus aerarii factus est, neque per vim 
sociis ereptae pecuniae ; quae quamquam gravia sunt, ta- 
men consuetudine jam pro nihilo habentur : hosti acer- 
rimo prodita senati auctoritas, proditum imperium ves- 
trum ; domi militiaeque respublica venalis fuit. Quae nisi 
quaesita erunt, ni vindicatum in noxios, quid erit reliquum, 
nisi ut illis, qui ea fecere, obedientes vivamus ? nam im- 
pune quaelibet facere, id est regem esse. Neque ego vos, 
Quirites, hortor, ut malitis cives vestros perperam quam 
recte fecisse, sed ne ignoscendo malis bonos perditum 
eatis. Ad hoc in republica multo praestat beneficii quam 
maleficii immemorem esse; bonus tantummodo segnior 
fit, ubi negligas, at mains improbior. Ad hoc si injuriae 
non sint, haud saepe auxilii egeas." 

XXXII. Haec atque alia hujuscemodi saepe dicendo, 
Memmius populo persuadet, uti L. Cassius, qui tunc prae- 
tor erat, ad Jugurtham mitteretur, eumque, interpositfi 
fide publica, Romam duceret, quo faciliiis indicio regis, 
Scauri et reliquorum, quos pecuniae captae arcesse*ba nt, 
delicta patefierent. Dum haec Rornae geruntur, qui m 


Numidia. relii ti a Bestia exercitui prseerant, secuti morem 
imperatoris sai, plurima et flagitiosissima facinora fecere. 
Fuere, qui auro corrupti elephantos Jugurtha; traderent : 
alii perfugas vendere, pars ex pacatis prsedas agebant : 
tanta vis avaritiae animos eorum veluti tabes. invaserat. 
At Cassius, perlata rogatione a C. Memmio, ac perculsA 
omni nobilitate, ad Jugurtham proficiscitur ; elque timido 
et ex conscientia diffidenti rebus suis persuadet, tquoniam 
se populo Romano dedidisset, ne vim quam misericor- 
diam ejus experiri mallet.' Privatim prasterea fidem 
suam interponit, quam ille non minoris quam publicam 
ducebat. Talis ea tempestate fama de Cassio erat. 

XXXIII. Igitur Jugurtha, contra decus regium, cultu 
quam maxime miserabili cum Cassio Romam venit. Ac 
tametsi in ipso magna vis animi erat, confirmatus ab om- 
nibus, quorum potentia aut scelere cuncta ea gesserat, qua? 
supra diximus C. Bsebium tribunum plebis magna mercede 
parat, cujus impudentia contra jus et injurias omnes niu- 
nitus foret. At C. Memmius, advocata concione, quam- 
quam regi infesta plebes erat, et pars ' in vincula duci' 
jubebat, pars, ' ni socios sceleris sui aperiret, more ma- 
jorum de hoste supplicium sumi,' dignitati quam irae ma- 
gis consulens, sedare motus, et animos eorum moilire; 
postremo confirmare * fidem publicam per sese inviolatam 
fore/ Post, ubi silentium ccepit, producto Jugurtha, verba 
facit ; Romse Numidiaeque facinora ejus memorat, scelera 
in patrem fratresque ostendit. 'Quibus juvantibus quibus- 
que ministris ea egerit, quamquam intelligat populus Ro- 
manus, tamen velle manifesta magis ex illo habere. Si 
verum aperiat, in fide et dementia populi Romani mag- 
uam # spem illi sitam : sin reticeat, non sociis saluti fore 
eed se suasque spes" corrupturum.' 


XXXIV. Deinde, ubi Memmius dicendi finem fecit, el 
Jugurtha respondere jussus est, C Baebius tribunus plebis, 
quern pecunia corruptum supra diximus, regem tacere 
jubet : ac t.ametsi multitudo, quae in concione aderat 
vehementer accensa terrebat eum clamore, vultu, saepe 
impetu atque aliis omnibus, quae ira fieri amat, vicit tamen 
impudentia. Ita populus ludibrio habitus ex concione 
discedit : Jugurthae Bestiaeque et ceteris, quos ilia quasstio 
exagitabat, : animi augescunt. 

XXXV. Erat ea tempestate Romae Numida quidam, 
nomine Massiva, Gulussae filius, Masinissae nepos; qui, 
quia, in dissensione regum Jugurthas adversus fuerat, 
dedita Cirta, et Adherbale interfecto, profugus ex Africa 
abierat. Huic Sp. Albinus, qui proximo anno post Bes- 
tiam cum Q. Minucio Rufo consulatum gerebat, per- 
suadet, ' quoniam ex stirpe Masinissae sit, Jugurthamque 
ob scelera invidia cum metu urgeat, regnum Numidiae 
ab senatu petat.' Avidus consul belli gerendi moveri, 
quam senescere omnia malebat ; ipsi provincia Numidia, 
Minucio Macedonia evenerat. Quae postquam Massiva 
agitare coepit, neque Jugurthae in amicis satis praesidii^ 
est, quod eorum alium conscientia, alium mala fama et 
timor impediebat, Bomilcari, proximo ac maxime fido 
sibi, imperatj 6 pretio,' sicuti multa confecerat, ' insidia^ 
tores Massivae paret, ac maxime occulte, sin id parum 
procedat, quovis modo Numidam interficiat' Bomilcar 
mature regis mandata exsequitur ; et per homines talis 
negotii artifices itinera egressusque ejus, postremo loca 
atque tempora cuncta explorat ; deir de, ubi res postula- 
bat, insidias tendit. Igitur unus ex eo numero, qui ad 
csedem parati erant, paulo inconsultiusMassivamaggred- 
itur, ilium obtruncat; sed ipse deprehensus, multis hor- 


tantibus et in primis Albino consule, indicium profitetur. 
Fit reus magis ex aequo bonoque quam ex jure gentium 
Bomilcar, comes ejus, qui Romam fide publica venerat 
At Jugurtha manifestus tanti sceleris non prius omisit 
contra verum niti, quam animum advertit supra gratiam 
atque pecuniam suam invidiam facti esse. Igitur, quam- 
quam in priore actione ex amicis quinquaginta vades 
dederat, regno magis quam vadibus consulens clam in 
Numidiam Bomilcarem dimittit, veritus ne reliquos pop- 
ulares metus invaderet parendi sibi, si de illo supplicium 
sumptum foret, et ipse paucis diebus profectus est, jus- 
sus ab senatu Italia decedefe. Sed postquam Roma e- 
gressusest,fertur saepe eo tacitus respiciens postremo dix- 
isse : ' urbem venalem et mature perituram, si emptorem 

XXXVI. Interim Albinus, renovato bello, commea- 
tum, stipendium aliaque, quae militibus usui forent, maturat 
in Africam portare ; ac statim ipse profectus, uti ante 

" comitia, quod tempus haud longe aberat, armis aut de- 
ditione aut quovis modo bellum conficeret. At contra 
Jugurtha trahere omnia, et alias, deinde alias morae cau- 
sas facere ; polliceri deditionem, ac deinde metum simu- 
lare; instanti cedere, et paulo post, ne sui diffiderent, 
instare : ita belli modo, modo pacis mora consulem ludi- 
ficare. Ac fuere, qui turn Albinum haud ignarum con- 
silii regis existimarent ; neque ex tanta properantia tarn 

^facile tractum bellum socordia magis quam dolo crede- 
rent. Sed* postquam, dilapso tempore, comitiorum dies 
adventabat, Albinus, Aulo fratre in castris pro prsetore 
relicto, Romam decessit. 

XXXVII. Ea tempestate Romae seditionibus tribu- 
aiciis atrociter respublica agitabatur. P. Lucullus et. L. 


Annius> tribuni plebis, resistentibus collegis, continuare 
magistratum nitebantur : quae dissensio totius annl comit- 
ia impediebat. Ea mora in spem adductus Aulus, quern 
pro praetore in castris relictum supra diximus, aut con- 
ficiendi belli aut terrore exercitus ab rege pecuniae capi- 
endae, milites mense Januario ex hibernis in expeditionem 
evocat, magnisque itineribus, hieme aspera, pervenit ad 
oppidum Suthul, ubi regis thesauri erant. Quod quam- 
quam et saevitia temporis et opportunitate loci neque capi 
neque obsideri poterat ; nam circum murum, situm. in 
praerupti montis extremo, planities limosa hiemalibus 
aquis paludem fecerat ; tamen, aut simulandi gratia, quo 
regi formidinem adderet, aut cupidine caecus ob thesauros 
oppidi potiundi, vineas agere, aggerem jacere, aliaque, 
quae incepto usui forent, properare. 

XXXVIIL At Jugurtha, cognita vanitate atque im- 
peritia legati, subdolus ejus augere amentiam, missitare 
supplicantes legatos, ipse quasi vitabundus per saltuosa 
loca et tramites exercitum ductare. Denique Aulum 
spe pactionis perpulit, uti, relicto Suthule, in abditas re- 
giones sese veluti cedentem insequeretur: * ita Melicta 
occultiora fore.' Interea per homines callidos die noc- 
tuque exercitum tentabat ; centuriones aucesque turma- 
rum, partim uti transfugerent, corrumpere ; alii, signo 
dato, locum uti desererent. Quae postquam ex senten- 
tia instruit, intempesta nocte de lrnproviso multitu- 
dine Numidarum Auli castra circumvenit. Milites Ro- 
mani, perculsi tumultu insolito, arma capere alii, alii se 
abdere, pars territos confirmare; trepidare omnibus locis 
vis magna hostium, coelum nocte atque nubibus obscu- 
ratum, periculum anceps : postremo fugere an manere 
tutius foret, in incerto erat. Sed ex eo numero, quos 



paulo ante corruptos diximus, cohors una Ligurum cum 
duabus turmis Thracum et paucis gregariis militibus 
transiere ad regem, et centurfo primi pili tertiae legionis 
per munitionem,- quam, uti defenderet, acceperat, locum 
hostibus introeundi dedit, eaque Numidge cuncti irru- 
pere. Nostri fceda fuga, plerique abjectis armis proxi- 
mum collem occupavere. Nox atque praeda castrorum 
hostes, quo .piinus victoria uterentur, remorata sunt. De- 
inde Jugurtha postero die cum Aulo in coiloquio verba 
facit : ' tametsi ipsum cum exercitu fame ferroqae clau- 
sum tenet, tamen se hurnanarum rerum memorem, si se- 
cum fcedus faceret, incoluraes omnes sub jugum missu- 
rum: praeterea, uti diebus decern Numidia d3cederet.' 
Qua3 quamquam gravia et rlagitii plena erant, tamen, 
quia mortis metu mutabant, sicuti regi libuerat, pax con- 

XXXIX. Sed ubi ea Romae comperta sunt, metus at- 
que mceror civitatem invasere. Pars dolere pro gloria 
imperii, pars insolita rerum bellicarum timere libertati : 
Aulo omnes infesti, ac maxime, qui bello saspe praaclari 
fuerant,* quod armatus dedecore potius quam manu 
salutem qusesiverat. Ob ea consul Albinus ex delicto 
fratris invidiam ac deinde periculum timens, senatum 
de fcedere consulebat; et tamen interim exercitui sup- 
plementum scribere, ab sociis et nomine Latino auxilia 
arcessere, denique modis omnibus festinare. Senatus 
ua, uti par fuerat, decernit, ' suo atque populi injussu 
nullum potuisse fcedus fieri.' Consul impeditus a tribu- 
nis plebis, ne, quas paraverat copias, secum portaret; 
paucis diebus in Africam proficiscitur : nam omnis ex- 
ercitus, uti convenerat, Numidia deductus, in provincia 
hiemabat. Postquam eo venit, quamquam persequj Ju- 


gurtham et mederi fraternae invidiae animus ardebat. 
cognitis militibus, quos prseter fugam, s'oluto imperio, 
licentia atque lascivia corruperat, ex copia rerun 1 statuit 
sibi nihil agitandum. 

XL. Interea Romae C. Mamilius Limetanus tribunus 
plebis rogationem ad populura promulgat, * Uti quaerere- 
tur in eos, quorum consilio Jugurtha senati decreta neg- 
lexisset; quique ab eo in legationibus aut imperiis pecu- 
nias accepissent; qui elephantos, quique perfugas tradidis- 
sent; item, qui de pace aut bello cum hostibus pactiones 
fecissent.' Huic rogationi partim conscii sibi, alii, ex par- 
tium invidia pericula metuentes, quoniam aperte resistere 
non poterant, quin ilia et alia talia placere sibi faterentur. 
occulte per amicos, ac maxime per homines nominis La- 
tiniet socios Italicos impedimenta parabant. Sed plebes 
incredibile memoratu est, quam intenta fuerit, quantaque 
vi rogationem jusserit, decreverit, voluerit, magis odio 
nobilitatis, cui mala ilia parabantur, quam cura reipublicae: 
tanta libido in partibus erat. Igitur ceteris metu percul- 
sis, M. Scaurus, quern legatum Bestias fuisse supra docui- 
mus, inter lsetitiam plebis et suorum fugam, trepida etiam- 
tum civitate, quum ex Mamilii rogatione tres qusesitores 
rogarentur, .eftecerat, uti ipse in eo numero crearetur. 
Sed qucestio exercita aspere violenterque, ex rumore et 
libidine plebis. Ut saepe nobilitatem, sic ea tempestate 
plebem ex secundis rebus insolentia ceperat. 

XLI. Ceterum mos partium popularium et senati fac- 
tionum, ac deinde omnium malarum artium, paucis ante 
annis Komae ortus est, otio et abundantia earum rerum f 
quas prima mortales ducunt. Nam ante Carthaginem 
deletam populus et senatus Romanus placide modesteque 
inter se rempublicam tractabant: neque gloriae neque 


dominations certamen inter cives erat : metus hostilis in 
bonis artibus civitatem retinebat. Sed ubi ilia fonmdo 
mentibus decessit, scilicet ea,*quae secundae res amant, 
lascivia atque superbia incessere. Ita, quod in adversis 
rebus optaverant otium, postquam adepti sunt, asperius 
acerbiusque fuit. Namque coepere nobilitas dignitatem 
in dominationem, populus libertatem in libidinem vertere: 
sibi quisque ducere, trahere, rapere. Ita omnia in duas 
partes abstracta sunt ; respublica, quae media fuerat, 
dilacerata. Ceterum nobilitas factione magis pollebat ; 
plebis vis, soluta atque dispersa in multitudine, minus 
poterat Paucorum arbitrio belli domique agitabatur; 
penes eosdem serarium, provincial, magistratus, glorias 
triumphique erant; populus militia atque inopia urgeba 
tur. Praedas bellicas imperatores cum paucis diripiebant' 
interea parentes aut parvi liberi militum, ut quisque po- 
tentiori confinis erat, sedibus pellebantur. Ita cum po- 
tentia avaritia sine modo modestiaque invadere, polluere 
et vastare omnia, nihil pensi neque sancti habere, quoad 
semet ipsa praecipitavit. Nam ubi primum ex nobilitate 
reperti sunt, qui veram gloriam injustaepotentiaa antepon- 
erent, moveri civitas, et dissensio civilis, quasi permix- 
tio terras, oriri coepit. 

XLII. Nam postquam Tiberius et C. Gracchus, quorum 
jnajores Punico atque aliis bellis multum reipublicae ad- 
diderant, vindicare plebem in libertatem, et paucorum 
scelera patefacere coepere, nobilitas noxia, atque eo per- 
culsa, modo per socios ac nomen Latinum, interdum per 
equites Romanos, quos spes societatis a plebe dimoverat. 
Gracchorum actionibus obviam ierat ; et primo Tiberi 
um, dein paucos post annos eadem ingredientem Caium 
tribunum alterum, alterum triumvirum coloniis deducen- 

Jt/GURTHA. 35 

dis, cum M. Fulvio Flacco ferro neeaverat. Et sane 
Oroechis cupidine victorise haud satis modoratus animus 
Out : sed bono vinci satius est, quam malo more injuriam 
vincere. Igitur ea victoria nobilitas ex libidine sua, usa ; 
maltos mortales ferro aut fuga exstinxit ; plusque in rel 
iquum sibi timoris quam potentiae addidit. Quae res 
plerumque magnas civitates pessum dedit, dum alten 
alteros vincere quovis modo, et victos acerbius ulcisci 
volunt. Sed de studiis partium et omnis civitatis moribus 
si singula tim aut pro magnitudine parem diserere, tempus 
quam res maturius me deseret : quamobrem ad inceptum 

XLIII. Post Auli fcedus exercitusque nostri foedam 
fugam, Q. Metellus et M. Silanus, consules designati, pro- 
vincias inter se partiverant, Metelloque Numidia evene- 
rat, acri viro, et, quamquam adverso populi partium, fama. 
tamen eequabili et inviolata. Is ubi primum magistratum 
ingressus est, alia omnia sibi cum collega ratus, ad bel- 
lum, quod gesturus erat, animum intendit. Igitur difFi- 
dens veteri exercitui, milites scribere, praesidia undique 
arcessere, arma, tela, equos et cetera instrumenta militiae 
parare, ad hoc commeatum affatim, denique omnia, 
qua3 in bello vario et multarum rerum egenti usui esse so- 
lent. Ceterum ad ea patranda, senatus auctoritate socii 
nomenque Latinum et reges ultro auxilia mittere ; postre- 
mo ornnis civitas summo studio adnitebatur. Itaque, 
ex sententia omnibus rebus paratis compositisque, in 
Nurriidiam proficiscitur magna spe civium, quum prop- 
ter bonas artes, turn maxime, quod adversum divitias 
invictum animum gerebat ; et avaritia magistiatuum ante 
id ternpus in Numidia nostras opes contusa?, hostiumque 
auctae erant. 



XLIV. Sed ubi in Africam venit, exercitus ei tradi- 
tur Sp. Albini proconsulis iners, imbellis, neque periculi 
neque laboris patiens, lingua quam manu promptior 
praedator ex sociis et ipse prasda hostium, sine imperio 
et modestia habitus. Ita imperatori novo plus ex malis 
moribus sollieitudinis, quam ex copia militum auxilii 
aut bonae spei accedebat. Statuit tamen Metellus, quam 
quam et asstivorum tempus comitiorum mora imminue- 
rat, et exspectatione eventus civium animos intentos 
putabat, non prius bellum attingere, quam majorum dis- 
cipline milites laborare coegisset. Nam Albinus, Ami 
fratris exercitusque clade perculsus, postquam decrevera. 
non egredi provincia, quantum temporis aestivorum in 
imperio fuit, plerumque milites stativis castris habebat 
nisi quum odos aut pabuli egestas locum mutare subeg- 
erat. Sed neque muniebantur ea, neque more militari 
vigiliae deducebantur : uti cuique libebat, ab signis abe- 
rat. Lixae permixti cum militibus die noctuque vaga- 
bantur, et palantes agros vastare, villas expugnare, pec- 
oris et mancipiorum prsedas certantes agere, eaque mutare 
cum mercatoribus vino advectitio et aliis talibus ; prse- 
terea frumentum publice datum vendere, panem in dies 
mercari: postremo, quascumque dici aut fingi queunt 
ignaviae luxuriaeque probra, in illo exercitu cuncta fuere, 
et alia amplius. 

XLV. Sed in ea difScultate 5\Ietellum non minus 
quam in rebus hostilibus magnum et sapientem vnum 
fuisse comperior, tanta temperantia inter ambitionem 
sawitiamque moderatum. Namque edicto primum ad- 
jumenta ignaviae sustulisse; * ne quisquam in castris 
panem aut quern alium coctum cibum venderer : ne 
lixaB exercitum sequerentur ; ne miles gregarius in cas- 


tris neve in agmine servum aut jumentum haberet:' cet- 
eris arte modum statuisse. Prseterea tyansversis itineri 
bus quotidie castra movere, juxta ac si hostes adessenU 
vallo atque fossa munire, vigilias crebras ponere, et eas 
ipse cum legatis circumire : item in agmine in primis 
modo, modo in postremis, ssepe in medio adesse, ne quis- 
quam ordine egrederetur, uti cum signis frequentes incede- 
rent, miles cibum et arma portaret. Ita prohibendo a 
delictis magis quam vindicando exercitum brevi con- 

XL VI. Interea Jugurtha, ubi, qua3 Metellus agebat, ex 
nuntiis accepit, simul de innocentia ejus certior Roma 
factus, diffidere suis rebus; ac turn demum veramdedit- 
ionem fa cere conatus est. Igitur legatos ad consulern 
cum suppliciis mittit, qui tantummodo ipsi liberisque vitam 
peterent, alia omnia dederent populo Romano. Sed Me- 
tello jam antea experimentis cognitum erat genus Numi- 
darum infidum, ingenio mobili, novarum rerum avidum 
esse. Itaque legatos alium ab alio diversos aggreditur ; 
ac paulatim tentando, postquam opportunos sibi cognovit, 
multa pollicendo persuadet, * uti Jugurtham maxime vivum, 
sin id parum procedat, necatum sibi traderent :' ceteriim 
palam, qua3 ex voluntate forent, regi nuntiari jubet. De- 
inde ipse paucis diebus, intento atque infesto exercitu, in 
Numidiam procedit; ubi, contra belli faciem, tuguria plena 
hominum, pecora cultoresque in agris erant; ex oppidis 
et mapalibus prsefecti regis obvii procedebant, parati fru- 
mentum dare, commeatum portare, postremo omnia, qune 
imperarentur, facere. Neque Metellus idcirco minus, sed 
pariter ac si hostes adessent, munito agmine incedere, late 
explorare omnia, ilia deditionis signa ostentui credere, et 
insidiis locum tentari Itaque ipse cum expeditis cohorti- 


bus, item funditorum et sagittariorum de^cta manu apud 
primos erat; in postremo Co Marius legatus cum equitibus 
curabat: in utrumque latus auxiliaries equites tribums 
legionum et praefectis cohortium dispertiverat, uti cum his 
permixti velites, quacunque accederent equitatus hostium, 
propulsarent. Nam in Jugurtha tantus dolus tantaque per- 
itia locorum et militias erat, ut, absens an prsesens, pacem 
an bellum gerens* perniciosior esset, in incerto haberetur. 

XLVII. Erat haud longe ab eo itinere, quo Metellus 
pergebat, oppidum Numidarum, nomine Vacca, forum 
rerum venalium totius regni maxime celeb ratum ; ubi 
et incolere et mercari consueverant Italici generis multi 
mortales. Hue consul, sirnul tentandi gratia, et, si pate- 
rentur, opportunitate loci presidium imposuit ; praeterea 
imperavit frumentum et alia, quae bello usui forent, com- 
portare ; ratus, id quod res ^monebat, frequentiam nego- 
tiatorum et commeatum juvaturum exercitum, et jam 
paratis rebus munimento fore. Inter hsec negotia Jugur- 
tha impensms modo legatos supplices mittere, pacem 
orare, praster suam liberorumque vitam omnia Metello 
dedere. Quos item, uti priores, consul illectos ad prodit- 
ionem domum dimittebat : regi pacem, quam postulabat, 
neque abnuere neque polliceri, et inter eas moras pro- 
missa legatorum exspectare. 

XLVIII. Jugurtha ubi Metelli dicta cym factis com- 
posuit, ac se suis artibus tentari animadvertit ; quippe 
cui verbis pax nuntiabatur, ceterum re bellum asperri- 
mum erat, urbs maxima alienata, ager hostibus cognitus, 
animi popularium tentati; coactus rerum necessitudine, 
statuit armis certare. Igitur explorato hostium itinere, 
in spem victorias adductus ex opportunitate loci, quam 
maximas potest copias omnium generum parat, ac per 

jugurtha. 39 

iramites occultos exercitum Metelli antevenit. Erat in 
ea. parte Numidiae, quam Adherbal in divisione possede 
rat, flumen oriens a meridie, nomine Muthul ; a quo ab 
erat mons ferme millia viginti, tractu pari, vastus ab 
natura et humano eultu: sed ex eo medio quasi collis 
oriehatnr. in immensum pertingens, vestitus oleastro ac 
myrtetis aliisque generibus arborum, quae humi arido 
atque arenoso gignuntur. Media autem planities deserta 
penuria aquae, prseter flumini propinqua loca ; ea consita 
arbustis pecore atque cultoribus frequentabantur. 

XLIX. Jgitur in eo colle, quern transverso itinere 
porrectum docuimus, Jugurtha, extenuata suorum acie, 
consedit: elephantis et parti copiarum pedestrium Bo- 
milcarem praefecit, eumque edocet, quae ageret ; ipse pro- 
pior montem cum omni equitatu pedites delectos collo- 
cat: dein singulas turmas atque manipulos circumiens 
monet atque obtestatur, ' uti memores pristinae virtutis 
et victorias sese regnumque suum ab Romanorum ava- 
ritia defendant : cum his certamen fore, quos antea vic- 
tos sub jugum miserint : ducem illis, non animum muta- 
tum. Quas ab imperatore decuerint, omnia suis provisa ; 
locum superiorem, uti prudentes cum imperitis, ne pau- 
ciores cum pluribus, aut rudes cum bello melioribus ma- 
num consererent. Proinde parati intentique essent, signo 
dato, Romanos invadere : ilium diem aut omnes labores 
et victorias confirmaturum, aut rnaximarum aerumnarum 
in\tium fore.' Ad hoc viritim, uti quemque^ ob militare 
facinus pecunia aut honore extulerat, commonefacere 
bencficii sm, et eum ipsum aliis ostentare : postremo 
pro cujusque ingenio, pollicendo, minitando, obtest ando 
alium alio modo excitare ; quum interim Metellus, igna- 
rus hostium, monte degrediens cum exercitu, conspica- 


tur, primd dubius, quidnam insolita facies ostenderet 
(nam inter virgulta equi Numidaeque consederant, neque 
plane occultati humilitate arborum, et tamen incerti, 
quidnam esset, quum natura. loci, turn dolo ipsi atque 
signa militafia obscurati); dein, brevi cognitis insidiis 
paulisper agmen constituit. Ibi commutatis ordinibus, 
in dextero latere, quod proximum hostes erat, triplicibus 
subsidiis aciem instruxit ; inter manipulos funditores et 
sagittarios dispertit, equitatum omnem in cornibus locat, 
ac pauca pro tempore milites hortatus, aciem, sicuti in- 
struxerat, transversis principiis, in planum deducit. 

L. Sed ubi Numidas quietos, neque colle degredi ani- 
madvertit, veritus ex anni tempore et inopia aquae, ne 
siti conficeretur exercitus, Rutilium Iegatum cum expe- 
ditis cohortibus et parte equitum prasmisit ad flumen, uti 
locum castris antecaperet; existimans hostes crebro im- 
petu et transversis proeliis iter suum remoraturos, et, quo- 
niam armis diffiderent, lassitudinem et sitim militum 
tentaturos. Deinde ipse pro re atque loco, sicuti monte 
descenderat, paulatim procedere : Marium post principia 
habere : ipse cum sinistra alas equitibus esse, qui in ag- 
mine principes facti erant. At Jugurtha, ubi extremum 
agmen Metelli primos suos prastergressum videt, pra^sidio 
quasi duum millium peditum montem occupat, qua Me- 
tellus descenderat, ne forte cedentibus adversariis recep- 
tui ac post munimento foret ; dein repente, signo dato, 
hostes invadit. Numidae, alii postremos csedere, pars a 
sinistra ac de^tera, tentare, infensi adesse atque instare, 
omnibus locis Romanorum ordines conturbare ; quorum 
etiam qui firmioribus animis obvii hostibus fuerant, ludi- 
ficati incerto proelio, ipsi modo eminus sauciabantur 
neque contra, feriendi aut manum conserendi copia erat 


Antea jam docti ab Jugurtha equites, ubicumque Rom- 
anorum turma insequi cceperat, non confertim, neque 
in unum sese recipiebant, sed alius alio quam maxime 
diversi. Ita numero priores, si a persequendo *hostes de- 
terrere nequiverant, disjectos ab tergo aut lateribus cir- 
cumveniebant : sin opportunior fugse collis, quam campi 
iuerant, ea verd consueti Numidarum equi facile inter 
virgulta evadere ; nostros asperitas et insolentia loci reti- 

LI. Ceterurn facies -totius negotii varia, incerta, fceda 
atque miserabilis : dispersi a suis, pars cedere, alii inse- 
qui ; neque signa neque ordines observare ; ubi quem- 
que periculum ceperat, ibi resistere ac propulsare : arma 
tela, equi viri, hostes atque cives permixti ; nihil consilio 
neque imperio agi ; fors omnia regere. Jtaque multum 
diei processerat, quum etiamtum eventus in incerto erat 
Denique omnibus labore et aestu languidis, Metellus, ubi 
videt Numidas minus instare, paulatim milites in unum 
eondueit, ordines restituit, et cohortes legionarias quatuor 
adversum pedites hostium collocat. Eorum magna pars 
superioribus locis fessa consederat. Simul orare, hortan 
milites, ' ne deficerent, neu paterentur hostes fugientes 
sincere: neque illis castra esse, neque munimentum ullum, 
quo cedentes tenderent : in armis omnia sita.' Sed nee 
Jugurtha quidem interea quietus erat ; circumire, hortari, 
renovare prcelium, et ipse cum delectis tentare omnia; 
sub venire suis, hostibus dubiis instare, quos firmos cognov 
erat, eminus pugnando retinere. 

LII. Eo modo inter se duo imperatores, summi viri, 
oertabant, ipsi pares, ceterurn opibus disparibus :. nam 
Metello virtus militum erat, locus adversus; Jugurthae 
alia omnia praeter milites opportuna. Denique Ro- 


mani, ubi intelligent neque sibi perfugium esse, neque 
ab hoste copiam pugnandi fieri, et jam die vesper erat, 
ad verso colie, sicuti prseceptum fuerat, evadunt. Amisso 
loco, Numidae fusi fugatique : pauci interiere, plerosque 
velocitas et regio hostibus ignara tutata sunt. Interea 
Borailcar, quern elephantis et parti copiaium pedestrium 
prasfectum ab Jugurtha supra diximus, ubi eum Rutilius 
prsetergressus est, paulatim suos in sequum locum dedu- 
cit : ac, dum legatus ad flumen, quo prasmissus erat, fes- 
tinans pergit, quietus, uti res postulabat, aciem exornat; 
neque remittit, quid ubique hostis ageret, explorare. 
Postquam Rutilium consedisse jam, et animo vacuum 
accepit, simulque ex Jugurthae prcelio clamorem augeri, 
veritus, ne legatus, cognita re, laborantibus suis auxilio 
foret, aciem, quam, diffidens virtuti militum, arte statue- 
rat, quo hostium itineri officeret, latius porrigit, eoque 
modo ad Rutilii castra procedit. 

LI1I. Romani ex improviso pulveris vim magnam an- 
imadvertunt, nam prospectum ager arbustis consitus 
prohibebat; et primd rati humum aridam vento agita- 
ri ; post, ubi sequabilem manere, et, sicuti acies move- 
batur, magis magisque appropinquare vident, cognita 
re, properantes arma capiunt, ac pro castris, sicuti im- 
perabatur, consistunt. Deinde, ubi propius ventum est, 
utrimque magno clamore concurritur. Numidae tantum 
modo remorati, dum in elephantis auxilium putant, post- 
quam eos impeditos ramis arborum, atque ita disjectos 
circumveniri vident, fugam faciunt, ac plerique, abjectis 
armis, collis aut noctis quaa jam aderat, auxilio integri 
abeunt, Elephanti quatuor capti, reliqui omnes, nu- 
mero quadraginta, interfecti. At Romani, quamquam 
itmere atque opere castrorum et proelio ^essi lassique 


erant, tamen, quod Metellus amplius opinione moraba- 
tur, instructi intentique obviam procedunt: nam dolus 
Numidarum nihil languidi neque remissi patiebatur. 
Ac primd, obscura nocte, postquam baud procul inter se 
erant, strepitu, velut hostes, adventare, alteri apud alteros 
forrnidinem simul et tumultum facere : et pene impru- 
dentia admissum facinus mise*rabile, ni utrimque prae- 
missi equites rem exploravissent. Igitur pro metu re- 
pente gaudium exortum ; milites alius alium laeti appel- 
lant, acta edocent atque audiunt ; sua quisque fortia facta 
ad coelum ferre. Quippe res humanse ita sese habent: 
in victoria vel ignavis gloriari licet ; adversae res etiam 
bonos detrectant. 

LTV. Metellus, in iisdem castris quatriduo moratus, 
saucios cum cum reficit, meritos in proeliis more militiae 
donat, universos in concione laudat, atque agit gratias : 
hortatur, ' ad cetera, quae levia sunt, parem animum 
gerant : pro victoria satis jam pugnatum, reliquos labo- 
res pro prseda fore.' Tamen interim transfugas et alio* 
opportunos, Jugurtha ubi gentium, aut quid agitaret, cum 
paucisne esset, an exercitum haberet, uti sese victus 
gereret, exploratum misit At ille sese in loca saltuosa 
et natura munita receperat, ibique cogebat exercitum 
numero hominum ampliorem, sed hebetem infirmumque 
agri ac pecoris magis quam belli cultorem. Id ea gra 
tia eveniebat, quod praster regios equites nemo omnium 
Numidarum ex fuga regem sequitur; quo cujusque an- 
tmus fert, eo discedunt, neque id flagitium militias du- 
citur; ita se mores habent. Igitur Metellus ubi videt 
^tiamtum regis animum ferocem esse, bellum renovari, 
quod nisi ex illius libidine geri non posset, praeterea 
iniquum certamen sibi cum hostibus, minore detrimento 


illos vinci, quam suos vincere, statuit non prcehis neque 
acie, sed alio more bellum gerendum. Itaque in Nu- 
midue loca opulentissima pergit, agros vastat, multa cas- 
fella et oppida, temere munita aut sine praesidio, capit 
incenditque ; puberes interfici jubet, alia omnia militum 
praedam esse. Ea. formidine multi mortales Romanis 
dediti obsides; frumentum et alia, quae usui forent, af- 
fatim praebita ; ubicumque res postulabat, praesidium im- 
positum. Quae negotia multo magis, quam proelium male 
* pugnatum ab suis, regem terrebant : quippe cui spes 
omnis in fuga sita erat, sequi cogebatur ; et, qui sua loca 
defendere nequiverat, in alienis bellum gerere. Tamen 
ex copia, quod optimum videbatur, consilium capit : ex- 
ercitum plerumque in iisdem locis opperiri jubet ; ipse 
cum delectis equitibus Metellum sequitur, nocturnis et 
aviis itineribus ignoratus Romanos palantes repente ag- 
greditur. Eorum plerique inermes cadunt, multi capi- 
untur, nemo omnium intactus profugit ; et Numidia3, 
priusquam ex castris subveniretur, sicuti jussi erant, in 
proximos colles discedunt. 

LY. Interim Romas gaudium ingens ortum, cognitis 
Metelli rebus; ut seque et exercitum more majorum 
gereret, in adverso loco victor tamen virtute fuisset, 
hostium agro potiretur, Jugurtham, magnificum ex Auli . 
socordia, spem salutis in solitudine aut fuga coegisset 
habere. Itaque senatus ob ea feliciter acta dis immor- 
talibus supplicia decernere ; civitas, trepida antea et sol- 
licita de belli eventu, laeta agere; de Metello- fama prse* 
Clara esse. Igitur eo intentior ad victoriam niti, omnibus 
modis festinare ; cavere tamen, necubi hosti opportunus 
fieret ; meminisse, post gloriam invidiam sequi. Ita. quo 
clarior eo magis anxius erat, neque post insiaias Ju- 


gurthae efFuso exercitu prsedari: ubi frumento ant pab- 
ulo opus eraf, cohortes cum omni equitatu prassidium 
agitabant : exercMs partem ipse, reliquos Marius duce- 
bat. Sed igni magis quam prseda ager vastabatur. Du- 
obus locis haud longe inter se castra faciebant: ubi vi 
opus erat, cuncti aderant ; ceterum, quo fuga atque for- 
mido latius cresceret/diversi agebant. Eo tempore Ju- 
gurtha per colles sequi, tempus aut locum pugnas quaer- 
ere, qua venturum hostem audierat, pabulum et aquarum 
fontes, quorum penuria erat, corrumpere, modo se Metello, 
interdum Mario ostendere, postremos in agmine tentare, 
ac statim in colles regredi, rursus aliis, post aliis mini- 
tari,neque prcelium facere, neque otium pati, tantummodo 
hostem ab incepto retinere. 

LVI. Romanus imperator ubi se dolis fatigari videt, 
neque ab hoste copiam pugnandi fieri, urbem magnam 
et in ea parte, qua, sita erat, arcem regni, nomine Za- 
mam, statuit oppugnare ; ratus, id quod negotium posce- 
bat, Jugurtham laborantibus suis auxilio venturum, ibique 
prcelium fore. At ille, quae parabantur, a perfugis edoc- 
tus, magnis itineribus Metellum antevenit; oppidanos 
hortatur, ' moenia defendant ;' additis auxilio perfugis, 
quod genus ex copiis regis, quia fa Here nequibat, firmis- 
simum erat : praeterea pollicetur, * in tempore semet cum 
exercitu affore.' Ita compositis rebus, in loca quam 
maxime occulta discedit, ac post paulo cognoscit Mari- 
um ex itinere frumentatum cum paucis cohortibus Sic- 
cam missum ; quod oppidum primum omnium post ma- 
lam pugnam ab rege defecerat. E6 cum delectis equiti- 
bus noctu pergit, et jam egredientibus Romanis, in porta 
pugnam facit: simul magna voce Siccenses hortatur 
uti cohortes ab tergo circumveniant : fortunam illis prae 


clari facinoris casum dare. Si id fecerint, postea sese uo 
regno, illos in libertate sine metu setatem acturos.' Art 
ni Marius signa inferre atque evadere oppido properavis 
set, profectd cuncti aut magna pars Siccensium fidem 
mutavissent : tanta mobilitate sese Numidse agunt. Sed 
milites Jugurthini, paulisper ab rege sustentati, postquam 
majore vi hostes urgent, paucis amissis, profugi disce- 

LVII. Marius ad Zamam pervenit. Id oppidum, in 
campo situm, magis opere quam natura muni turn erat, 
nullius idoneae rei egens, armis virisque opulentum. Igi- 
tur Metellus, pro tempore atque loco paratis rebus, cuncta 
moenia exercitu circumvenit; legatis imperat, ubi quis- 
que curaret; deinde, signo dato, undique simul clamor 
ingens oritur. Neque ea res Numidas terret; infensi 
intentique sine tumultu manent. Proelium incipitur. 
Romani, pro ingenio quisque, pars eminus glande aut 
lapidibus pugnare, alii succedere, ac murum modd suf- 
fodere, modo scalis aggredi, cupere pro3lium manibus 
facere. Contra ea oppidani in proximos saxa volvere ; 
sudes, pila, praeterea pice et sulphure tsedam mixtam, 
ardenti mittere. Sed ne illos quidem,~qui procul manse- 
rant, timor animi satis muniverat : nam plerosque jacula 
tormentis aut manu emissa vulnerabant; parique peric- 
ulo, sed fama impari boni atque ignavi erant. 

LVIII. Dum apud Zamam sic certatur, Jugurtha ex 
improviso castra hostium cum magna manu invadit: 
remissis, qui in prsesidio erant, et omnia magis quam 
proelium exspectantibus, portam irrumpit. At nostn, 
repentino metu perculsi, sibi quisque pro moribus con- 
sulunt : alii fugere, alii arma capere ; magna pars vul- 
nerati aut occisi. Ceterum ex omni multitudine non 


amplius qu&draginta, memores nominis Romani, grege 
facto, locum cepere paulo quam alii editiorem, neque 
hide maxima vi depelli quiverunt, sed tela eminus missa 
remittere, pauci in pluribus minus frustrati: sin Numida3 
propius accessissent, ibi verd virtutem ostendere, et eos 
maxima vi caedere, fundere atque fugare. Interim Me- 
tellus, quum acerrime rem gereret, clamorem hostilern ab 
tergo accepit : deinde, converso equo, animadvertit fugam 
ad se versum fieri; quas res indicabat populares esse. 
Igitur equitatum omnem ad castra propere mittit, ac 
statim C. Marium cum cohortibus sociorum; eumque lac- 
rymans per amicitiam perque rempublicam obsecrat, 'ne 
quam contumeliam remanere in exercitu victore, neve 
hostes inultos ' abire sinat.' Hie brevi mandata efficit. 
At Jugurtha munimento castrorum impeditus, quum alii 
super vallum praecipitarentur, alii in angustiis ipsi sibi 
properantes officerent, multis amissis, in loca munita 
sese recepit. Metellus, infecto negotio, postquam nox 
aderat, in castra cum exercitu revertitur. 

LIX. Igitur postero die, prius quam ad oppugnandum 
egrederetur, equitatum omnem in ea parte, qua regis ad- 
ventus erat, pro castris agitare jubet-f portas et proxima 
loca tribunis dispertit; deinde ipse pergit ad oppidum, 
atque, ut superiore die, murum aggreditur. Interim Ju- 
gurtha ex occulto repente nostros invadit. Qui in prox- 
imo locati fuerant, paulisper territi perturbantur ; reliqui 
cito subveniunt, neque diutius Numidas resistere quivis- 
sent, ni pedites cum equitibus permixti magnam cladem 
in congressu facerent. Quibus illi freti, non, ut equestri 
proslio solet, sequi, dein cedere, sed adversis equis con- 
currere, implicare ac perturbare aciem : ita expeditis 

oeditibus suis hostes pene victos dare. 



LX. Eodem tempore apud Zamam magna vi certaba- 
tur. Ubi quisque legatus aut tribunus curabat, eo acer- 
rime niti ; neque alius in alio magis quam in sese spem 
habere : pariterque oppidani agere. Oppngnare, aut pa- 
rare omnibus locis : avidius alteri alteros sauciare, quam 
semet tegere: clamor permixtus hortatione, laetitia,gemitu, 
item strepitus armorum r,<] coelum ferri, tela utrimque 
volare. red iiii, qui incenia defensabant, ubi hostes 
paulum modo pugnam remiserant, intenti proelium eques- 
tre prospectabant. Eos, uti quaeque Jugurthae res erant, 
laetos modo, modo pavidos animadverteres ; ac sicuti 
audiri a suis aut cerni possent, monere alii, alii hortari, 
aut manu significare, aut niti corporibus, et ea hue illuc, 
quasi vitabundi aut jacientes tela, agitare. Quod ubi 
Mario cognitum est, (nam is in ea parte curabat), con- 
sulto lenius agere, ac diffidentiam rei simulare; pati Nu- 
midas sine tumultu regis prcelium visere. Ita, illis studio 
suorum adstrictis, repente magna vi murum aggreditur; 
et jam scalis egressi milites prope summa ceperant, 
quum oppidani concurrunt, lapides, ignem, alia praeterea 
tela ingerunt. Nostri primd resistere; deinde, ubi unas 
atque altera? scalae comminutae, qui supersteterant, afflicti 
sunt; ceteri quoquo modo potu^re, pauci integri, magna 
pars confecti vulneribus abeunt. Denique utrimque prce- 
lium nox diremit. 

LXI. Metellus postquam videt frustra inceptum, ne- 
que oppidum capi, neque Jugurtham nisi ex insidiis aut 
suo loco pugnam facere, et jam sestatem exactam esse, 
ab Zama discedit, et in his urbibus, quae ad se defece- 
rant, satisque munitre loco aut moenibus erant, praesidia 
imponit: ceterum exeroitum in provinciam, qua? prcxlma 
est Numidiae, hiemandi gratia collocat. Neque id tern- 


pus ex aliorum more quieti aut luxurice concedit; sed, 
quoniam armis bellum parum procedebat, insidias regi 
per amicos tendere, et eorum perfidia. pro armis uti pant 
Igitur Bomilcarem, qui Romse cum Jugurtha fuerat, et 
inde, vadibus datis, clam de Massivse nece judicium fu- 
geiat, quod ei per maximam amicitiam maxima copia 
fallendi erat, multis pollicitationibus aggreditur. Ac pri- 
mo efficit, uti ad se colloquendi gratia occultus veniat: 
deinde fide data, 'si Jugurtham viv r um aut necatum tradi- 
disset, fore, ut illi senatus impunitatem et sua omnia con- 
cederet,' facile Numidse persuadet, quum ingenio infido, 
turn metuenti, ne, si pax cum Romanis fieret, ipse per 
conditiones ad supplicium traderetur. 

LXII. Is, ubi primum opportunum fuit, Jugurtham anx- 
ium ac miserantem fortunas suas accedit ; monet atque 
lacrymans obtestatur, ' uti aliquando sibi liberisque et 
genti Numidarum optime merenti provideat: omnibus 
proeliis sese victos, agrum vastatum, multos mortales 
captos aut occisos, regni opes comminutas esse : satis 
saepe jam et virtutem militum et fortunam tentatam : 
caveat, ne, illo cunctante, Numidag sibi consulant. > His 
atque talibus aliis ad deditionem regis animum impellit. 
Mittuntur ad imperatorem legati, qui ' Jugurtham impe- 
rata facturum' dicerent, ' ac sine ulla pactione sese reg- 
numque suum in illi us fidem tradere.' Metellus propere 
cunctos senatorii ordinis ex hibernis arcessiri jubet : eo- 
rum atque aliorum, quos idoneos ducebat, consilium habet. 
Ita more major um ex consilii decreto per legatos Jugur- 
thne imperat argenti pondo ducenta millia, elephantos 
omnes, equorum et armorum aliquantum. . Qure postquam 
sine mora, facta sunt, jubet ' omnes perfugas vinctos ad- 
ducL' Eorum magna pars, ut jussum erat, adduetr 


pauci, quum primum deditio coepit, ad regem Bocchum 
in Mauretaniam abierant. Igitur Jugurtha, ubi armis vi- 
risque et pecunia spoliatus est, quum ipse ad imperandum 
Tisidium vocaretur, rursus coepit flectere animum suum, 
et ex mala conscientia digna timere. Denique multis 
diebus per dubitationem consumptis, quum mode- tasdio 
rerum adversarum omnia bello potiora duceret, interdum 
secum ipse reputaret, quam gravis casus in servitium ex 
regno ibret, multis magnisque prassidiis nequidquam per- 
ditis, de integro bellum sumit. Et Romas senatus de pro- 
vinces consultus Numidiam Metello decreverat. 

LXIII. Per idem tempus Uticas forte C. Mario per 
hostias dis supplicanti magna atque mirabilia portendi' 
harrispex dixerat : ' proinde, quas animo agitabat, fret us 
dis ageret; fortunam quam saepissime experiretur, cuncta 
prospera eventura.' At ilium jam antea consulates in- 
gens cupido exagitabat, ad quern capiendum praster ve- 
tustatem familias alia omnia abunde erant, industria, 
probitas, militias magna scientia, animus belli ingens, 
domi modicus, libidinis et divitiarum victor, tantummo- 
do glorias avidus. Sed is natus et omnem pueritiam 
Arpini altus, ubi primum astas militias patiens fuit, sti- 
pendiis faciendis, non Grasca facundia neque urbanis 
munditiis sese exercuit: ita inter artes bonas integrum 
ingenium brevi adolevit. Ergo ubi primum tribunatum 
militarem a populo petit, plerisque faciem ejus ignoranti- 
bus, facile notus per omnes tribus declaratur. Deinde 
ab eo magistratu alium post alium sibi peperit, semper 
que in potestatibus eo modo agitabat, uti ampliore, quam 
gerebat, dignus haberetur. Tamen is ad id locorum 
talis vir (nam postea ambitione prasceps datus est) con- 
sulatum petere non audebat : etiamtum alios magistrate 



plebes, consulatum nobilitas inter se per manus trade- 
bat : novus nemo tarn clarus, neque tarn egregius factis 
erat, quin is indignus illo honore et quasi pollutus habe- 

LXIV. Igitur ubi Marius haruspicis dicta eodem in- 
tendere videt, quo cupido animi hortabatur, ab Metello 
petendi gratia missionem rogat. Cui quamquam virtus, 
gloria atque alia optanda bonis superabant, tamen ine- 
rat contemptor animus et superbia, commune nobilitatis 
malum. Itaque primum, commotus insolita re, miran 
ejus consilium, et quasi per amicitiam monere, ' ne tarn 
prava inciperet, neu super fortunam animum gereret: 
non omnia omnibus cupienda esse ; debere illi res suas 
satis placere : postremo caveret id petere a populo Ro- 
mano, quod illi jure negaretur.' Postquam hose atque alia 
talia dixit, neque animus Mini Peclitur, respondit, ' ubi 
primum potir^o* yuv nego.ia publica, facturum sese, 
qua? peteret;' ac postea saepius eadem postulanti fertur 
dixisse, ' ne festinaret abire ; satis mature ilium cum filio 
suo consulatum petiturum.' Is eo tempore contubernio 
patris ibidem militabat, annos natus circiter viginti. 
Quae res Marium quum pro honore, quern affectabat, 
turn contra Metellum vehementer accenderat. Ita cu- 
pidine atque ira, pessimis consultoribus, grassari, neque 
facto ullo neque dicto abstinere, quod modo ambitiosum 
foret : milites, quibus in hibernis praeerat, laxiore imae- 
rio quam antea habere: apud negotiator quorum 
magna multitudo Uticae erat, criminose simul et mag- 
nified de bello loqui : * dimidia pars exercitus sibi per- 
mitteretur, paucis diebus Jugurtham in catenis habitu- 
rum: ab imperatore consulto trahi, quoa homo manis 
et, regies superbiae imperio nimis gauderet.' Quae om- 


nia illis eo firmiora videbantur, quod diuturnitate belli 
res familiares corruperant, et animo cupienti nihil satis 

LXV. Erat praeterea in exercitu nostro Numida qui- 
dam, nomine Gauda, Manastabalis filius, Masinissae ne- 
pos, quem Micipsa testamento secundum heredem scrip- 
serat, morbis confectus, et ob earn causam mente paulum 
imminuta. Cui Metellus petenti, * more regum uti sel- 
lam juxta poneret,' item' postea ' custodias causa turmam 
equitum Romanorum,' utrumque negaverat ; honorem, 
quod eorum modo foret, quos populus Romanus reges 
appellavisset; prassidium, quod contumeliosum foret, si 
equites Romani satellites Numidae traderentur. Hunc 
Marius anxium aggreditur, atque hortatur, uti con- 
tumeliarum imperatoris cum suo auxilio pcenas petat: 
hominem ob morbos animo parum valido secunda ora- 
tione extollit : ' ilium regem, ingentem virum, Masinissa? 
nepotem esse ; si Jugurtha captus aut occisus foret, im- 
perium Numidiae sine mora habiturum ; id adeo mature 
posse e venire^ si ipse consul ad id bellum missus foret.' 
Itaque et ilium, et equites Romanos, milites et negotia- 
tors, alios ipse, plerosque spes pacis impellit, uti Romam 
ad suos necessarios aspere in Metellum de bello scribant, 
Marium imperatorem poscant. Sic illi a muhis mortali- 
bus honestissima suffragatione consulatus petebatur : 
simul ea tempestate plcbes, nobilitate fusa per legem 
Mamiliam, novos extollebat Ita Mario cuncta proced- 

-LXVL Interim Jugurtha, postquam, omissa deditione, 
bellum incipit, cum magna cura parare omnia, festinaie, 
cogere exercitum ; civitates, quae ab se defecerant, for- 
midine aut ostentando praemia affectare; communire 


silos' locos; arma, tela, alia, qua? spe pacis amiserat, re- 
ficere aut commercari ; servitia Romanorum alhcere, et 
eos ipsos, qui in praesidiis erant, pecunia tentare; pror- 
sus nihil intactum ntque quietum pati, euncta agitare 
Igitur Vaccenses, quo Metellus initio, Jugurtha pacific 
cante, praesidium imposuerat, fatigati regis suppliciis, 
neque antea voluntate alienati, principes civitatis inter 
se conjurant : nam vulgus, uti plerumque solet, et max- 
ime Numidarum, ingenio mobili, seditiosum atque dis- 
cordiosum erat, cupidum novarum rerum, quieti et otio 
adversum. Uein, compositis inter se rebus, in diem ter- 
tium constituunt, quod is festus celebratusque per omnem 
Africam ludum et lasciviam magis quam formidinem 
ostentabat. Sed ubi tempus fuit, centuriones tribunos- 
que militares, et ipsum praefectum oppidi T. Turpilium 
Silanum, alius alium domos suas invitant: eos omnes 
praeter Turpilium inter epulas obtruncant : postea mili- 
tes palantes, inermes, quippe in tali die ac sine imperio, 
aggrediuntur. Idem plebes facit, pars edocti ab nobili- 
tate, alii studio talium rerum incitati, quis acta consili- 
umque ignorantibus tumultus ipse et res novas satis pla- 

LXVII. Romani milites, improviso metu incerti ig- 
narique, quid potissimum facerent, trepidare : ad arcem 
oppidi, ubi signa et scuta erant, praesidium hostium: portae 
ante clausas fugam prohibebant : ad hoc mulieres puerique 
pro tectis aedificiorum saxa et alia, quae locus praebebat, 
certatim mittere. Ita neque caveri anceps malum, neque 
a fortissimis infirmissimo generi resisti posse : juxta bont 
malique, strenui et imbelles inulti obtruncari. In ea, tanta 
asperitate, sasvissimis Numidis et oppido undique clauso, 
Turpilius praefectus unus ex omnibus Italicis profugit 


int actus. Id misericordiane hospitis, an pactione-aut 
casu ita evenerit, parum comperimus; nisi, quia illi in 
tanto malo turpis vita integra fama potior fuit, improbus 
intestabilisque videtur. 

LXVIIL Metellus postquam de rebus Vaccas actis 
comperit, paulisper moestus e conspectu abit ; deinde, ubi 
ira et aegritudo permixta sunt, cum maxima, cura ultum 
ire injurias festinat. Legionem, cum qua hiemabat, et 
quam plurimos potest Numidas equites pariter cum oc- 
casu solis expeditos educit ; et postera die circiter horam 
tertiam pervenit in quamdam planitiem, locis paulo su- 
perioribus circumventam. Ibi milites, fessos itineris 
magnitudine, et jam abnuentes omnia, docet * oppidum 
Vaccam non amplius mille passuum abesse : decere illos 
reliquum laborem asquo animo pati, dum pro civibus 
suis, viris fortissimis atque miserrimis, posnas caperent :' 
praeterea praedam benigne ostentat. Ita animis eorum 
arrectis, equites in primo late, pedites quam artissime ire, 
et signa occultare jubet. 

LXIX. Vaccenses ubi animum advertere ad se ver- 
sum exercitum pergere, primo, uti erat res, Metellum esse 
rati, portas clausere : deinde, ubi neque agros vastari, et 
eos, qui primi aderant, Numidas equites vident, rursum 
Jugurtham arbitrati, cum magno gaudio obvii procedunt. 
Equites peditesque, repente signo dato, alii vulgum effu- 
sum oppido casdere, alii ad portas festinare, pars turres 
capere.; ira atque praedae spes amplius quam lassitudo 
posse. Ita Vaccenses biduum modo ex perfidia lsetati : 
civitas magna et opulens cuncta poenae aut prasdae fuit 
Turpilius, quern prasfectum oppidi unum ex omnibus 
profugisse supra ostendimus, jussus a Metello causam 
dicere, postquam sese parum expurgat, condemnatus 


verbe^atusque capite pcenas solvit: nam is civis ex Latio 

LXX. Per idem tempus Bomilcar, cujus impulsu Ju- 
gurtha deditionem, quam metu deseruit, inceperat, sus- 
pectus regi, et ipse earn suspiciens, novas res cupere, ad 
purmciem ejus dolum quaerere, die noctuque fatigare 
ammum. Denique omnia tentando, socium sibi adjun- 
git. Nabdalsam, hominem nobilem, magnib opibus, carum 
acceptumque popularibus suis, qui plerumque seorsum 
ab rege exercitum ductare et omnes res exsequi solitus 
erat, quae Jugurthae fesso aut majoribus adstricto superav- 
erant; ex quo illi gloria opesque mventae. Igitur utri- 
usque consilio dies insidiis statuitur : ' cetera, uti res pos- 
ceret, ex tempore parari' placuit. Nabdalsa ad exercitum 
profectus, quern inter hiberna Romanorum jussus habe- 
bat, ne ager, inultis hostibus, vastaretur. Is postquam 
magnitudine facinoris perculsus ad tempus non venit, 
metusque rem impediebat, Bomilcar, simul cupidus in- 
cepta patrandi, et timore socii anxius, ne, omisso vetere 
consilio ? novum quaereret, litteras ad eum per homines 
fideles mittit, in quis mollitiem socordiamque viri accu- 
sare, testari deos, per quos juravisset, monere, ' ne pras- 
mia Metelli in pestem converteret ; Jurgurthae exitium 
adesse; cetemm suane an Metelli virtute periret, id 
modo agitari : proinde reputaret cum animo suo, praemia 
an cruciatum mallet.' 

LXXL Sed quum has litterae allatas, forte Nabdalsa 
exercito corpore fessus in lecto quiescebat, ubi, cogni- 
tis Bomilcaris verbis, primo cura, deinde, uti asgrurn 
animum solet, somnus cepit. Erat ei Numida quid am. 
negotjorum curator, fidus acceptusque et omnium con- 
siliorum, nisi novissimi, particeps. Qui postquam alla- 



tas litteras audivit, ex consuetudine ratus opera aut in- 
genio suo opus esse, in tabernaculum introiit: dormiente 
illo epistolam, super caput in pulvino temere positam 
sumit ac perlegit, dein propere, cognitis insidiis, ad regern 
pergit. Nabdalsa post paulo experrectus, ubi neque epis- 
tolam reperit, et rem omnem, uti acta erat, cognovit, 
primo indicem persequi conatus, postquam id frustra fuit, 
Jugurtham placandi gratia accedit ; dicit * quae ipse par- 
avisset facere, perfidia clientis sui praeventa :' lacrymans 
obtestatur ' per amicitiam perque sua antea fideliter acta, 
ne super tali scelere suspectum sese haberet.' 

LXXII. Ad ea rex, aliter atque animo gerebat, placide 
respondit. Bomilcare aliisque multis, quos socios insid- 
iarum cognoverat, interfectis, iram oppresserat, ne qua 
ex eo negotio seditio oriretur. Neque post id locorum 
Jugurthae dies aut nox ulla quieta fuit : neque loco neque 
mortali cuiquam aut tempori satis credere, cives, hostes 
juxta metuere, circumspectare omnia, et omni strepitu 
pavescere, alia atque alio loco, saepe contra decus re- 
gium, noctu requiescere, interdum somno excitus, arreptis 
armis, tumultum facere ; ita formidine quasi vecordia 

LXXIIL Igitur Metellus, ubi de casu Bomilcaris et 
indicio patefacto ex perfugis cognovit, rursus, tamquam 
ad integrum bellum, cuncta parat festinatque. Marium, 
fatigantem de profectione, simul et invisum et offensum, 
sibi parum idoneum ratus, domum dimittit. Et Romas 
plebes, litteris, quae de Metello ac Mario missae erant, 
cognitis, volenti animo de ambobus acceperant. Imper 
atori nobilitas, quae antea decori, invi'diae esse : at illi 
alteri generis humilitas favorem addiderat : ceterum in 
utroque magis studia partium, quam bona aut mala suo 


moderata. Praeterea seditiosi magistrates vulgum exag« 
itare, MeteAum omnibus concionibus capitis arcessere, 
Marii virtutem in majus celebrare. Denique plebes sic 
a.'icensa, uti opifices agrestesque omnes, quorum res fides- 
q'je in manibus sitas erant, relictis operibus, frequentarent 
Manum, et sua necessaria post iJlius honorem ducerent. 
Ita, perculsa nobilitate, post multas tempestates novo 
homini consulatus mandatur ; et postea populus, a tribuno 
plebis Manilio Mancino rogatus, 'quern vellet cum Jugur- 
tha bellum gerere,' frequens Marium jussit. Sed senatus 
paulo ante Metello Numidiam decreverat : ea res frustra 

LXXIV. Eodem tempore Jugurtha, amissis arnicis, 
quorum plerosque ipse necaverat, ceteri formidine, par& 
ad Romanos, alii ad regem Bocchum profugerant, quuro 
neque bellum geri sine administris posset, et novorum 
fidem in tanta. perfidia veterum experiri periculosum 
duceret, varius incert usque agitabat ; neque illi res, neque 
consilium aut quisquam hominum satis placebat : itinera 
prssfectosque in dies mutare; modo adversum hostes, 
interdum in solitudines pergere ; saepe in fuga, ac post 
paulo in armis spem habere ; dubitare, virtuti an fide 
popularium minus crederet : ita, quocumque intenderat, 
res aaVersae erant. Sed inter eas moras repente sese 
Metellus cum exercitu ostendit. Numidse ab Jugurtha 
pro terrpore parati instructique ; dein prcelium incipitur. 
Qua in parte rex pugnae adfuit, ibi aliquamdiu certatum ; 
ceteri omnes ejus milites primo concursu pulsi fugatique. 
Romari signorum et armorum aliquanto numero, hostium 
pnuco' am potiti : nam ferme Numidas in omnibus prr.eliis 
magis pedes quam arma tuta sunt. 

7.7. ZV Ea fuga Jugurtha, impensius modo rebus suis 


diffidens, cum perfugis et parte equitatus in solitudines 
dein Thalam pervenit, in oppidum magnum et opulen 
turn, ubi plerique thesauri filiorumque ejus mull us pue 
ritiae cultus erat. Quae postquam Metello comperta sunt, 
quamquam inter Thalam flumenque proximum, spatic 
millium quinquaginta, loca arida atque vasta esse cog 
noverat, tamen spe patrandi belli, si ejus oppidi potitus 
foret, omnes asperitates supervadere, ac naTuram etiam 
vincere,aggreditur. Igkur omnia jumenta sarcinis levari 
jubet, nisi frumento dierum decern ; ceterum utres modo 
et alia aquae idonea portari. Praeterea conquirit ex agris, 
quam plurimum potest domiti pecoris, eoque imponit vasa 
cujusque modi, sed pleraque lignea, collecta ex tuguriis 
Numidarum. Ad hoc finitimis imperat, qui se post regis 
fugam Metello dederant, quam plurimum quisque aquae 
portaret: diem locumque, ubi praesto forent, praedicit. 
Ipse ex flumine, quam proximam oppido aquam supra 
diximus, jumenta onerat: eo modo instructus ad Tha- 
lam proficiscitur. Deinde ubi ad id loci ventum, quo 
Numidis praeceperat, et castra posita munitaque sunt, 
tanta repente ccelo missa vis aquae dicitur, ut ea mode 
exercitui satis superque foret. Praeterea commeatus spe 
amplior, quia Numidae, sicuti plerique in nova deditione, 
officia intenderant. Ceterum milites religione pluvia 
magis usi, eaque res multum animis eorum uid it ; nam 
rati sese dis immortalibus curae esse. Deinde postero 
die, contra opinionem Jugurthae, ad Thalam perveniunL 
Oppidani, qui se locorum asperitate munitos crediderant, 
magna atque^ insolita re perculsi, nihilo segnius bellum 
pa rare : idem nostri facere. 

TiXXVI. Sed rex. nihil jam infectum ""-I v cVo credens, 
quippe qui omnia, arma, tela, locos, tempora, denique 


naturam ipsam, ceter?s imperitantem, industria vicerat, 
cum liberis et magna parte pecuniae ex oppido noctu 
profugit. Neque postea in ullo loco ampliiis uno die ant 
una nocte moratus, simulabat sese negotii gratia prop- 
erare ; eeterum proditionem timebat, quam vitare posse 
celeritate putabat : nam talia consilia per otiuni et ex 
opportunitate capi. At Metellus, ubi oppidanos proelio 
intentos, simul oppidum et operibus et loco munitum videt, 
vallo fossaque mcenia circumvenit. Deinde locis ex copia 
maxime idoneis vineas agere, aggerem jacere, et super 
aggerem impositis turribus, opus et administros tutari. 
Contra haec oppidam festinare, parare : prorsus ab utris- 
que nihil reliquum fieri. Denique Romani, multo ante 
labore proeliisque fatigati, post dies quadraginta, quam eo 
ventum erat, oppido mod6 potiti : prasda omnis a perfugis 
corrupta. Ii postquam murum arietibus feriri resque suas 
afflictas vident, aurum atque argentum et alia, quae prima 
ducuntur, domum regiam comportant : ibi vino et epulis 
onerati, illaque et domum et semet igni corrumpunt ; et 
quas victi ab hostibus pcenas metuerant, eas ipsi volentes 

LXXVIL Sed pariter cum capta. Thala legati ex op- 
pido Lepti ad Metellum venerant, orantes, ' uti presidium 
praefectumque eo mitteret : Hamilcarem quemdam, hom- 
inem nobilem, factiosum, novis rebus studere, adversum 
quern neque imperia magistratuum neque leges valerent : 
ni id festinaret, in summo periculo suam salutem, illorum 
socios fore.' Nam Leptitani jam inde a principio belli 
Jugurthini ad Bestiam consulem et postea Romam niise- 
rant, omicitiam societatemque rogatum: deinde, ubi ea 
impetrata, semper boni fidelesque mansere, et cuncta a 

Bestia, Albino Metellcque imperata nave fecerant. Ita- 


que ab imperatore facile, quae petebant, adepti, et missff) 
ed coliortes Ligurum quatuor, et C. Anni'us prEefectus. 

LXXVIII. Id oppidum ab Sidoniis condrtum est, quo*- 
aceepimus profugos ob discordias civiles navibus in eo: 
locos venisse : ceterum situm inter duas S} 7 rtes, quibiu 
nomen ex re inditum. Nam duo sunt sinus prope in ex 
trema Africa, impares magnitudine, pari natura : quorum 
proxima terras praealta sunt ; cetera, uti fors tulit, alta, 
alia in tempestate, vadosa. Nam ubi mare magnum esse, 
et seevrre ventis ccepit, Jimum arenamque et saxa ingentia 
fluctus trahunt : ita facies locorum cum ventis simul mu- 
tatur. Syrtes ab tractu nominatae. Ejus civitatis lingua 
modo conversa connubio Numidarum : leges cultusque 
pleraque Sidonica, quae eo facilius retinebant, quod procul 
ab imperio regis cetatem agebant. Inter illos et frequen- 
tem Numidiam multi vastique loci erant. 

LXXIX. Sed quoniam in has regiones per Leptitano- 
rum negotia venimus, non indignum videtur egre.gium 
atque mirabile facinus duorum Carthaginiensium memo- 
rare: earn rem nos locus admonuit. Qua tempestate 8ar- 
thaginienses plerasque Africae imperitabant, Cyrenenses 
quoque magni atque opulenti fuere. Ager in medio 
arenosus, una specie : neque flumen, neque mons erat, 
qui fines eorum discerneret ; quag res eos in magno di- 
uturnoque bello inter se habuit. Postquam utrimque le- 
giones, item classes saepe fusae fugataeque, et alteri alteros 
aliquantum attriverant, veriti, ne mox victos victoresque 
defessos alius aggrederetur, per inducias sponsionem faci- 
unt, fc uti certo die legati domo proficiscerentur : quo in 
loco inter se obvii fuissent, is communis utriusque pop- 
uli finis haberetur.' Igitu^ Carthagine duo fratres missi, 
quibus nomen Philaenis erat, maturavere iter pergere 


Cyrenenses tardius iere. Id socordiane an easu accid- 
ent, parum cognovi : ceterum solet in illis locis tempes- 
tas haud secus atque in mari retinere. Nam ubi per luca 
a3qualia et nuda gignentium ventus coortus arenam humo 
excitavit, ea magna vi agitata ora oeulosque implera 
solet: ita, prospectu impedito, morari iter. Postquam 
Cyrenenses aliquanto posteriores se vident, et ob rem 
corruptam domi pcenas metuunt, criminari Carthaginien- 
ses ante tempus domo digressos, conturbare rem, deni- 
que omnia malle, quam victi abire. Sed quum Pceni 
aliam conditionem, tantummodo aequam, peterent, Grae- 
ci optionem Capthaginiensibus faciunt, ' ut vel illi, quos 
fines popuio suo peterent, ibi vivi obruerentur, vel eadem 
cdnditione sese, quern in locum vellent, processuros.' Phi- 
laeni, conditione probata, seque vitamque suam reipublicae 
condonavere : ita vivi obruti. Carthaginienses in eo loco 
Philaenis fratribus aras consecravere : aliique illis domi 
honores instituti. Nunc ad rem redeo: 

LXXX. Jugurtha postquam, amissa Thala, nihil satis 
firmum contra Metellum putat, per magnas solitudines 
cum paucis profectus, pervenit ad Gaetulos, genus hom- 
inum ferum incultumque, et eo tempore ignarum nom- 
inis Romani. Eorum multitudinem in unum cogit, ac 
paulatim consuefacit ordines habere, signa sequi, imperi- 
urn observare, item alia militaria facere. Prasterea ;egis 
Bocchi proximos magnis muneribus et majoribus pro- 
missis ad studium sui perducit; quis adjutoribus regem 
aggressus impellit, uti adversum Romanos bellum suscip- 
iat. Id ea gratia facilius proniusque fuit, quod Bocchus 
initio hujusce belli legatos Romam miserat, foedus et _ 
amiritiam petitum : quam rem )pportunissimam incepto 
bello pauci impediverant, eaeci avaritia, quis omnia, ho- 


nesta atque inhonesta, vendere mos erat. Etiam antea 
Jugurthae filia Bocchi nupserat. Verum ea necessitudo 
apud Numidas Maurosque levis ducitur, quia suiguli, 
pro opibus quisque, quam plurimas uxores, denas alii, 
alii plures habent, sed reges eo amplius. Ita animus 
multitudine distrahitur; nulla pro socia obtinet; pariter 
omnes viles sunt. 

LXXXI. Igitur in locum ambobus placitum exercitus 
conveniunt. Ibi, fide data et accepta, Jugurtha Bocchi 
animum oratione accendit : ' Romanos injustos, profunda 
avaritia, communes omnium hostes esse: eandem illos 
causam belli cum Boccho habere, quam secum et cum 
aliis gentibus, libidinem imperitandi, quis omnia regna 
adversa sint : turn sese, paulo ante Carthaginienses, item 
Persen regem, post, uti quisque opulentissimus videatur, 
ita Romanis hostem fore.' His atque aliis talibus dictis, 
ad Cirtam oppidum iter constituunt, quod ibi Metellus 
prsedam captivosque et impedimenta locaverat : ita Ju- 
gurtha ratus, aut, capta urbe, operse pretium fore ; aut, 
si Romanus auxilio suis venisset, proelio sese certaturos, 
Nam callidus id modo festinabat, Bocchi pacem immi- 
nuere, ne moras agitando aliud quam bellum mallet. 

LXXXII. Imperator postquam de regum societate 
cognovit, non temere, neque, uti, saepe jam victo Jugm 
tha, consueverat, omnibus locis pugnandi copiam facit 
ceterum haud procul ab Cirta, castris munitis, reges op- 
peritur ; melius esse ratus, cognitis Mauris, quoniam is 
novus hostis accesserat, ex commodo pugnam facere 
Interim Roma per litteras certior fit provinciam Numidiam 
Mario datam; nam consulem factum ante acceperat. 
Quis rebus supra bonum atque honestum perculsus, neque 
lacrymas tenere, neque moderari linguam : vir egregius 


in aliis artibus nimis molliter aegritudinem pati. Quam 
rem alii in superbiam vertebant, alii bonum ingenium 
contumelia accensum esse, multi, quod jam parta victor 
ria ex manibus eriperetur: nobis satis cognitum est, ilium 
magis honore Marii quam injuria, sua excruciatum, neque 
tarn anxie laturum fuisse, si adempta provincia alii quam 
Mario traderetur. 

LXXXIII. Igitur eo dolore impeditus, et quia stultitise 
videbatur alienam rem periculo suo curare, legatos ad 
Bocchum mittit, postulatum, ' ne sine causa hostis populo 
Romano fieret : habere turn magnam copiam societatis 
amicitiaeque conjungendas, qua3 potior bello esset : quam- 
quam opibus suis confideret, tamen non debere incerta 
pro certis mutare : omne bellum sumi facile, ceterum 
aegerrime desinere : non in ejusdem potestate initium 
ejus et finem esse ; incipere cuivis, etiam ignavo, licere ; 
deponi, quum victores velint. Proinde sibi regnoque suo 
consuleret, neu florentes res suas cum Jugurthas perditis 
misceret.' Ad ea rex saiis placide verba facit : i sese 
pacem cupere, sed Jugurthae fortunarum misereri ; si 
eadem illi copia fieret, omnia convent ura.' Rursus im- 
perator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit : ille pro- 
bare partim, alia abnuere. Eo modo saepe ab utroque 
missis remissisque nuntiis tempus procedere, et ex Me- 
telli voluntate bellum intactum trahi. 

LXXXIV. At Marius, ut supra diximus, cupientissiYna 
plebe consul factus, postquam ei provinciam Numidiam 
populus jussit, antea jam infestus nobilitati, turn vero 
multus atque ferox instare : singulos modo, modo uni- 
vorsos lajdere ; dictitare i sese consulalum ex victis illis 
spolia cepisse ;' alia praeterea magnifica pro se, et illis 
dolentia. Interim, quae bello opus erant, prima habere : 


postulare legionibus supplementum, auxilia a populis et 
regibus sociisque arcessere : praeterea ex Lalio fortissi- 
mum quemque, plerosque militias, paucos fama cognitos, 
accire, et ambiendo cogere homines emeritis stipendiis 
secum proficisci. Neque illi senatus, quamquam ad ver- 
sus jerat, de ullo negotio abnuere audebat : ceterum sup- 
plementum etiam laetus decreverat ; quia neque plebi 
militia volenti putabatur, et Marius aut belli usum aut 
studia vulgi amissurus. Sed ea res frustra sperata : tanta 
libido cum Mario eundi plerosque invaserat. Sese quis- 
que prseda locupletem fore, victorem domum rediturum, 
alia hujuscemodi animis trahebant, et eos non paulum 
oratione sua Marius arrexerat Nam postquam, omnibus, 
quae postulaverat, decretis, milites scribere vult, hor- 
tandi causa, simul et nobilitatem, uti consueverat, exag- 
itandi, concionem populi advocavit; deinde hoc modo 

LXXXY. " Scio ego, Quirites, plerosque non iisdem 
artibus imperium a vobis petere, et, postquam adepti sunt, 
gerere : primo industrios, supplices, modicos esse ; deinde 
per ignaviam et superbiam aetatem agere. Sed mihi 
contra ea videtur : nam quo pluris est, universa respub- 
lica quam consulatus aut praetura, eo majore cum illam 
administrari, quam haec peti, debere. Neque me fallit, 
quantum cum maximo beneficio vestro negotii sustine- 
atn.* Bellum parare simul, et aerario parcere ; cogere ad 
militiam eos, quos nolis offendere ; domi forisque omnia 
curare ; et ea agere inter invidos, occursantes, factiosos, 
opinione, Quirites, asperius est. Ad hoc~aiii si deliquere, 
vetus nobilitas, majorum fortia facta, cognatorum et af- 
finium opes, multas clientelae, omnia haec praesidio ad- 
sunt : mihi spes omnes in memet sitae, quas necesse est 


et virtute et innocentia tutari; nam alia infirma sunt 
Et illud intelligo, Quirites, omnium era in me con versa 
esse: aequos bonosque favere, quippe benefacta mea 
reipublicae procedunt ; nobilitatem locum invadendi quaer- 
ere. Quo mini acrius adnitendum est, ut neque vos 
capiamini, et illi frustra sint. Ita ad hoc aetatis a pue- 
ritia fui, ut omnes labores, pericula consueta habeam 
Quae ante vestra beneficia gratuito faciebam, ea uti, ac- 
cepta mercede, deseram, non est consilium, Quirites. 
Illis difficile est in potestatibus temperare, qui per am- 
bitionem sese probos simulavere : mihi, qui omnem 
aetatem in optimis artibus egi, bene facere jam ex con- 
suetudine in naturam vertit. Bellum me gerere cum 
Jugurtha jussistis ; quam rem nobilitas aegerrime tulit. 
Quaeso, reputate cum animis vestris, num id mutari 
melius sit, si quern ex illo globo nobilitatis ad hoc aut 
aliud tale negotium mittatis, hominem veteris prosapiae 
ac multarum imaginum et nullius stipendii, scilicet ut 
in tanta re ignarus omnium trepidet, festinet, sumat 
aliquem ex populo monitorem officii sui. Ita plerumque 
evenit, ut, quern vos imperare* jussistis, is sibi imperato- 
rem alium quaerat. Atque ego scio, Quirites, qui, post- 
quam consules facti sunt, acta majorum et Graecorum mil- 
itaria praecepta legere cceperint; praeposteri homines; nam 
gerere quam fieri tempore posterius, re atque usu prius 
est. Comparate nunc, Quirites, cum iHorum superbia 
me hominem novum. Quae illi audire et legere solent, 
eorum partem vidi, alia egomet gessi : quae illi litteris, ea 
ego militando didici. Nunc vos existimate, facta an dicta 
pluris sint. Contemnunt novitatem meam ; ego illorum 
ignaviam : mihi fortuna, illis probra objectantur. Quam- 
quam ego naturam unam et communem omnium existi- 


mo, seel fortissimum quemque generosissimum. Ac si 
jam. ex patribus Albini aut Bestise quasri. posset, 4 mene 
an illos ex*se,gigni maluerint,' quid responsuros creditis 
nisi, ' sese liberos quam optimos voluisse V Quod si jure 
me despiciunt, faciant idem majoribus suis, quibus, uti 
mihi, ex virtute nobilitas coepit. Invident honofi meo ; 
ergo invideant labori, innocentise, periculis etiam meis, 
quoniam per hcec ilium cepi. Verum homines corrupti 
superbia ita agtatem agunt, quasi vestros honores con- 
temnant ; ita hos petunt, quasi honeste vixerint. Nas illi 
falsi sunt, qui diversissimas res pariter exspectant, ig- 
navia3 voluptatem et prsemia virtutis. Atque etiam 
quum apud vos aut in senatu verba faciunt, pleraque 
oratione majores suos extollunt ; eorum fortia facta 
memorando clariores sese putant : quod contra est. Nam 
quanto vita illorum praeclarior, tanto horum socordia 
flagitiosior. Et profecto ita se res habet: majorum glo- 
ria posteris quasi lumen est; neque bona eorum neque 
mala in occulto patitur. Hujusce rei ego inopiam patior, 
Quirites ; verum, id quod multo prseclarius est, meamet 
facta mihi dicere licet. Nunc videte, quam iniqui sint. 
Quod ex aliena virtute sibi arrogant, id mihi ex mea non 
concedunt *, scilicet, quia imagines non habeo, et quia 
mihi nova nobilitas est, quam certe' pepensse melius est, 
quam acceptam corrupisse. Equidem ego non ignoro, 
si jam mihi respondere velint, abunde illis facundam et 
compositam orationem fore. Sed in maximo vestro bene- 
ficio, quum omnibus locis me vosque maledictis lacerent, 
non placuit reticere, ne quis modestiam in conscientiam 
duceret. Nam me quidem, ex animi mei sententia, nulla 
oratio laedere potest : quippe vera necesse est bene prae- 
dicet, falsam vita moresque mei superant. Sed quoni- 


am vestra consilia accusantur, qui mihi sumraum hono- 
rom et maximum negotium imposuistis, etiam atque etiam 
reputate, jiurn eorum poenitendum sit. Non possum, 
fidei causa imagines, neque triumphos aut consulates 
. majorum meorum ostentare ; at, si res postulet, hastas, 
vexillum, phaleras, alia militaria dona ; prasterea cicatri- 
ces ad verso corpore. • Has sunt mese imagines, hsec no- 
bilitas, non haereditate relicta, ut ilia illis, sed quae egomet 
plurimis laboribus et periculis quaesivi. Non sunt com- 
posita mea verba ; parum id facio ; ipsa se virtus satis 
ostendit : illis artificio opus est, ut turpia facta oratione 
tegant. Neque litteras Graecas didici : parum placebat 
eas discere, quippe qua£ ad virtutem doctoribus nihil prof- 
uerunt. At ilia multo optima reipublicas doctus sum, 
hostem ferire, praesidia agitare, nihil metuere nisi turpem 
famam, hiemem et aestatem juxta pati, humi requies- 
cere, eodem tempore inopiam et laborem tolerare. His 
ego praeceptis milites hortabor, neque illos arte colam, 
me opulenter; neque gloriam meam laborem illorum 
faciam. Hoc est utile, hoc civile imperium. Namque, 
quum tute per mollitiem agas, exercitum supplicio cog- 
ere, id est dominum, non imperatorem esse. Haec atque 
talia majores vestri faciendo seque remque publicam cel- 
ebravere. Quis nobilitas freta, ipsa dissimilis moribus, 
nos, illorum aemulos, contemnit ; et omnes honores, non 
ex merito, sed quasi debitos, a vobis repetit. Ceterum 
homines superbissimi procul errant. Majores eorum om- 
nia, quas licebat, illis reliqu&re, divitias, imagines, memo- 
nam sui praiclaram: virtutem non reliqueVe ; neque pote- 
rant: ea sola neque datur dono, neque accipitur. 'Sordi- 
dum me et incultis moribus' aiunt, quia parum scite con- 
vivium exorno, neque histrionem ullum, neque pluris pretii 


coquum quam villicum habeo. Qua3 mihi libet confi- 
teri, Quirites, nam ex parente meo, et ex aliis Sanctis 
viris ita accepi, munditias mulieribus, viris laborem con- 
venire; omnibusque bonis oportere plus gloriaequamdivit- 
iarum esse ; arma, non supellectilem decori esse. Quin 
ergo, quod juvat, quod carum aestimant, id semper faci- 
ant ; anient, potent : ubi adolescentiam habuere, ibi se- 
nectutem agant, in conviviis, dediti ventri et turpissimae 
parti corporis : sudorem, pulverem, et alia talia relinquant 
nobis, quibus ilia epulis jucundiora sunt. Verum non 
est ita : nam ubi se flagitiis dedecoravere turpissimi viri, 
bonorum praemia ereptum eunt. Ita injustissime luxuria 
et ignavia, pessimae artes, illis, qui coluere eas, nihil offic- 
iunt, reipublicae innoxiae cladi sunt. Nunc, quoniam illis, 
quantum mores mei, non illorum flagitia poscebant, res- 
pondi, pauca de republica loquar. Primiim omnium de 
Numidia bonum habete animum, Quirites. Nam quae ad 
hoc tempus Jugurtham tutata sunt, omnia removistis, 
avaritiam, imperitiam, superbiam. Deinde exercitus ibi 
est locorum sciens; sed mehercule magis strenuus quam 
felix ; nam magna pars ejus avaritia aut temeritate du- 
cum attrita est. Quamobrem vos, quibus militaris est 
aetas, adnitimini mecum, et capessite rempublicam : neque 
quemquam ex calamitate aliorum aut imperatorum super- 
bia metus ceperit. Egomet in agmine, in pro3lio, con- 
suitor idem et socius periculi, vobiscum adero ; meque 
vosque in omnibus rebus juxta geram. Et profecto, diis 
juvantibus, omnia matura sunt, victoria, praeda, laus # 
quae si dubia aut procul essent, tamen omnes bonos rei- 
publicae subvenire decebat. Etenim ignavia nemo im- 
mortalis factus, neque quisquam parens liberis, uti aeterni 
forent, optavit ; magis, uti boni honestique vitam exige- 


rent. Plura dicerem, Quirites, si timidis virtutem verba 
adderent ; nam strenuis abunde dictum puto." 

LXXXVI. Hujuscemodi oratione habita, Marius post- 
quam plebis animos arrectos videt, propere commeatu, 
stipendio, annis, aliis utilibus naves onerat: cum his A 
Manlium legatum proficisci jubet. Ipse interea milites 
scribere, non more majorum, neque ex classibus, sed uti 
cuj usque libido erat, capite censos plerosque. Id factum 
alii inopia bonorum, alii per ambitionem consulis memo- 
rabant, quod ab eo genere celebratus auctusque erat, ec 
homini pdtentiam qucerenti egentissimus quisque oppor- 
tunissimus, cui neque sua curae, quippe quae nulla sunt, 
et omnia cum pretio honesta videntur. Igitur Marius 
cum aliquanto majore numero, quam decretum erat, m 
Africam profectus, paucis diebus Uticam advehitur. Ex- 
ercitus ei traditur a P. Rutilio legato: nam Metellus 
conspectum Marii fugerat, ne videret ea, quae audita ani- 
mus tolerare nequiverat. 

LXXXVII. Sed consul, expletis legionibus cohorti- 
busque auxiiiariis, in agrum fe'rtilem et praeda onustum 
proficiscitur, omnia ibi capta militibus donat, dein cas- 
tella et oppida natura et viris parum munita aggreditur. ; 
proelia multa, ceterum levia, alia aliis locis facere. Inte- 
rim novi milites sine metu pugnae adesse, videre fugientes 
capi aut occidi, fortissimum quemque tutissimum, armis 
libertatem, patriam parentesque et alia omnia tegi, gloriam 
atque divitias quasri. Sic brevi spatio novi veteresque 
coaluere, et virtus omnium aequalis facta. At reges, ubi 
do adventu Marii cognoverunt, diversi in locos difficiles 
abeunt. Ita Jugurthas placuerat, speranti mox efTusos 
bostcs invadi posse, Romanos, sicuti plerosque, remoto 
nx^u, laxius licentiusque futuros. 


LXXXVIIL Metellus interea Romam profectus, con- 
tra spem suam laatissimis animis excipitur, plebi patri- 
busque, postquam invidia decesserat, juxta carus. Sed 
Marius impigre prudenterque suorum et hostium res par- 
iter attendere, cognoscere quid boni utrisque aut contra 
esset, explorare itinera regum, consilia et insidias ante- 
venire, nihil apud se remissum neque apud illos tutum 
pati- Itaque et Gaetulos et Jugurtham, ex sociis nostris 
praedas agentes, saepe aggressus in itinere fuderat, ip- 
sumque regem haud procul ab oppido Cirta armis exue- 
rat. Quae postquam gloriosa modo, neque belli patrandi 
cognovit, statuit urbes, quae viris aut loco pro hostibus 
et adversum se opportunissimse erant, singulas circum- 
venire : ita Jugurtham aut praesidiis nudatum, si ea pat- 
eretur, aut proelio certaturum. Nam Bocchus nuntios 
ad eum saepe miserat, / velle populi Romani amicitiam , 
ne quid ab se hostile timeret.' Id simulaveritne, quo 
improvisus gravior accideret, an mobilitate ingenii pacem 
atque bellum mutare solitus, parum exploratum est. 

LXXXIX. Sed consul, uti statuerat, oppida castella- 
que munita adire ; partim vi, alia metu aut praemia os- 
tentando, avertere ab hostibus. Ac primo mediocria 
gerebat, existimans Jugurtham ob suos tutandos in ma- 
nus venturum. Sed ubi ilium procul abesse, et aliis ne- 
gotiis intentum accepit, majora et magis aspera aggred] 
tempus visum est Erat inter ingentes solitudines oppi- 
dum magnum atque valens, nomine Capsa, cujus conditor 
Hercules Libys memorabatur. Ejus cives apud Jugur- 
tham immunes, levi imperio, et ob ea fidelissimi habs- 
bantur; muniti adversum hostes non mo3nibus modo et 
armis atque viris, vemm etiam multo magis locorum as- 
peritate. Nam, praeter oppido propinqua, alia on ilia vas- 


ta, inculta, egentia aquas, infesta serpentibus, quorum 
vis, sicuti omnium fevarum, inopia cibi acrior ; ad hoc 
natura serpentium, ipsa perniciosa, siti magis quam alia • 
re accenditur. Ejus potiundi Marium maxima cupido 
invaserat, quum propter usum belli, turn quia res aspera 
videbatur, et Metellus oppidum Thalam magna gloria 
ceperat, haud dissimiliter situm munitumque, nisi quod 
apud Thalam non longe a moenibus aliquot fontes erant, 
Capsenses una modo, atque ea intra oppidum, jugi aqua, 
cetera pluvia utebantur. Id ibique et in omni Africa, quae 
procul a mari incultius agebat, eo facilius tolerabatur, 
quia Numidae pleriimque lacte et ferina carne vesceban- 
tur, et neque salem neque alia irritamenta gulae quajre- 
bant : cibus illis adversum famem atque sitim, non libidint 
neque luxuriae erat. 

XC. Igitur consul, omnibus exploratis, credo, dis fre- 
tus ; (nam contra tantas difficultates consilio satis provi- 
dere non poterat ; quippe etiam frumenti inopia tentaba- 
tur, qubd Numidas pabulo pecoris magis quam arvo 
student, et quodcumque natum fuerat, jussu regis in loca 
munita contulerant ; ager autem aridus et frugum vacuus 
ea tempestate, nam asstatis extremum erat); tamen pro 
rei copia satis providenter exornat: pecus omne, quod 
superioribus diebus prasdas fuerat, equitibus auxiliariis 
agendum attribuit : A. Manlium legatum cum cohortibus 
expeditis ad oppidum Lares, ubi stipendium et commea- 
tum locaverat, ire jubet, dicitque ' se prsedabundran post 
paucos dies eodem venturum.' Sic incepto suo occultato, 
pergit ad flumen Tanam. 

XCI. Ceterum in itinere quotidie pecus exercitui per 
centurias item turmas aequaliter distribuerat, et, ex conis 

utres uti fierent, curabat: simul et inopiam frumenti 

7 # 


lenire, et, ignaris omnibus, parare, quae mox usui forent 
Denique sexto die, quum ad Humeri venturn est, maxi- 
ma vis utrium effecta. Ibi castris levi munimento posi- 
tis, milites cibum capere, atque, uti simul cum occasu 
solis egrederentur, paratos esse jubet, omnibus sarcinis 
abjectis, aqua modd seque et jumenta onerare. Dein, 
postquam tempus visum, castris egreditur, noctemque 
totam itinere facto, consedit : idem proxima facit. Dein 
tertia multo ante lucis adventum pervenit in locum tu- 
mulosum, ab Capsa non amplius duum millium inter- 
vallo, ibique, quam occultissime • potest, cum omnibus 
copiis opperitur. Sed ubi dies ccepit, et Numida3, nihil 
hostile metuentes, multi oppido egressi, repente omnem 
equitatum, et cum his velocissimos pedites cursu tendere 
ad Capsam, et portas obsidere jubet : deinde ipse inten- 
tus propere sequi, neque milites prsedari sinere. Quae 
postquam oppidani cognov£re, res trepidae, metus ingens, 
malum impro visum, ad hoc pars civium extra moenia in 
hostium potentate, coeg^re, uti deditionem facerent. Ce- 
terum oppidum incensum, Numida3 puberes interfecti, 
alii omnes venum dati, praada militibus divisa. Id facinus 
contra jus belli non avaritia neque scelere consulis ad- 
missum : sed quia locus Jugurthse opportunus, nobis aditu 
diiEcilis; genus hominum mobile, infidum ante, neque 
beneficio neque metu coercitum. 

XCII. Postquam tantam rem Marius sine ullo suorum 
incommodo patravit, magnus et clarus antea, major et 
clarior haberi coepit Omnia, non bene consulta modo ; 
verum etiam casu data in virtutem trahebantur ; milites 
modesto imperio habiti, simul et locupletes, ad coslum 
ierre ; Numidae magis quam mortalem timere ; postremo 
omnes, socii atque hostes, credere illi aut mentem divinam 


esse, aut deorum nutu cuncta portendi. Sed consul, ubi 
ea res bene evenit, ad alia oppida pergit : pauca, repug- 
nantibus Numidis, capit, plura, deserta propter Capsen- 
sium miserias, igni corrumpit : luctu atque caede omnia 
complentur. Denique multis locis potitus, ac plerisque 
exercitu incruento, aliam rem aggreditur, non eadem. 
asperitate, qua Capsensium, ceterum haud seciis diffici- 
lem. Namque haud longe a flumine Mulucha, quod Ju- 
gurthaB Bocchique regnum disjungebat, erat inter ceteram 
planitiem mons saxeus, mediocri castello satis patens, in 
immensum editus, uno perangusto aditu relicto; nam 
omnis natura, velut opere atque consulto, praeceps. Quern 
locum Marius, quod ibi regis thesauri erant, summa vi 
capere intendit. Sed ea res forte, quam consilio, melius 
gesta* Nam castello virorum atque armorum satis, mag- 
na vis frumenti et fons aquas ; aggeribus turribusque et 
aliis machinationibus locus importunus; iter castellanorum 
angustum admodum, utrimque praecisum. VineaB cum 
ingenti periculo frustra agebantur; nam quum eae paulum 
processerant, igni aut lapidibus corrumpebantur : milites 
neque pro opere consistere, propter iniquitatem loci, neque 
inter vineas sine periculo administrare : optimus quisque 
cadere aut sauciari, ceteris metus augeri. 

XCIIL At Marius, multis diebus et laboribus con- 
sumptis, anxius trahere cum animo suo, omitteretne in- 
ceptum, quoniam frustra erat, an fortunam opperiretur, 
qua saepe prospere usus fuerat. Quae quum multos dies 
noctesque aestuans agitaret, forte quidam Ligus, ex cohor- 
tibus auxiliariis miles gregarius, castris aquatum egressus, 
haud procul ab latere castelli, quod aversum prceliantibus 
erat, animum advertit inter saxa repentes cochleas : qua- 
rum quum unam atque alteram, dein plures peteret, studio 


legendi paulatim prope ad summum montis egressus est 
Ubi postquam solifudinem intellexit, more ingenii hurnani 
cupido difficilia faciendi animum vertit. Et forte in eo 
loco grandis ilex coaluerat inter saxa, paululum modo 
prona, deinde flexa atque aucta in altitudinem, quo cuncta 
gignentium natura fert : cujus ramis modo, modo eminen- 
tibus saxis nisus Ligus, in castelli planitiem pervenit, 
quod cuncti Numida3 intenti proeliantibus aderant. Ex- 
ploratis omnibus, quae mox usui fore ducebat, eadem 
regreditur, non temere, uti eseenderat, sed tentans om- 
nia et circumspiciens. Itaque Marium propere adit, acta 
edocet ; h'ortatur, ab ea parte, qua ipse eseenderat, cas- 
tellum tentet ; pollicetur sese itineris periculique ducem. 
Marius cum Ligure, promissa ejus cognUum, ex prassen- 
tibus misit ; quorum uti cujusque ingenium erat, ita rem 
difficilem aut facilem nuntiavere. Consulis animus ta- 
men paulum arrectus. Itaque ex copia tubicinum et cor 
nicinum numero quinque quam velocissimos delegit, el 
cum his, pra3sidio qui forent, quatuor centuriones, omnes- 
que Liguri parere jubet, et ei negotio proximum diem 

XCIV. Sed ubi ex prascepto tempus visum, paratis 
compositisque omnibus ad locum pergit. Ceterum illi, 
qui ascensuri erant, praedocti ab duce, arma ornatum- 
que mutaverant, capite atque pedibus nudis, uti prospec- 
tus nisusque per saxa facilius foret : super terga gladii et 
scuta verum ea Numidica ex coriis, ponderis gratia 
simul, et offensa quo levius streperent. Igitur . prsegre- 
diens Ligus sax&, et si quae vetustate radices eminebant, 
laqueis vinciebat, quibus allevati milites facilius escende- 
rent: interdum timidos insolentia itineris levare manu: 
tibi paulo asperior ascensus erat, singulos pra3 se inermes 


mittere, deinde ipse cum illorum armis sequi : quae dubia 
nisu videbantur, potissimus tentare, ac sa3pius eadem 
ascendens descendensque, dein statim digrediens, ceteris 
audaciam addere. Igitur, diu multumque fatigati, tan- 
dem in castellum perveniunt, desertum ab ea. parte, 
quod omnes, sicuti aliis diebus, adversum hostes aderant. 
Marius, ubi ex nuntiis, quae Ligus egerat, cognovit, 
quamquam toto die intentos prcelio Numidas habuerat, 
turn vero cohortatus milites, et ipse extra vineas egres- 
sus, testudine acta succedere, et simul hostem tormentis 
sagittariisque et funditoribus eminus terrere. At Nu- 
midae, sajpe antea vineis Romanorum subversis, item in- 
censis, non castelli mcenibus sese tutabantur; sed pro 
muro dies noctesque agitare, maledicere Romania, ac 
Mario vecordiarn objectare, militibus nostris Jugurthas 
servitium minari, secundis rebus feroces esse. Interim 
omnibus Romnnis hostibusque, prcelio intentis, magna" 
utrimque vi pro gloria atque imperio his, illis pro salute 
certantibus, repente a tergo signa canere : ac primo mu 
iieres et pueri, qui visum processerant, fugere ; deinde, 
uti quisque muro proximus erat, postremo cuncti, armati 
inermesque. Quod ubi accidit, eo acrius Romani in- 
stare, fundere, ac plerosque tantummodo sauciare ; dein 
super occisorum corpora vadere, avidi glorias certantes 
murum petere, neque quemquam omnium praeda mo- 
rari. Sic forte correcta Marii temeritas gloriam ex cul- 
pa invenit. 

XCV. Ceterum dum ea res geritur, L. Sulla quaestor 
cum magno equitatu in castra venit : quos uti ex Latio 
et a sociis cogeret, Romae relictus erat. Sed quoniam 
nos tanti viri res admonuit, idoneum visum est, de natura 
cultuque ejus paucis dicere : neque enim alio loco de 


Suite rebus dicturi sumus, et ^. Sisenna optime et 
diligentissime omnium, qui eas res dixere, persecutus 
parum mihi libero ore locutus videtur. Igitur Sulla 
gentis patriciae nobilis fuit, familia prope jam exstincta 
majorum ignavia : litteris Graecis ac Latinis juxta, atque 
doctissime, eruditus ; animo ingenti, cupidus voluptatum, 
sed glorias cupidior, otio luxurioso esse ; tamen ab nego- 
tiis nunquam voluptas remorata, nisi quod de uxore potuit 
honestius consuli : facundus, callidus, et amicitia facilis : 
ad simulanda negotia altitudo ingenii incredibilis : multa- 
rum rerum ac maxime pecuniae largitor. Atque illi feli- 
cissimo omnium ante civilem victoriam, nunquam super 
industriam fortuna fuit; multique dubitavere, fortior an 
felicior esset : nam, postea qua? fecerit, incertum habeo, 
pudeat magis, an pigeat disserere. 

XCVI. Igitur Sulla, ut supra dictum est, postquam in 
Africam atque in castra Marii cum equitatu venit, rudis 
antea et ignarus belli, solertissimus omnium in paucis 
tempestatibus factus est. Ad hoc milites benigne ap- 
pellare ; multis rogantibus, aliis per se ipse dare bene- 
ficia, invitus accipere, sed ea properantius quam aes 
mutuum, reddere, ipse ab nullo repetere, magis id lab- 
orare, ut illi quam plurimi deberent; joca atque seria 
cum numillimis agere ; in operibus, in agmine atque ad 
vigilias multus adesse, neque interim, quod prava am- 
bitio solet, consulis aut cujusquam boni famam loedere, 
tantummodo neque consilio neque manu priorem alium 
pati, plerosque antevenire. Quis rebus et artibus brevi 
Mario militibusque carissimus factus. 

XCVII. At Jugurtha, postquam oppidum Capsam ali- 
osque locos munitos et sibi utiles, simul et magnam pe- 
enmam amiserat, ad Bocchum nuntios mittit,. 'quam 


primum in Numidiam copias adduceret; proglii faciencfc 

tempus adesse.' Quern ubi cunctari accepit, et dubium 

belli atque pacis rationes trahere, rursas, uti antea, prox- 

imos ejus donis corrumpit, ipsique Mauro pollicetur Nu- 

"midiae partem tertiam, si aut Romani Africa expulsi, aut, 

integris suis finibus, bellum compositum foret. Eo pra> 

mio illectus Bocchus cum magna multitudine Jugurtham 

accedit. Ita amborum exercitu conjuncto, Marium jam 

in hiberna proficiscentem, vix decima parte die reliqua, 

invadunt, rati noctem, qua3 jam aderat, et victis sibi mu- 

nimento fore, et, si vicissent, nullo impedimento, quia 

locorum scientes erant; contra Romanis utrumque ca« 

sum in tenebris difficiliorem fore. Igitur simul consul ex 

multis de hostium adventu cognovit, et ipsi hostes ade* 

rant ; et priusquam exercitus aut instrui, aut sarcinas col- 

ligere, denique antequam signum aut imperium ullum 

accipere quivit, equites Mauri atque Gaetuli, non acie 

neque ullo more proslii, sed catervatim, uti quosque fors 

conglobaverat, in nostros incurrunt. Qui omnes trep- 

idi improviso metu, ac tamen virtutes memores, aut arma 

capiebant, aut capientes alios ab hostibus defensabant: 

pars equos ascendere, obviam ire hostibus : pugna latro- 

cinio magis quam. prcelio similis fieri : sine signis, sine 

ordinibus equites pedites permixti casdere alios, alios 

obtruncare ; multos, contra adversos acerrime pugnantes, 

ab tergo circumvenire : neque virtus neque anna satis 

tegere, quod hostes numero plures et undique circmfusi 

erant. Denique Romani veteres et ob ea scientes belli, 

si quos locus aut casus conjunxerat, orbes facere, atque 

ita ab omnibus partibus simul tecti et instructi host] urn 

vim sustentabant. 

XCVIII. Neque in eo tarn aspero negotiu Marius ter- 


ritus, aut magis quam antea demisso animo fuit; sed 
cum turma sua, quam ex fortissimis magis quam famil- 
iarissimis paraverat, vagari passim, ac modd laboranti- 
bus suis succurrere, modo hostes, ubi confertissimi ob- 
stiterant, invadere ; manu consulere militibus, quoniam 
imperare, conturbatis omnibus, non poterat Jamque 
dies consumptus erat, quum tamen barbari nihil remit- 
tere, atque, uti reges prseceperant, noctem pro se rati, 
acrius instare. Turn Marius ex copia rerum consilium 
trahit, atque, uti suis receptui locus esset, colles duos 
propinquos inter se occupat, quorum in uno, castris pa- 
rum amplo, fons aquas magnus erat, alter usui opportu- 
nus quia magna parte editus et prseceps pauca munimen- 
ta quaerebat. Ceterum apud aquam Sullam cum equit- 
ibus noctem agitare jubet : ipse paulatim dispersos mil- 
ites, neque minus hostibus conturbatis, in unum contra- 
hit, dein cunctos pleno gradu in collem subducit. Ita 
reges, loci difficultate coacti, proelio deterrentur ; neque 
tamen suos longius abire sinunt, sed, utroque colle mul- 
titudine circumdato, effusi consedere. Dein crebris ig- 
nibus factis, plerumque noctis barbari suo more lastari, 
exsultare, strepere vocibus, et ipsi duces feroces, quia non 
fugerent, pro victoribus agere. Sed ea cuncta Romanis, 
ex tenebris et editioribus locis farilia visu, magnoque 
hortamento erant. 

XCIX. Plurimum vero Marius imperltia hostium con- 
firmatus, quam maximum silentium haberi jubet; ne 
signa quidem, uti per vigilias solebant, canere. Deinde, 
ubi lux adventabat, defessis jam hostibus et paulo ante 
somno captis, de improviso vigiles, item cohortium, tur- 
marum, legionum tubicines simul omnes signa canere, 
milites olamorem tollere atque portis erumpere. Mauri 


atque Gaetuli, ignoto et horribili sonitu repente exciti, 
neque fugere, neque arma capere, neque omnino facere 
aut providere quidquam poterant : ita cunctos strepitu, 
clamore, nullo subveniente, nostris instantibus, tumultu 
terrore, formido, quasi vecordia, ceperat. Denique om- 
nes fusi fugatique : arma et signa militaria pleraque cap- 
ta; pluresque eo proelio quam omnibus superioribus in- 
terempti : nam somno et metu insolito impedita fuga. 

C. Dein Marius, uti cosperat, in hiberna proficiscitur, 
quae propter commeatum in oppidis maritimis agere de- 
creverat. Neque tamen victoria socors aut insolens factus, 
sed, pariter ac in conspectu hostium, quadrato agmine in- 
cedere. Sulla cum equitatu apud dextimos, in sinistra A. 
Manlius cum funditoribus et sagittariis, prceterea co- 
hortes Ligurum curabat ; primos et extremos cum expe- 
ditis manipulis tribunos locaverat. Perfugas, minime cari 
et regionum scientissimi, hostium iter explorabant. Si- 
mul consul, quasi nullo imposito, omnia providere, apud 
omnes adesse, laudare, increpare merentes. Ipse arma- 
tus intentusque, item milites cogebat ; neque secus, atque 
iter facere, castra munire, excubitum in porta, cohortes 
ex legionibus, pro castris equites auxiliarios mittere, prae- 
terea alios super vallum in munimentis locare : vigilias 
ipse circumire* non tarn diffidentia futurum, quas im- 
peravisset, quam uti militibus exaequatus cum impera- 
tore labos volentibus esset. Et sane Marius illoque aliis- 
que temporibus Jugurthini belli pudore magis quam malo 
exercitum coercebat: quod multi per ambitionem fieri 
aiebant, pars, quod a pueritia consuetam duritiam et alia, 
quae ceteri miserias vocant, voluptati habuisset: nisi ta- 
men respublica pariter ac saevissimo imperio, bene atque 
decore gesta. 



CI. Igitur quarto denique die, haud longe ab oppida. 
Cirta undiqae simul speculatores citi sese ostendunt, 
qua re hostes adesse intelligitur. Sed quia diversi rede- 
untes, alius ab alia parte, atque omnes idem significa- 
bant, consul incertus, quonam modo aciem instiuerct. 
nuilo ordine commutato, adversum omnia paratus ibi- 
dem opperitur. Ita Jugurtham spes frustrata, qui copias 
in quatuor partes distribuerat, ratus ex omnibus Eequ£ 
aliquos ab tergo hostibus venturos. Interim Sulla, quem 
primum hostes attigerant, cohortatus suos, turmatim et 
quam maxime confertis equis, ipse aliique Mauros inva- 
dunt : ceteri in loco manentes ab jaculis eminus emissis 
corpora tegere, et, si qui in manus venerant, obtruncare. 
Dum eo modo equites proeliantur, Bocchus cum peditibus, 
quos Volux filius ejus adduxerat, neque in priore pugna, 
in itinere morati, adfuerant, postremam Romanorum 
aciem invadunt. Turn Marius apud primos agebat, quod 
ibi Jugurtha cum plurimis erat. Dein Numida, cognito 
Bocchi adventu, clam cum paucis ad pedites convertit • 
ibi Latine (nam apud Numantiam loqui didiceiat) excla- 
mat, ' nostros frustra pugnare ; paulo ante Marium sua 
manu interfectum :' simul gladium sanguine oblitum osten- 
dere, quem in pugna, satis impigre occiso pedite nostro, 
cruentaverat. Quod ubi milites accep&re, magis atrpci- 
tate rei-quam fide nuntii terrentur, simulque barbari ani 
mos tollere, et in perculsos Romanos acrius incedere 
Jamque paulum ab fuga aberant, quum Sulla, profligatis 
iis, quos adversum ierat, rediens ab latere Mauris incuirit. 
Bocchus statim avertitur. At Jugurtha, dum sustentare 
suos et prope jam adeptam victoriam retinere cupit, cir- 
cumvontus ab equitibus, dextra, sinistra omnibus occisis, 
solus inter tela hostium vitabundus erumpit. Atque inter- 


im Marius, fugatis equitibus, accurrit auxilio suis, quoa 
pelli jam acceperat. Denique hostes jam undique fusi 
Turn spectaculum horribile in campis patentibus : sequi, 
fugere, occidi, cap*; equi atque viri afflicti, ac multi, 
vulneribus acceptis, neque fugere posse, neque quietem 
pati ; niti modo, ac statim concidere : postremo omnia, 
qua visus erat, constrata telis, armis, cadaveribus, et inter 
ea humus infecta sanguine. 

OIL Postea loci consul, baud dubie jam victor, perve- 
nit in oppidum Cirtam, quo initio profectus intenderat. 
E6 post diem quintum, quam iterum barbari male pug- 
aaverant, legati a Boccho veniunt, qui regis verbis ab 
Mario petivere, ' duos quam fidissimos ad eum mitteret : 
velle de suo et de populi Romani commodo cum iis dis- 
serere.' Ille statim L. Sullam et A. Manlium ire jubet. 
Qui quamquam acciti ibant, tamen placuit verba apud 
regem facere, uti ingenium aut aversum flecterent, aut 
cupidum pacis vehementius accenderent. Itaque Suila, 
cujus facundice, non setati a Manlio concessum, pauca 
verba hujuscemodi locutus : 

" Rex Bocche, magna nobis laetitia est, quum te talem 
virum di monuere, uti aliquando pacem quam bellum 
malles ; neu te optimum cum pessimo omnium Jugurtha 
miscendo commaculares ; simul nobis demeres acerbam 
necessitudinem, pariter te errantem et ilium sceieratissi- 
mum persequi. Ad hoc populo Romano jam a principio 
melius visum, amicos quam servos quasrere : tutiusquo 
rati, volentibus quam coactis imperitare. Tibi vero nulla 
opportunior nostra amicitia : primum quod procul absu- 
mus, in quo ofFcnsas minimum, gratia par, ac si prope ad- 
essemus: dein, quod parentes abunde habemus, amicorum 
neque nobis neque cuiquam omnium satis fuit. Atque 


hoc u/inam a principio tibi placuisset ! Profectd ex pop- 
ulo Romano ad hoc tempus multo plura bona accepisses 
quam mala perpessus es. Sed quoniam humanarum re- 
ran Fortuna pleraque regit, cui scilicet placuisse te et 
vim et gratiam nostram experiri, nunc, quando per illam 
licet, festina,.atque, uti ccepisti, perge. Multa atque op- 
portuna habes, quo facilius errata officiis superes. Pos- 
tremo hoc in pectus tuum demitte, nunquam populum Ro- 
manum beneficiis victum esse ; nam, bello quid valeat, 
tute scis." 

Ad ea Bocchus placide et benigne ; simul pauca pro 
delicto suo verba facit : ' Se non hostili ammo, sed ob 
regnum tutandum arma cepisse : nam Numidiae partem, 
unde vi Jugurtham expulerit, jure belli suam factam ; 
earn vastari a Mario pati nequivisse: prseterea, missis 
antea Romam legatis, repulsum ab amicitia. Ceterum 
Vetera omittere, ac turn, si per Marium liceret, legatos 
ad senatum missurum.' Dein, copia facta, animus bar 
bari ab amicis flexus, quos Jugurtha, cognita legationr 
Sulloe et Manlii, metuens id, quod parabatur, donis cor 

CUI. Marius interea, exercitu in hibernis composito. 
cum expeditis cohortibus et parte equitatus proficiscitur 
in loca sola, obsessum turrim regiam, quo Jugurtha per- 
fugas omnes presidium imposuerat. Turn rursus Boc- 
chus, seu reputando, qua? sibi duobus proeliis venerant, 
seu admoniius ab aliis amicis, quos incorruptos Jugurtha 
roliquerat, ex omni copia necessariorum quinque delegit. 
quorum et fides cognita, et ingenia validissima erant 
Eos ad Marium, ac deinde, si placeat, Romam legatos in.- 
jubet : agendarum reium, et quocirnque modo belli foixv 
ponendi licentiam ipsis permittit. Illi mature ad hiber- 


na Romanorum proficiscuntur : deinde in itinere a Gce- 
tulis iatronibus circumventi spoliatique, pavidi, sine de- 
cote ad Sullam perfugiunt, quern consul in expeuitionem 
pruficiscens pro praetore reliquerat. Eos ille non pro 
vanis hostibus, ut meriti erant, sed accurate ac liberaliter 
habuit ; qua re barbari et fa mam Romanorum avaritiaa 
falsam, et Sulla m, ob munificenti*am in sese, amicum rati. 
Nam efiamtum largitio multis ignota erat; munificus 
nemo putabatur, nisi pariter volens; dona omnia in benig- 
nitate habebantur. Jgitur qua^stori mandata Bocchipat- 
efaciunt ; simul ab eo petunt, uti fautor consultorque sibi 
adsit : copias, fidem, magnitudinem regis sui, et alia, quoe 
aut utilia, aut benevolentiag credebant, oratione extollunt : 
dein, Sulla omnia pollicito, docti, quo modo apud Marium, 
item apud senatum, verba facerent, circiter dies quadra- 
ginta ibidem opperiuntur. 

CIV- Marius postquam, confecto, quo intenderat, nego- 
tio, Cirtam redit, de adventu legatorum certior factus, 
illosque et Sullam ab Utica venire jubet, item L. Bellie- 
numpra3torem,prseterea omnes undique senatorii ordinis; 
quibuscum mandata Bocchi cognoscit, quis legatis potes- 
tas eundi Rom am ab consule, interea inducise postula- 
bantur. Ea Sullae et plerisque placuere : pauci ferociiis 
decernunt, scilicet ignari humanarum rerum, quae fluxa? 
et mobiles semper in adversa mutantur. Ceterum Mau- 
ri, impetratis omnibus, tres Romam profecti sunt, cum 
Cn. Octavio Rufo, qui quaestor sripendium in African! 
portaverat : duo ad regem redeunt. Ex his Bocchu? 
quum cetera, turn maxime benignitatem et studium Sul- 
la; libens accepit. Romae legatis ejus, postquam * errasse 
regem, et Jugurthae scelere lapsum,' deprecati sunt, ami- 
nitiam et fcedus petentibus hoc modo respondetur . " Sen- 



atus et populus Romanus beneficii et injuriae memor esse 
solot : ceterum Boccho, qudniam poenitet, delicti gratiam 
farit: foedus et amicitia dabuntur, quum meruerit." 

CV. Quis rebus cognitis, Bocohus per litteras a Mario 
petivit, ' uti Sullam ad se mitteret, cujus arbitratu de 
communibus negotiis consuleretur.' Is missus cum piae- 
sidio equitum atque peditum, item funditorum Belearium : 
praeterea iere sagittarii et cohors Peligna cum velitaribus 
armis, itineris properandi causa ; neque his secus atque 
aliis armis adversum tela hostium, quod ea levia sunt, 
muniti. Sed in itinere, quinto denique die, Volux, filius 
Bocchi, repente in campis patentibus cum mille non ara- 
plius equitibus sese ostendit ; qui temere et effuse euntes 
Sullae aliisque omnibus et numerum ampliorem vero, et 
hostilem metum efficiebant. Igitur se quisque expe- 
dire, arma atque tela tentare, intendere: timor aliquan- 
tus, sed spes amplior, quippe victoribus, et adversym eos, 
quos saepe vicerant. Interim equites exploratum pros- 
missi, rem, uti erat, quietam nuntiant. 

CVI. Volux adveniens qusestorem appellat dicitque ' se 
a patre Boccho obviam illis simul, et praesidio missum.' 
Deinde eum et proximum diem sine metu conjunct! eunt 
Post, ubi castra locata, et diei vesper erat, repente Mau- 
rus incerto vultu, pavens ad Sullam accurrit, dicitque 
i sibi ex speculatoribus cognitum, Jugurtham haud procul 
abesse :' simul, * uti noctu clam secum profugeret,' rogat 
atque hortatur. Ille animo feroci negat * se totiens fusum pertimescere : virtuti suorum satis credere: 
etiam si certa pestis adesset, mansurum potius,quamprod- 
itis, quos ducebat, turpi fuga incertaa ac forsitan post 
paulo morbo interiturae vitae parceret' Ceterum ab eo- 
dem monitus, * uti noctu proficiscerentur,' consilium appro- 


bat: ac statim 'milites coenatos esse, in castris igne& 
quam creberrimos fieri, dein prima vigilia siientio eg red i 
jubet. Jamque nocturno itinere fessis omnibus, Sulk; 
pariter cum ortu solis castra metabatur, quum equips 
Mauri nuntiant Jugurtham circiter duum millium inter- 
vallo ante consedisse. Quod postquam auditum est, turn 
vero ingens metus nostros inva4it : credere se proditos a 
Voluce et insidiis circumventos : ac fuere, qui dicerent 
manu vindicandum, neque apud ilium tantum scelus inui- 
turn relinquendum. 

CVII. At "Sulla, quamquam eadem existimabat, tamen 
ab injuria Maurum prohibet. Suos hortatur, * uti fortem 
animum gererent : saspe ante paucis strenuis adversum 
multitudinem bene pugnatum : quanto sibi in prcelio 
minus pepercissent, tanto tutiores fore : nee quemquam 
decere, qui inanus armaverit, ab inermis pedibus auxili- 
um petere, in maximo mstu nudum et caecum corpus ad 
hostes vertere.' Deinde Volucem, quoniam hostiliafac- 
eret, Jovem maximum obtestatus, ut sceleris atque per- 
fidiae Bocchi testis adesset, ex castris abire jubet. Ille 
lacrymans orare, ' ne ea crederet : nihil dolo factum, ac 
magis calliditate Jugurthoe, cui, videlicet speculanti, iter 
suum cognitum esset. Ceterum, quoniam neque ingen- 
tern multitudinem haberet, et spes opesque ejus ex patre 
suo penderent, credere ilium nihil palam ausurum, quum 
ipse filius testis adesset: quare optimum factum videri, 
per media ejus castra palam transire: sese, vel praemissis 
vel ibidem relictis Mauris, solum cum Sulla iturum.' Eu 
res, ut in tali negotio, probata : ac statim profecti, quia 
de iinproviso acciderant, dubio atque haesitante Jugurthii, 
incolumes transeunt. Deinde paucis diebus, quo ire in- 
tenderant, perventum est. 


. CVTII l'b'i cum Boccho Numida quidam, Aspar nom» 
ine, multum et familiariter agebat; praemissus ab Jugur- 
tha, postquam Sullam accitum audierat, orator, et sub- 
dole speculatum Bocchi consilia: praeterea Dabar, Mas- 
sugradae filius, ex gente Masinissae, ceterum materno 
genere impar (nam pater ejus ex concubina ortus erat) 
Mauro ob ingenii multa fcona carus acceptusque. Quern 
Bocchus fidum esse Romanis multis ante tempestatibus 
expertus, illico ad Sullam nuntiatum mittit, 'paratum sese 
facere, quae populus Romanus vellet: colloquio diem, 
locum, tempus ipse deligeret ; consulta sese omnia cum 
illo integra habere: neu Jugurthas legatum pertimesceret? 
quo res communis licentius gereretur; nam ab insidiis 
ejus aliter caveri nequivisse.' Sed ego comperior Boc- 
chum magis Punica fide, quam ob ea, quae praedicabat, 
simul Romanos et Numidam spe pacis attinuisse, multum- 
que cum animo suo volvere solitum, Jugurtham Romanis, 
an illi Sullam traderet : libidinem adversum nos, metum 
pro nobis suasisse. 

CIX. Igitur SulTa respondit, ' pauca coram Aspare 
locuturum ; cetera occulte, aut nullo aut quam paucissi- 
mis praesentibus ;' simul edocet, quae sibi responderentur. 
Postquam, sicuti voluerat, congressi, dicit * se missum a 
consule venisse quaesitum ab eo, pacem an bellum agita- 
turus foret.' Turn rex, uti praeceptum fuerat, 4 post diem 
decimum redire' jubet ; ' ac nihil etiam nunc decrevisse, 
sed illo die responsurum :' deinde ambo in sua castra 
digressi. Sed ubi plerumque noctis processit, Sulla a 
Boccho occulte arcessitur : ab utroque tantummodo fidi 
interpretos adhibentur; praeterea Dabar internuntius, 
sanctus vir et ex sententia ambobus : ac statim sic rex 


CX. " Nunquam ego ratus sum fore, uti rex maximus 
in hac terra et omnium, quos novi, privato homini gra- 
tiam deberem. Et, mehercule, Sulla, ante te cogn.tum, 
multis orantibus, aliis ultro egomet opem tuli, nullius in-, 
digui. Id imminutum, quod ceteri dolere solent, ego la> 
tor : fuerit mihi eguisse aliquando amicitiae tuae, qua apud 
animum meum nihil carius habeo. Id adeoexperiri licet* 
arrna, viros, pecuniam, postremo quidquid animo libet, 
sume, utere: et, quoad vives, nunquam tibi reditam gra- 
tiam putaveris; semper apud me integra erit: denique 
nihil, me sciente, frustra voles. Nam, ut ego existimo, 
regem armis quam munificentia vinci minus flagitiosum. 
Ceterum de republica vestra, cujus curator hue missus es, 
oaucis accipe. Bellum ego populo Romano neque feci, 
neque factum unquam volui : fines meos adversiim arma- 
tos armis tutatus sum. Id omitto* quando vobis ita pla- 
cet : gerite, uti vultis cum Jugurtha bellum. Ego Humeri 
Mulucham, quod inter me et Micipsam fuit, non egrediar, 
neque Jugurtham id intrare sinam. Praeterea, si quid 
meque vobisque dignum petiveris, haud repulsus abibis." 

CXI. Ad ea Sulla pro se breviter et modice; de pace 
et de communibus rebus multis disseruit. Denique regi 
patefecit, ' quod polliceatur, senatum et populum Roma- 
num, quoniam amplius armis valuissent, non in gratiam 
habituros; faciendum aliquid, quod illorum magis quam 
sua retulisse videretur. Id adeo in promptu esse, quo- 
niam Jugurthae copiam haberet : quern si Romanis trad 
idisset, fore, uti ill! plurimum deberetur; amicitiam 
(aidus, Nu'nidia? partem, quam nunc peteret, tunc ultra 
adven?u'ra:ri.' Rex primo negitare : *affinitate!n, cogna 
■ i 'ine n. pne'eroa fodus intervenisse: ad hoc metuere, ne, 
fluxa iide usus, popularium animos averteret, quis et Ju- 


gurtha cams, et Romani invisi erant:' denique saepius 
fatigatus, lenitur, et ex voluntate Sullae • omnia se factu- 
rum' promittit. Cetenim ad simulandam pacem, cujus 
Numida, defessus bello, avidissimus, qua3 utilia visa, con- 
ttituunt. Ita, composito dolo, digrediuntur. 

CXIL At rex postero die Asparem, Jugurthae legatum, 
appellat, dicitque * sibi per Dabarem ex Sulla cognitum, 
posse conditionibus bellum poni : quamobrem regis sui 
scntentiam exquireret/ Ille laetus in castra Jugurthae ve- 
nit. Deinde, ab i]lo cuncta edoetus, properato itinere, 
post diem octavum redit ad Bocchum, et ei nuntiat 'Ju- 
gurtham cupere omnia, quae imperarentur, facere, sed 
Mario parum fidere : saepe antea cum imperatoribus Ro- 
manis pacem conventam frustra fuisse. Cetenim Boc- 
chus, si ambobus consultum, et ratam pacem vellet, daret 
operam, ut una ab omnibus, quasi de pace, in colloquium 
veniretur, ibique sibi Sullam tradeiet. Quum talem vi- 
rum in potestatem habuisset, turn fore, uti jussu senatus 
atque populi Romani foedus fieret : neque hominem nobi- 
lem, non sua ignavia sed ob rempublicam in hostium 
potestate. relictum iri.' 

CX1I1. Haec Maurus secum ipse diu volvens tandem 
promisit. Ceterum dolo an vere cunctatus, parum com- 
perimus : sed plerumque regiae voluntates, ut vehement es, 
sic mobiles, saepe ipsae sibi adversa^. Postea, tempore et 
loco constituto, in colloquium uti de pace veniretur, Boc- 
chus Sullam modo, modo Jugurthae legatum appellare. 
benigne habere, idem ambobus polliceri : illi pariter la3ti y 
ac spei bonae pleni esse. Sed nocte ea, quae proxima fuit 
ante diem colloquio decretum, Maurus, adhibitis amicis, 
ac statim, immutata voluntate, remotis, dicitur secum 
ipse multa agitavisse, vultu corporis pariter atque animo 


varius : quas scilicet, tacente ipso, occulta pectoris pate- 
fecisse. Tamen postremo Sullam arcessiri jubet, et ex 
ejus sentential Numidae insidias tendit. Deinde, ubi dies 
advenit, et ei nuntiatum est Jugurtham haud procul 
abesse ; cum paucis amicis et quaestore nostro, quasi ob- 
vius honoris causa, procedit in tumulum facillimum visu 
insidiantibus. Eddem Numida cum plerisque necessariis 
suis inermis, uti dictum erat, accedit; ac statim, signo 
dato, undique simul ex insidiis invaditur. Ceteri obtrun- 
cati : Jugurtha Sullae vinctus traditur, et ab eo ad Marium 
deductus est. 

CXIV. Per idem tempus adversum Gallos, ab ducibua 
nostris Q. Ceepione et Cn. Manlio male pugnatum : quo 
metu Italia omnis contremuerat. Ibique et inde usque ad 
nostram memoriam Romani sic habuere : ' alia omnia 
virtuti suae prona esse ; cum Gallis pro salute, non pro 
gloria certare.' Sed postquam bellum in Numidia con- 
fectum, et Jugurtham vinctum adduci Romam nuntiatum 
est, Marius consul absens factus, et ei decreta provincia 
Gallia : isque calendis Januariis magna gloria consul tri- 
umphant. Ea tempestate spes atque opes civitatis in illo 





I. Omnes homines, qui sese student prsestare ceteris 
animalibus, summa ope niti decet, ne vitam silentio 
transeant, veluti pecora, quas natura prona atque ventri 
obedientia finxit. Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et 
corpore sita est : animi imperio, corporis servitio magis 
utimur : alterum nobis cum dis, alterum cum belJuis 
commune est. Quo mihi rectius videtur ingenii quam 
virium opibus gloriam qucerere, et, quoniam .vita ipsa, 
qua. fruimur, brevis est, memoriam nostri quam max- 
ime longam efficere. Nam divitiarum et formae gloria 
fluxa atque fragilis est ; virtus clara aeternaque habetur 
Sed diu magnum inter mortales cert amen fuit, vine cor 
poris an virtute animi res militaris magis procederet; 
nam et, prius quam incipias, consulto, et, ubi consulue- 
ris, mature facto opus est. Ita utrumque per se indigens, 
alterum alterius auxilio eget. 

II. Igitur initio reges (nam in terris nomen imperii id 
primum fuit) diversi, pars ingenium, alii corpus exerce- 
bant: etiamtum vita hominum sine cupiditate agitaba- 
Uir, sua cuique satis placebant. Postea verd quam in 
Asia Cyrus, in Graecia Lacedaemonii et Athenienses 

91 9 


ccepeVe uibes atque nationes subigere, libidinem domi- 
nandi causam belli habere, maximam gloriam in maximo 
imperio putare ; turn demum periculo atque negotiis com- 
pertum est in bello plurimum ingenium posse. Quod si 
regum atque imperatorum animi virtus in pace ita uti in 
bello valeret, aequabilius atque constantius sese res hu- 
manae haberent ; neque aliud alio ferri, neque mutari ac 
misceri omnia cerneres. Nam imperium facile his arti- 
bus retinetur, quibus initio partum est. Verum ubi pro 
labore desidia, pro continentia et sequitate libido atque 
superbia invasere, for tuna simul cum moribus immuta- 
tur. Ita imperium semper ad optimum quemque a mi- 
nus bono transfertur. Quae homines arant, navigant, 
aedificant, virtuti omnia parent. Sed multi mortales, 
dediti ventri atque sOmno, indocti incultique vitam, 
sicuti peregrinantes, transiere; quibus profecto contra 
naturam corpus voluptati, anima oneri fuit. Eorum ego 
vitam mortemque juxta aestimo, quoniam de utraque sile- 
tur. Vei*um enimvero is demum mihi vivere atque frui 
anima videtur, qui, aliquo negotio intentus, praeclari facin« 
oris aut artis bonas famam quserit. Sed in magna copia 
rerum aliud alii natura iter ostendit. 

III. Pulchrum est bene facere reipublicas ; etiam bene 
dicere haud absurdum est; vel pace vel bello clarum 
fieri licet ; et qui fecere, et qui facta aliorum scrips&re, 
multi laudantur. Ac mihi quidem, tametsi haudqua 
quam par gloria sequitur scriptorem et auctorem rerum, 
tamen in primis arduum videtur res gestas scribere : pri- 
"mum, quod facta dictis sunt exaequanda; dehinc, quia 
plerique, quae delicta reprehenderis, malevolentia et in- 
vidia dicta putant ; ubi de magna virtute et gloria bono- 
rum memores, quae sibi quisque facilia factu putat, aequo 


animo accipit; supra ea, velutl ficta pro falsis ducit. Sed 
ego adolescentulus initio, sicuti plerique, studio *ad lem- 
publicam latus sum, ibique mihi ad versa multa mere. 
Nam pro pudore, pro abstinentia, pro virtute, audacia, 
largitio, avaritia vigebant. Quae tametsi animus asper- 
nabatur, insolens malarum artium, tamen inter tanta 
vitia imbecilla aetas ambitione corrupta tenebatur; ac 
me, quum ab reliquis malis n>oribus dissentirem, nihilo 
minus honoris cupido eademque, quae ceteros, fama atque 
invidia vexabat. 

IV. Igitur ubi animus ex multis miseriis atque pericu- 
lis requievit, et mihi reliquam aetatem a republica procul 
habendam de(5revi, non fuit consilium socoxdia atque 
desidia bonum otium conterere; neque vero agrum co- 
lendo aut venando, servilibus officiis, intentum aetatem 
agere ; sed a quo incepto studioque me ambitio mala de- 
tinuerat, eodem regressus, statui res gestas populi Romani 
carptim, ut quaeque memoria digna videbantur, perscrib- 
ere ; eo magis, quod mihi a spe, metu, partibus reipub- 
licae animus liber erat. Igitur de Catilinae conjuraticTne, 
quam verissime potero, paucis absolvam. Nam id faci- 
nus in primis ego memorabile existimo sceleris atque 
periculi novitate. De cujus hominis moribus pauca prius 
explananda sunt, quam initium narrandi faciam. 

V. Lucius Catijina, nobili genere natus, fui! magna vi 
et animi et corporis, sed ingenio malo pravoque. Huic 
ab adolescentia beila intestma, caedes, rapinae, discordia 
civilis grata fuere, ibique juventutem suam exercuit. 
Corpus patiens inediae, vigiliae, algoris, supra quam cm- 
quam credibile est. Animus audax, subdolus, varius, 
cujus rei libet simulator ac dissimulator, alieni appetens. 
sui profusus, ardens in cupiditatibus ; satis eloquentiae, 


sapiential parum. Vastus animus immoderata, incredi- 
bilia, nimis alta semper cupiebat. Hunc post domina- 
tionem Lucii Sullae libido maxima invaserat reipublicae 
capiendae ; neque id quibus modis assequeretur, dum sibi 
regnum pararet, quidquam pensi habebat Agitabatui 
rftagis magisque in dies animus ferox inopia rei familiaris 
et conscientia scelerum ; quae utraque his artibus auxerat, 
quas supra memoravi. Incitabant prseterea corrupti civ- 
itatis mores, quos pessima ac diversa inter se mala, luxu- 
ria atque avaritia, vexabant. Res ipsa hortari videtur 
quoniam de moribus civitatis tempus admonuit, supra 
repetere, ac paucis instituta majorum domi militiseque, 
quomodo rempublicam habuerint, quantamque relique- 
rint, ut paulatim immutata, ex pulcherrima pessima ac 
flagitiosissima facta sit, disserere. 

VI. Urbem Romam, sicuti ego accepi, condid£re atque 
habu£re initio Trojani, qui, Aenea duce, profugi sedi- 
bus incertis vagabantur; cumque his Aborigines, genus 
horpinum agreste, sine legibus, sine imperio, liberum at- 
que solutum. Hi postquam in una mcenia convenere, 
dispari genere, dissimili lingua, alius alio more viventes 
incredibile memoratu est, quam facile coaluerint. Sed 
postquam res eorum civibus, moribus, agris aucta, satis 
prospera satisque pollens videbatur, sicuti pleraque mor- 
talium habentur, invidia ex opulentia* orta est. Igitur 
reges populique finitimi bello tentare, pauci ex amicis 
auxilio esse; nam ceteri metu perculsi a periculis abe- 
rant. At Romani domi militiaeque intenti festinare, 
parare, alius alium hortari, hostibus obviam ire, liber, 
tatem, patriam parentesque armis tegere. Post, ubi 
pericula virtute propulerant, sociis atque amicis auxilia 
portabant; magisque dandis quam accipiendis beneficiis 


amicitias parabant. Imperium legitimum, nomen im- 
perii regium habebant : delecti, quibus corpus annis m- 
firmum, ingenium sapientia validum erat, reipublicse con- 
sultabant. Hi vel aetate vel curse similitudine Patres 
appellabantur. Post, ubi regium imperium, quod initio 
conservandse libertatis atque augendse reipublicse fuerat, 
in superbiam dominationemque convertit, immutato mo- 
re, annua imperia binosque imperatores sibi fecere. Eo 
modo minime posse putabant per licentiam insolescere 
animum humanum. 

VII. Sed ea tempestate ccepere se quisque magis extol- 
lere, magisque ingenium in prompt u habere. Nam regi- 
bus boni quam mali suspectiores sunt, semperque his alie- 
na virtus formidolosa est. Sed civitas, incredibile mem- 
oratu est, adepta libertate, quantum brevi creverit : tanta 
cupido glorise incesserat. Jam primum juventus, simulac 
belli patiens erat, in castris per laboris usum militiam 
discebat ; magisque in decoris armis et militaribus equis, 
quam in scortis atque conviviis, libidinem habebant. 
Igitur talibus viris non labos insolitus, non locus ullus 
asper aut arduus erat, non armatus hostis formidolosus : 
virtus omnia domuerat. Sed glorise maximum certamen 
inter ipsos erat : sic se quisque hostem ferire, murum as- 
cendere, conspici, dum tale facinus faceret, properabat ; 
eas divitias, earn bonam famam magnamque nobilitatem 
putabant ; laudis avidi, pecuniae liberales erant ; gloriam 
ingentem, divitias honestas volebant. Memorare pos- 
sem, quibus in locis maximas hostium copias populus 
Romanus parva manu fuderit, quas urbes natura munitas 
pugnando ceperit, ni ea res longius nos ab incepto tra- 


VIII. Sed profecto fortuna in omni re dominate ; ea 



res cunctas ex libidine magis quam ex vero celebrat ob« 
scuratque. Atheniensium res gestae, sicuti ego existimo, 
satis amplaa magnificseque fuere ; verum aliquanto mino- 
res tamen, quam fama feruntur. Sed quia proven^re 
ibi scriptorum magna ingenia, per terrarum orbem Athe- 
niensium facta pro maximis celebrantur. Ita eorum, qui 
ea fecere, virtus tanta habetur, quantum verbis earn potu- 
ere extollere praaclara ingonia. At populo Romano nun- 
quam ea copia fuit, quia prudentissimus quisque nego- 
tiosus maxime erat; ingenium nemo sine corpore exer- 
cebat ; optimus quisque facere quam dicere, sua ab aliis 
bene facta laudari, quam ipse aliorum narrare malebat 

IX. Igitur domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur: 
concordia maxima, minima avaritia erat ; jus bonumque 
apud eos non legibus magis quam natura valebat. Jur- 
gia, discordias, simultates cum hostibus exercebant; cives 
cum ci vibus de virtute certabant : in supplieiis deorum 
magnifici, domi parci, in amicis fideles erant. Duabus 
his artibus, audacia in bello, ubi pax evenerat, aequitate 
seque remque publicam curabant. Quarum rerum ego 
maxima documenta haec habeo, quod in bello ssepius 
vindicatum est in eos, qui contra imperium in hostem 
pugnaverant, quique tardius, revocati, proalio excesserant, 
quam qui signa relinquere, aut, pulsi loco, cedere ausi 
erant; in pace vero, quod beneficiis magis quam metu 
imperium agitabant, et, accepta injuria, ignoscere quam 
persequi malebant. 

X. Sed ubi labore atque justitia respublica crevit, reges 
magni bello domiti, nationes ferse et populi ingentes vi 
sutacti, Carthago, aemula imperii Romani, ab stirpe in- 
teriit, cuncta maria terraeque patebant, ssevire fortuna 
ac miscere omnia ccepit. Qui labores, pericula, dubias 


atque asperas res facile toleraverant, his otium, divitiae, 
optandae alias, oneri miseriseque fuere. Igitur primo pe- 
cuniae, deinde imperii cupido crevit : ea quasi materies 
omnium malorum fuere. Namque avaritia fidem, prob- 
itatem, ceterasque artes bonas subvertit ; pro his super- 
biam, crudelitatem, deos negligere, omnia venalia ha- 
bere edocuit. Ambitio multos mortales falsos fieri sub- 
egit ; aliud clausum in pectore, aliud in lingua promptum 
habere ; amicitias inimicitiasque non ex re sed ex com- 
modo aestimare, magisque vultum quam ingenium bonum 
habere. Haec primo paulatim crescere, interdum vindi- 
cari : post, ubi contagio, quasi pestilentia, invasit, civitas 
immutata ; imperium ex justissimo atque optimo crudele 
intolerandumque factum. 

XI. Sed primo magis ambitio quam avaritia animos 
hominum exercebat, quod tamen vitium propius virtu- 
tern erat. Nam gloriam, honorem, imperium bonus et 
ignavus aeque sibi exoptant ; sed ille vera via nititur, 
huic quia bonas artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis con- 
tends. Avaritia pecuniae studium habet, quam nemo 
sapiens concupivit : ea, quasi venenis malis imbuta, cor- 
pus animumque virilem eiTeminat ; semper infinita, in- 
satiabilis est, neque copia neque inopia minuitur. Sed 
postquam L. Sulla, armis recepta republica, bonis initiis 
malos eventus habuit, rapere omnes, trahere ; domum 
alius, alius agros cupere, neque modum neque modes- 
tiam victores habere, fceda crudeliaque in cives facinora 
facere. Hue accedebat, quod L. Sulla exercitum, quern 
in Asia ductaverat, quo sibi fidum faceret, contra morem 
majorum luxuriose nimisqu^ liberaliter habuerat. Loca 
amcena. voluptaria, facile in otio feroces militurn animos 
molliverant. Ibi primim insuevit exercitus populi Ro- 


mani amare, potare, signa, tabulas pictas, vasa caelata 
mirari, ea privatim ac pub ice rapere, delubra spoliare, 
sacra profanaque omnia polluere. Igitur hi milites, post- 
quam victoriam adepti sunt, nihil reliqui victis fecere. 
Quippe secundae res sapientium animos fatigant ; nedum 
illi corruptis moribus victoriae temperarent. 

XII. Postquam divitiae honori esse ccepere, et eas glo- 
ria, imperium, potentia sequebatur, hebescere virtus, 
paupertas probro haberi, innocentia pro malevolentia 
duci coepit. Igitur ex divitiis juventutem luxuria atque 
avaritia cum superbia invasere : rapere, consumere ; sua 
parvi pendere, aliena cupere; pudorem, pudicitiam, di- 
vina atque humana promiscua, nihil pensi neque mode- 
rati habere. Operae pretium est, quum domos atque 
villas cognoveris in urbium modum exaedificatas, visere 
templa deorum, quae nostri majores, religiosissimi moi 
tales, fecere. Verum illi delubra deorum pietate, domos 

juas gloria decorabant ; neque victis quidquam prater 
injuriae licentiam eripiebant. At hi contra ignavissimi 
homines, per summum scelus omnia ea sociis adimere, 
quae fortissimi viri victores hostibus reliquerant ; proinde 
quasi injuriam facere id demum esset imperio uti. 

XIII. Nam quid ea memorem, quae, nisi his, qui videre, 
ncmini credibilia sunt, a privatis compluribus subv^ersos 
montes, maria constructa esse? Quibus mihi videntur 
luiibrio fuisse divitiae ; quippe, quas honeste habere lice- 
bat, abuti per turpitudinem properabant. Sed libido 
stupri, ganeae ceterique cultus non minor incesserat, 
* * vescendi causa terra manque omnia exquirere; 
dormire prills quam somni cupido esset; non fameni 
aut sitim, neque frigus neque lassitudinem opperiri, sed 
ea omnia luxu antecapere. Haec juventutem, ubi fa- 


miliares opes defe ;erant, ad facinora incendebant. Ani- 
mus imbutus malis artibus haud facile libidinibus care- 
bat: eo profusius omnibus modis qusestui atque sumptui 
deditus erat. 

XIV. In tanta tamque corrupta civitate Catilina, id 
quod factu facillimum erat, omnium flagitiorum atque 
facinorum circum se, tamquam stipatorum, catervas habe- 
bat. Nam quicumque impudicus, adulter, ganeo, * * 
bona patria laceraverat, quique alienum aes grande con- 
flaverat, quo flagitium aut facinus redimeret; praeterea 
omnes undique parricidae, sacrilegi, convicti judiciis, aut 
pro factis judicium timentes ; ad hoc, quos manus atque 
lingua perjurio aut sanguine civili alebat ; postremo om- 
nes, quos flagitium, egestas, conscius animus exagitabat ; 
hi Catilinse proximi familiaresque erant. Quod si quis 
etiam a culpa vacuus in amicifinin ejus inciderat, quo- 
tidiano usu atq-e illecebris facile par similisque ceteris 
efliciebatur. * ISed maxime adolescentium familiaritates 
appetebat ; eorum animi molles et aetate fluxi dolis haud 
difficulter capiebantur. Nam uti cujusque studium ex 
aetate flagrabat, aliis scorta praebere, aliis canes atque 
equos mercari ; postremo neque sumptui neque modestiae 
suae parcere, dum illos obnoxios fidosque sibi faceret. 
Scio fuisse nonnullos, qui ita existimarent, juventutem, 
quae domum Catilinae frequent abat, parum honest^ pu- 
dicitiam habuisse ; sed ex aliis rebus magis, quam quod 
cuiquam id compertum foret, haec fama valebat. 

XV. Jam primum adolescens Catilina mull a nefanda 
stupra fecerat, cum virgine nobili, cum sacerdote Vesta?, 
alia hujuscemodi contra 'us fasque. Postremo captus 
amore Aurelias Orestillas, cujus praeter formam nihil 
isnquam bonus laudavit, q od ea nubere illi dubitabat, 


rimens privignum adulta astate, pro certo creditur, necato 
filio, vacuam domum scelestis nuptiis fecisse. Quae qui- 
dem res mihi in primis videtur causa fuisse facinoris 
maturandi. Namque animus impurus, dis hominibusque 
infest us, neque vigiliis neque quietibus sedari poterat: 
ita conscientia mentem excitam vastabat. Igitur colos 
exsanguis, fcedi oculi, citus modo, modo tardus incessus ; 
prorsus in facie vul tuque vecordia inerat. 

XVI. Sed juventutem, quam, ut supra diximus, illexe- 
rat multis modis, mala facmora edocebat. Ex illis testes 
signatoresque falsos commodare ; fidem, fortunas, peric- 
ula vilia habere, post, ubi eorum famam atque pudo- 
rem attriverat, majora alia imperabat Si causa pec- 
candi in pra3sens minus suppetebat, nihilo minus insontes 
sicuti sontes circumvenire, jugulare ; scilicet, ne per 
otium torpescerent manus aut animus, gratuito potius 
malus atque crudelis erat. His amicis sociisque confisus 
Catilina, simul quod ass alienum per omnes terras ingens 
erat, et quod plerique Sullani milites, largius suo usi, rapi- 
narum et victorise veteris memores civile bellum exopta- 
bant, opprimendee reipublicae consilium cepit. In Italia 
nullus exercitus ; Cn. Pompeius in extremis terris bellum 
gerebat ; ipsi consulatum petenti magna spes ; senatus 
nihil sane intentus ; tutse tranquillseque res omnes ; sed 
ea prorsus opportuna Catilinse. 

XVII. Igitur circiter calendas Junias, L. Caesare et 
C. Figulo consulibus, primo singulos appellare; hortari 
alios, alios tentare ; opes suas, imparatam rempublicam, 
magna prasmia conjurationis docere. Ubi satis explorata 
sunt, quas voluit, in unum omnes convocat, quibus max- 
ima necessitudo et plurimum audacias inerat E6 con- 
venere senatorii ordinis P Lentulus Sura, P. A itronius, 


L Cassius Longinus, C. Cethegus, P. et Servius Sullae 
Servii filii, L. Vargunteius, Q. Annius, M. Porcius La±ca 
L Bestia, Q. Curius; praeterea ex equestri ordine M 
Fulvius Nobilior, L. Statilius, P. 3abinius Capito, C 
Cornelius: ad hoc multi ex coloniis et munieipiis, domi 
nobiles. Erant praeterea complures paulo occultius con- 
silii hujusce participes nobiles, quos magis dominationis 
spes hortabatur quam inopia aut alia necessitudo. Cet- 
erum juventus pleraque, sed maxime nobilium, Catilinse 
inceptis favebat. Quibus in otio vel magnified vel mol- 
liter vivere copia erat, incerta pro certis, bellum quam 
pacem malebant. Fuere item ea tempestate, qui cred- 
erent M. Licinium Crassum non ignarum ejus consilii 
fuisse; quia Cn. Pompeius, invisus ipsi, magnum exer- 
citum ductabat, cujusvis opes voluisse contra illius po- 
tentiam crescere, simul confisum, si conjuratio valuisset, 
facile aupd illos principem se fore. 

XVIII. Sed antea item conjuravere pauci contra rem- 
publicam, in quibus Catilina fuit. De quo, quam veris- 
sime potero, dicam. L. Tullo, M. Lepido consulibus, P. 
Autronius et P. Sulla, designati consules, legibus ambitus 
interrogati pcenas dederant. Post paulo Catilina, pecu- 
niarum repetundarum reus, prohibitus erat consulatum 
petere, quod intra legitimos dies profited nequiverat. 
Erat eodem tempore Cn. Piso, adolescens nobilis, sum- 
mae audaciae, egens, factiosus, quern ad perturbandam 
rempublicam inopia atque mali mores stimulabant. Cum 
hoc Catilina et Autronius circiter nonas Dccembres, con- 
silio communicato, parabant in Capitolio calendis Janu 
ariis L. Cottam et L. Torqualum consules interficere; 
ipsi, fascibus correpti«, Pisonem cum exercitu ad obti* 
nendas dims Hispanias mil tore. Eu re cogniia, rursus 


in nonas Februarias consilium ca?dis transtulerar>t. Jam 
turn non consulibus modo, sed plerisque senatoribus per- 
niciem machinabantur. Quodni Catilina maturasset pro 
curia signum sociis dare, eo die post conditam urbem Ro- 
manam pessimum facinus patratuin foret. Quia non- 
dum frequentes armati convenerant, ea res consilium 
dire mil. 

XIX. Postea Piso in citeriorem Hispaniam quaestor 
pro praetore missus est, adnitente Crasso, quod eum infes- 
tum inimicum Cn. Pompeio cognoverat. Neque tamen 
senatus provinciam invitus dederat ; quippe foedum hom- 
inem a republica procul esse volebat; simul quia boni 
complures presidium in eo putabant, et jam turn poten- 
tia Cn. Pompeii formidolosa erat. Sed is Piso in pro- 
vincia ab equitibus Hispanis, quos in exercitu ductabat, 
iter faciens occisus est. Sunt, qui ita dicunt, imperia 
ejus injusta, guperba, crudelia barbaros nequivisse pati ; 
alii autem, equites illos, Cn. Pompeii veteres fidosque 
clientes, voluntate ejus Pisonem aggressos ; nunquam 
Hispanos praeterea tale facinus fecisse, sed imperia saeva 
multa antea perpessos. Nos earn rem in medio relinque- 
mus. De superiore conjuratione satis dictum. 

XX. Catilina, ubi eos, quos paulo ante memoravi, 
convenisse vidct, tametsi cum singulis multa scepe egerat, 
tamen in rem fore credens uni versos appellare et cohor- 
tari, in abditam partem aedium secedit ; atque ibi omni- 
bus arbitris procul anaotis, orationem hujuscemodi hab- 

44 Ni virtus fidesque vestra spectata mibi forent, ne- 
quidquam opportuna res cecidisset; spes magna, domi- 
natio in manibus frustra fuissent : neque ego per ignava 
aut vana ingenia iucerta pro certis captarem. Siul 

CATU1NA.' 103 

quia multis et magnis tempestatibus vos cognovi fortes 
fidosque mihi, eo animus ausus est maximum atque pul- 
cherrimum facinus incipere ; simul quia vobis eadem, 
qua3 mihi, bona malaque esse intellexi : nam idem velle 
atque idem nolle, ea demum firma amicitia est. Red, 
ego quae mente agitavi, omnes jam antea diversi audistis. 
Ceterum mihi in dies magis animus accenditur, quuin 
considero, qua; conditio vitas futura sit, nisi nosmet ipsi 
vindicamus in libertatem. Nam postquam respublica m 
paucorum potentium jus atque ditionem concessit, sem- 
per illis reges, tetrarchae vectigales esse ; populi, nationes 
stipendia pendere ; ceteri omnes, strenui, boni, nobiles 
atque ignobiles, vulgus fuimus, sine gratia, sine auctori- 
tate, his obnoxii, quibus, si respublica valeret, forrnidini 
essemus. Itaque omnis gratia, potentia, honos, divitiae 
apud illos sunt, aut ubi illi : volunt ; nobis reliquere, 
pericula, repulsas, judicia, egestatem. Quae quousque 
tandem patiemini, fortissimi viri? Nonne emori per 
virtutem praestat, quam vitam miseram atque inhones- 
tam, ubi alienae superbiae ludibrio fueris, per dedecus 
amittere? Yerum enim verd, pro demn atque hominum 
fidem ! victoria in manu nobis est ; viget aetas, animus 
valet : contra illis annis atque divitiis omnia consenue- 
runt. Tantummodo incepto opus est, ceiera res ex- 
pediet. Etenim quis mortalium, cui virile ingenium 
inest, tolerare potest, illis divitias superare, quas profun- 
dant in exstruendo mari et montibus coaequandis, nobis 
rem familiarem etiam ad necessaria deesse ? illos binas 
aut amplius domos continuare, nobis larem familial em 
nusquam ullum esse? Quum tabulas, signa, toreumata 
emunt, nova diruunt, . alia asdificint, postremo omnibus 

modis pecuniam trahunt, vexant, tamen summa libidine 



divitias vincere nequeunt. At nobis est domi inopia, foris 
03s alienum ; mala res, spes multo asperior. Denique 
quid reliqui habemus praeter rniseram animam ? Quia 
igitur expergiscimini ? En ilia,* ilia, quam saepe optastis, 
libertas, praeterea divitiae, decus, gloria in oculis sita 
sunt ! fortuna omnia ea victorious praemia posuit. Res, 
tempus, pericula, egestas, belli, spolia magnifica magis, 
quam oratio mea, vos hortentur. Vel imperatore vel 
milite me utimini : neque animus neque corpus a vobis 
aberit. Haec ipsa, ut spero, vobiscum una consul agam ; 
nisi forte me animus fallit, et vos servire magis quam im- 
perare parati estis." 

XXI. Postquam accepere ea homines, quibus mala 
abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla, 
tametsi illis quieta movere magna merces videbatur, 
tamen postulare plerique, uti proponeret, quae conditio 
belli foret, quae praemia armis peterent, quid ubique opis 
aut spei haberent. Turn Catilina polliceri tabulas no- 
tr as, proscriptionem locupletium, magistratus, sacerdotia, 
rapinas, alia omnia, quae bellum atque libido victorum 
fert. Praeterea ' esse in Hispania citeriore Pisonem, in 
Mauritania cum exercitu P. Sittium Nucerinum, consilii 
sui participes : petere consulatum C. Antonium, quern 
sibi collegam fore speraret, hominem et familiarem et 
omnibus necessitudinibus circumventum : cum eo se 
consulem initium agendi facturum.' Ad hoc maledictis 
increpat omnes bonos, suorum unumquemque nominans 
laudare; admonebat alium egestatis, alium cupiditatis 
suae, complures periculi aut ignominia3, multos victoriae 
Sullanae, quibus ea praedae fuerat. Postquam omnium 
animos alacres videt, cohortatus ut petitionem suam 
curae haberent, conventual dimisit. 


XXII. Fuere ea tempestate, qui dicerent Catilinam, 
oratione habita, quum ad jusjurandum popularos sceleris 
sui adigeret, humani corporis sanguinem vino permix- 
tum in pateris circumtulisse ; inde, quum post exsecra- 
fcionem omnes degustavissent, sicuti in solemnibus sa- 
cris fieri consuevit, aperuisse consilium suum ; atque eo, 
dictitare, fecisse, quo inter se magis fidi forent, alius alii 
tanti facinoris conscii. Nonnulli ficta et haec et multa 
prasterea existimabant ab iis, qui Ciceronis invidiam, qua3 
postea orta est, leniri credebant atrocitate sceleris eorum, 
qui pcenas dederant. Nobis ea res pro magnitudine pa- 
rum comperta est. 

XXIII. Sed in ea conjuratione fuit Q. Curius, natus 
haud obscuro loco, flagitiis atque facinoribus coopertus ; 
quern censores senatu probri gratia moverant. Huic 
homini non minor vanitas inerat quam audacia: neque 
reticere, quae audierat, neque suamet ipse scelera occul- 
tare ; prorsus neque dicere neque facere quidquam pensi 
habebat. Erat ei cum Fulvia, muliere nobili, stupri vetus 
consuetudo : cui quum minus gratus esset, quia inopia 
minus largiri poterat, repente glorians maria montesque 
polliceri ccepit ; minari interdum ferro, nisi obnoxtia foret; 
p^stremd ferocius agitare, quam solitus erat. At Fulvia, 
insolentise Curii causa cognita, tale periculum reipublicse 
haud occultum habuit ; sed, sublato auctore, de Catilince 
conjuratione, quae quoque modo audierat, compluribus 
narravit. Ea res in primis studia hominum accendit ad 
ronsulatum mandandum M. Tullio Ciceroni. Namque 
antea pleraque nobilitas invidia aestuabat, et quasi pollui 
consulatum credebant, si eum quamvis egregius homo 
novus adeptus foret. Sed ubi periculum advenit, invidia 
atque superbia post fuere. 


XXIV. Igitur, comitiis habitis, consoles declarantur 
M. Tullius et C. Antonius ; quod factum primo populares 
conjurationis concusserat. Neque tamen Catilinae furor 
minuebatur, sed in dies plura agitare, arma per Italiam 
locis opportunis parare, pecuniam sua aut amicorum fide 
sumptam mutuam Faesulas ad Manlium quemdam por- 
tare, qui postea princeps fuit belli faciendi. Ea tempes- 
tate plurimos cujusque generis homines adscivisse sibi 
dicitur, mulieres etiam aliquot, quae primo ingentes sump- 
tus stupro corporis toleraverant, post, ubi aetas tantum- 
modo qucestui neque luxuries modum fecerat, aes alienum 
grande confiaverant. Per eas se Catilina credebat posse 
servitia urbana sollicitare, urbem incendere, viros earum 
vel adjungere sibi, vel interficere. 

XXV. Sed in his erat Sempronia, quag multa saepe 
virilis audaciae facinora commiserat. Haec mulier genere 
atque forma, praeterea viro atque liberis satis fortunata 
fuit : litteris Graecis atque Latinis docta, psallere et sal- 
tare elegantius, quam necesse est probae, multa alia, 

.quae instrumenta luxuries sunt. Sed ei cariora semper 
omnia quam decus atque pudicitia fuit : pecuniae an 
famas minus parceret, hand facile discerneies; libidine 
sic accensa, ut saepius peteret viros, quam peteretur. Sed 
ea saepe antehac fidem prodiderat, creditum abjuraverat, 
caedis conscia fuerat, luxuria atque inopia praeceps abie- 
raL Verum ingenium ejus haud absurd um ; posse ver- 
sus facere, jocum move re, sermone uti vel modesro, ve) 
molli, vel procaci; prorsus mubae facetiae mull usque lepos 

XXVI. His rebus comparatis, Catilina nihilo minus in 
proximum annum consulatum pe'ehat ; sperans, si desig- 
nates foret, facile se ex voluntate Antonio usurum. Ne- 


que interea quietus erat, sed omnibus modis insidias 
parabat Ciceroni. Neque illi tamen ad cavenduni dolus 
aut astutiae deerant Namque a principo consulates sui, 
multa pollicendo per Fulviam, effecerat, ut Q. Curius, 
de quo paulo ante memoravi, consilia Calilinse sibi prod- 
eret. Ad hoc collegam suum Antonium pactione pro- , 
yincise perpulerat, ne contra rempublicam sentiret: cir- 
5um se praesidia amicorum atque clientium occulte habe- 
bat. Postquam dies comitiorum venit, et Catilinas neque 
petitio neque insidias, quas consuli in campo fecerat, pros- 
pered cessere, constituit bellum facere, et extrema omnia 
experiri, quoniam quae occulte tentaverat, aspera fcedaque 

XXVII. Igitur C. Manlium Fsssulas atque in earn 
partem Etruriae, Septimium quemdam Camertem in 
agrum Picenum, C. Julium I in Apuliam dimisit; prse- 
terea alium alio, quern ubique opportunum sibi fore cre- 
debat. Interea Romae multa simul moliri ; consuli in- 
sidias tendere, parare incendia, opportuna loca armatis 
hominibus obsidere, ipse cum telo esse, item alios ju- 
bere, hortari, uti semper intenti paratique essent, dies 
noctesque festinare, vigilare, neque insomniis neque la- 
bore fatigari. Postremo ubi multa agitanti nihil proce- 
dit, rursus intempesta nocte conjurationis principes con- 
vocat per M. Porcium Loecam, ibique multa de ignavia 
eorum questus. docet * se Manlium praemisisse ad earn 
multitudinem, quam ad capienda arma paraverat, item 
alios in alia loca opportuna, qui initium belli facerent, 
seque ad exercitum proficisci cupere, si prius Ciceronem 
oppressisset ; eum suis consiliis multum officere.' 

XXVIII. Igitur perterritis ac dubitantibus ceteris, C. 

Cornelius, eques Romanus, opera m suam pollicitus, et 


cum co L. Vargunteius senator, constitute ea nocte 
paulo post cum armatis hominibus, sicuti salutatum, in- 
troirc ad Ciceronem, ac de improviso domi suae impara- 
tum confodere. Curius ubi intelligit, quantum periculi 
consuli impendeafc, propere per Fulviam Ciceroni dolum, 
qui parabatur, enuntiat. Ita illi, janua prohibiti, tantum 
facinus frustra susceperant. 

Interea Manlius in Etruria plebem sollicitare, egestate 
simul ac dolore injuriae no varum rerum cupidam, quod 
Suite dominatione agros bonaque omnia amiserat ; prse- 
terea latrones cuj usque generis, quorum in ea regione 
magna copia erat ; nonnullos ex Sullanis colonis, quibus 
libido atque luxuria ex magnis rapinis nihil reliqui fec- 

XXIX. Ea quum Ciceroni nuntiarentur, ancipiti malo 
permotus, quod neque urbelm ab insidiis privato consilio 
longius tueri poterat, neque exercitus Manlii quantus aut 
quo consilio foret, satis compertum habebat, rem ad se- 
natum refert, iarm antea vul^i rumoribus exagitatam. 
Itaque, quod plerumque in atroci negotio solet, senatus 
decrevit, ' darent operam consules, ne quid respublica 
detrimenti caperet.' Ea potestas per senatum, moie Ro- 
mano, magistratui maxima permittitur> exercitum parare. 
bellum gerere, coercere omnibus modis socios atque cives, 
domi militiaeque imperium atque judicium summum ha- 
bere ; aliter sine populi jussu nulli earum rerum consuli 
jus est. 

XXX. Post paucos dies L. Sasnius senator in senatu 
litteras recitavit, quas Faesulis allatas sibi dicebat, in 
quibus scriptum erat * C. Manlium arma cepisse cum 
magna multitudine, ante diem sextum calendas Novem- 
bres.' Simul, id quod in tali re solet. alii portenta atque 


prodigia nuntiabant, alii ' conventus fieri, arma portnri 
Capuas atque in -Apulia servile bellum moveri.' Jgirur 
senati decreto Q. Marcius Rex Faesulas, Q. Metellus 
Creticus in Apuliam circumque loca missi : ni utrique ail 
urbem imperatores erant, impediti, ne triumpharent, ea- 
lumnia paucorum, quibus omnia, honesta atque inhones- 
ta, vendere mos erat. Sed prastores Q. Pompeius Ru- 
fus Capuam, Q. Metellus Celer in agrum Picenum ; bis- 
que permissum, ' uti pro tempore atque periculo exerci- 
tum compararent.' Ad hoc, ' si quis indicavisset de con- 
juratione, quae contra rempublicam facta erat, praemium' 
decrevere 'servo libertatem et sestertia centum, Jibero 
impunitatem ejus rei et sestertia ducenta ;' itemque dec- 
revere, ' uti gladiatoriae familiae Capuam et in cetera 
municipia distribuerentur, pro, cujusque opibus ; Romas 
per totam urbem vigiliaa haberentur, bisque minores 
magistratus praaessent.' 

XXXI. Quibus rebus permota ci vitas, atque immu- 
tata urbis facies erat; ex summa laetitia atque lasciviA, 
quae diuturna quies pepererat, repente omnes tristitia in- 
vasit ; festinare, trepidare ; neque loco nee homini cui- 
quam satis credere ; neque bellum gerere, neque pacem 
habere; suo quisque metu pericula metiri. Ad hoc mu- 
lieres, quibus reipublicae magnitudine belli timor insolitus 
iucesserat, afflictare sese, manus supplices ad cesium ten- 
dere, miserari parvos liberos, rogitare, omnia pavere, su- 
perbia atque deliciis omissis, sibi patriseque diffidere. At 
Catilinae crudelis animus eadem ilia movebat, tarnetsi 
praesidia parabantur, et ipse lege Plautia interrogate 
erat ab L. Paulo. Postremo dissimulandi causa et ut 
sui expurgandi, sicuti jurgio lacessitus foret, in senatum 
venit. Turn M. Tullius consul, sive praesentiam ejus 


timens, sive ira commotus, orationem habuit luculentam 
atque utilem reipublicas, quam postea scriptam edidit.^ 
Sed, ubi ille assedit, Catilina, ut erat paratus ad dissimu- 
landa omnia, demisso vultu, voce supplici postulare, 
* patres conscripti ne quid de se temere crederent : ea 
familia, ortum, ita ab adolescentia vitam instituisse, ut 
omnia bona in spe haberet : ne existimarent, sibi, patric- 
io homini, cujus ipsius atque majorum plurima beneficia 
in plebem Romanam essent, perdita republica. opus esse, 
quum earn servaret M. Tullius, inquilinus civis urbis 
Romae.' Ad heec maledicta alia quum adderet, obstrepere 
omnes, hostem atque parricidam vocare. Turn ille furi- 
bundus : "Quoniam quidem circumventus," inquit, "ab ini- 
micis praeceps agor, incendium meum ruina restinguam." 

XXXII. Dein se ex curia, domum proripuit. Ibi multa 
secum ipse volvens, quod neque insidiae consuli proeede- 
bant, et ab incendio intelligebat urbem vigiliis munitam, 
optimum factum credens exercitum augere, ac, prius 
quam legiones scriberentur, antecapere, quae bello usui 
forent, nocte intempesta cum paucis in Manliana castra 
profectus est. Sed Cethego atque Lentulo ceterisque, 
quorum cognoverat promptam audaciam, mandat, 'quibus 
rebus possent, opes factionis confirment, insidias consuli 
maturent, caedem, incendia, aliaque belli facinora parent : 
sese propediem cum magno exercitu ad urbem accessu- 
rum.' Dum ha3C Romae geruntur, C. Manlius ex suo 
numero legatos ad Marcium Regern mittit, cum manda- 
tis hujuscemodi : 

XXXIII. " Deos hominesque testamur, imperator, nos 
arma neque contra patriam cepisse, neque quo periculum 
aiiis faceremus, sed uti corpora nostra ab injuria tuta 
forent, qui miseri, egentes, violentia atque crudelitate 


foeneratorum plcrique patriae, sed omnes fama atque for- 
tunis expertes sumus : neque cuiquam nostrum licuit 
more majorum lege uti, neque, amisso patrimonio, iibe- 
rum corpus habere : tanta saevitia foeneratorum atque 
prsetoris fuit. Ssepe majores vestrum miseriti plebis 
Romanae, decretis suis inopiae opitulati sunt : ac novis- 
sime memoria nostra, propter magnitudinem aeris alieni, 
volentibus omnibus bonis, argentum acre solutum est. 
Saepe ipsa plebes, aut dominandi studio permota, aut su- 
perbia magistratuum, armata a patribus secessit. At nos 
. non imperium neque divitias petimus, quarum rerum 
causa, bella atque certamina omnia inter mortales sunt, 
sed libertatem, quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima. simul 
amittit. Te atque senatum obtestamur, consulatis mise- 
ris civibus ; legis praesidium, quod iniquitas praetoris eri- 
puit, restituatis ; neve earn nobfjs necessitudinem impona- 
tis, ut quaeramus, quonam modo, maxime ulti sanguinem 
nostrum, pe ream us." 

XXXIV. Ad haec Q. Marcius respondit : 'Si quid ab 
senatu petere vellent, ab armis discedant, Romam sup* 
plices proficiscantur : ea mansuetudine atque misericor- 
dia senatum populumque Romanum semper fuisse, ut 
nemo unquam ab eo frustra auxilium petiverit.' At 
Catilina ex itinere plerisque consularibus, praeterea optimo 
cuique litteras mittit : i Se falsis criminibus circumventum, 
quoniam factioni inimicorum resistere nequiverit, fortuna> 
ceciere, Massiliam in exsiiium proficisci: non quo sibi tanti 
sceleris conscius esset, sed uti respublica quieta foret, neve 
ex sua con'entione seditio oriretur.' Ab his longe diversas 
litteras Q. Catulus in senatu recitavir, quas sibi nomine 
ratilinre redditas dicebat : earum exemrlum infra scrip- 
turn est. 


XXXV. " L. Catilina Q. Catulo. Egregia tua fides 
re cognita gratam in magnis meis periculis fiduciam com- 
mendationi meae tribuit. Quamobrem defensionem in 
novo consilio non statui parare : satisfactionem ex nulla 
eonscientia de culpa, proponere decrevi : quam me dius 
fidius veram licet cognoscas. Injuriis contumeliisque 
concitatus, quod, fructu laboris industriaeque meae priva- 
tus, staturn dignitatis non obtinebam, publicam misero- 
r urn causam pro mea consuetudine suscepi : non quin 
aes alienum meis nominibus ex possessionibus solvere 
possem, quum et alienis nominibus liberalitas Orestillas 
suis filiaeque copiis persolveret; sed quod non dignos 
homines honore honestatos videbam, meque falsa sus- 
picione alienatum esse sentiebam. Hoc nomine satis 
honestas pro meo casu spes reliquas dignitatis conservan- 
dae sum secutus. Plura jquum scribere vellem, nurtia- 
tum est vim mihi parari. Nunc Orestillam commendo, 
tuaeque fidei trado : earn ab injuria defendas, per libe- 
ros tuos rogatus. Haveto." 

XXXVI. Sed ipse paucos dies commoratus apud C 
Flaminium in agro Arretino, dum vicinitatem, antea sol- 
licitatam, armis exornat; cum fascibus atque aliis impe- 
rii insignibus in castra ad Manlium contendit. Hsec ubi 
Romee comperta sunt, senatus Catilinam et Manlium 
hostes judicat ; ceteree multitudini diem statuit, ante quam 
sine fraude liceret ab armis discedere, pra3ter rerum capi- 
talium condemnatis. Prasterea decernit, *uti consules de- 
lectum habeant; Antonius cum exercitu Catilinam perse- 
qui maturet; Cicero urbi praesidio sit.' Ea tempest ate 
mihi imperium populi Romani multo maxime misecabile 
visum est *. cui quum ad occasum ab ortu solis omnia 
domita armis parerent, domi -otium atque divitiae, quae 


prima mortales putant, affluerent, fuere tamen cives, qui 
seque remque publicam obstinatis animis perditum irent . 
Namque duobus senati decretis, ex tanta multitadine, ne- 
que prsemio inductus conjurationem patefecerat, neque ex 
castris Catilinse quisquam omnium discesserat : tanta vis 
morbi, uti tabes, plerosque civium animos invaserat. 

XXXVII. Neque solum illis aliena mens erat, qui 
conscii conjurationis fuerant, sed omnino cuncta plebes 
novarum rerum studio Catilinse incepta probabat Id 
adeo more suo videbatur facere. Nam semper in civi- 
tate, quibus opes nullse sunt, bonis invident, malos ex- 
tollunt; vetera odere, nova exoptant; odio suarum re- 
rum mutari omnia student ; turba atque seditionibus 
sine cura aluntur, quoniam egestas facile habetur sine 
damno. Sed urbana plebes, ea vero prseceps ierat mul- 
tis de causis. Primum omnijiim, qui ubique probro at- 
que petulantia. maxime prasstabant, item alii, per dedec- 
ora patrimoniis amissis, postremo omnes, quos flagitium 
aut facinus domo expulerat, hi Romam, sicuti in senti- 
nam, confluxerant. Deinde multi memores Sullana? 
victoria?, quod ex gregariis militibus alios senatores vide- 
bant, alios ita divites, uti regio victu atque cultu setatem 
agerent, sibi quisque, si in armis forent, ex victoria talia 
sperabant. Prseterea juventus, quae in agris manuum 
mercede inopiam toleraverat, privatis atque publicis lar- 
gitionibus excita, urbanum otium ingrato labori prastule- 
rat : eos atque alios omnes malum publicum alebat 
Quo minus mirandum est homines egentes, malis mori- 
bus, maxima spe, reipublicse juxta ac sibi consuluisse, 
Praeterea quorum victoria Sullae parentes proscripti 
bona erepta, jus libertatis imminutum erat, haud sane 1 
alio animo belli eventum exspectabant. Ad hoc qui- 



cumque aliarum atque senati partium erant, conturBari 
-rempublicam, quam minus valere ipsi malebant. Id adeo 
malum multos post annos in civitatem reverterat. 

XXXVIII. Nam postquam, Cn. Pompeio et M. Cras 
so consulibus, tribunicia potestas restituta est, homines 
adolescentes, summam potestatem nacti, quibus aotas 
animusque ferox erat, coepere senatum criminando ple- 
bem exagitare ; dein largiendo atque pollicitando magis 
incendere ; ita ipsi elari potentesque fieri. Contra eos 
summa ope nitebatur pleraque nobilitas, senati specie, 
pro sua magnitudine. Namque, uti paucis verum ab 
solvam, per ilia tempora quicumque rempublicam agi 
t.avere, honestis nominibus, alii, sicuti populi jura defen- 
clerent, pars, quo senati auctoritas maxima foret, bonum 
publicum simulantes, pro sua quisque potentia certabant 
neque illis modestia, nequ)3 modus contentionis erat ; u 
trique victoriam crudeliter exercebant. 

XXXIX. Sed postquam Cn. Pompeius ad bellum 
maritimum atque Mithridaticum missus est, plebis opes 
imrninutae, paucorum potentia crevit. Hi magistratus, 
provincias aliaque omnia tenere ; ipsi innoxii, rlorentes, 
sine metu setatem agere, ceteros judiciis terrere, qui 
plebem in magistratu placidius tractarent. Sed ubi pri- 
miim dubiis rebus novandi spes oblata est, vetus cer 
tamen animos eorum arrexit. Quod si primo proeiio 
Catilina superior aut cequa manu discessisset, profecto 
magna clades atque calamitas rempublicam oppressisset ; 
neque illis, qui victoriam adepti forent, diutius ea uti 
licuisset, quin defessis et exsanguibus, qui plus posset, 
imperium atque libertatem extorqueret. Fuere tamen 
extra conjurationem complures, qui ad Catilinam initio 
profecti sunt: in his erat A. Fuivius, senatoris filius. 


quSm retractum ex itinere parens necari jussit. Isdem 
temporibus Roma3 Lentulus, sicuti Catilina praeceperat, 
quoscumque moribus aut fortuna novis rebus idoneos 
credebat, aut per se aut per alios sollicitabat ; neque 
solum cives, sed cujusque modi genus hominum quod 
modo bello usui foret. 

XL. Igitur P. Umbreno cuidam negotium dat, uti le- 
gates Allobrogum requirat, eosque, si possit, impellat ad 
societatem belli; existimans publice privatimque a3re 
alieno oppressos, praeterea, quod natura gens Gallica bel- 
licosa esset, facile eos ad tale consilium adduci posse. 
Umbrenus, quod in Gallia negotiatus erat, plerisque prin- 
cipibus civitatium notus erat, atque eos noverat : itaque 
sine mora, ubi primum legatos in foro conspexit, percon- 
tatus pauca de statu civitatis, et quasi dolens ejus casum, 
requirere coepit, ' quern exituni tantis malis sperarent V 
Postquam illos videt queri de avaritia magistratuum, 
accusare senatum, quod in eo auxilii nihil esset ; miseriis 
suis remedium mortem exspectare : "At ego," inquit, 
" vobis, si modo viri esse vultis, rationem ostendam, qua 
tanta ista.mala effugiatis." Hasc ubi dixit, Allobroges in 
maximam spem adducti Umbrenum orare, uti sui miser- 
eretur : * nihil tarn asperum neque tarn difficile esse, quod 
non cupidissime facturi essent, dum ea res civitatem cere 
alieno liberaret.' Ille eos in domum D. Bruti perducit, 
quod foro propinqua erat, neque aliena consilii, propter 
Semproniam; nam turn Brutus ab Roma aberat. Prae- 
terea Gabinium arcessit, quo major auctoritas sermoni 
inesset. Eo preesente, conjurationem aperit ; nominat 
socios, praeterea multos cujusque generis innoxios, quo 
legatis animus amplior esset : deinde eos pollicitos ope- 
rani suam domum dimittit. 



XLI. Sed Allobroges diu in incerto habuere, quidifarn 
consilii caperent. In altera parte erat aes alienum, sta- 
dium belli, magna merces in spe victoriae; at in altera 
majores opes, tuta consilia, pro incerta spe certa prsemia 
Haec illis volventibus, tandem vicit fortuna reipublicae. 
Itaque Q. Fabio Sangse, cujus patrocinio civitas pluri- 
mum utebatur, rem omnem, uti cognoverant, aperiunt. 
Cicero, per Sangam consilio cognito, legatis praecepit, ut 
studium conjurationis vehementer simulent, ceteros ade- 
ant, bene polliceantur, dentque operam, ut} eos quam 
maxime manifestos habeant. 

XLII. Isdem fere temporibus in Gallia citeriore atque 
ulteriore, item in agro Piceno, Bruttio, Apulia motus erat. 
Namque illi, quos antea Catilina dimiserat, inconsulte 
ac veluti per dementiam cuncta simul . agebant : noctur- 
nis eonsiliis, armorum at(|ue telorum portationibus, festi- 
nando, agitando omnia, plus timoris quam periculi efFece- 
rant. Ex eo numero complures Q. Metellus Celer prae- 
tor ex senati consultu, causa cognita, in vincula con* 
jecerat ; item in ulteriore Gallia C. Murena, qui ei pro- * 
vinciag legatus praeerat. 

XLIII. At Romae Lentulus cum ceteris, qui principes 
conjurationis erant, paratis, ut videbantur, magnis copiis, 
constituerant, uti, quum Catilina in agrum Faesulanum 
cum exercitu venisset, L. Bestia tribunus plebis, con- 
cione habita, quereretur de actionibus Ciceronis, bellique 
gravissimi invidiam optimo consuli imponeret ; eo signo, 
proxima nocte cetera multitudo conjurationis suum quis- 
que negotium exsequeretur. Sed ea divisa hoc modo 
dicebantur, Statilius et Gabinius uti cum magna manu 
duodecim simul opportuna loca urbis incenderent, quo 
tumultu facilior aditus ad consulem ceterosque, quibus 


insidiag parabantur, fieret; Cethegus Ciceronis januam 
obsideret, eumque vi aggrederetur, alius autem alium; 
sed filii familiarum, quorum ex nobilitate maxima pars 
erat, parentes interficerent ; simul, csede et incendio per- 
culsis omnibus, ad Catilinam erumperent. Inter haec 
parata atque decreta Cethegus semper querebatur de ig- 
navia sociorum: ■' illos dubitando et dies prolatando mag- 
nas opportunitates corrumpere ; facto, non consulto in tali 
periculo opus esse ; seque, si pauci adjuvarent, languen- 
tibus aliis, impetum in curiam facturum.' Natura ferox, 
vehemens, manu promptus erat; maximum bonum in 
celeritate putabat. 

XLIV. Sed Allobroges ex prsecepto Ciceronis per Ga- 
binium ceteros conveniunt; ab Lentulo, Cethego, Sta- 
tilio, item Cassio postulant jusjurandum, quod signatum 
ad cives perferant : ' aliter hai6d facile eos ad tantum ne- 
gotium impelli posse.' Ceteri nihil suspicantes dant; 
Cassius semet eo brevi venturum pollicetur, ac paulo ante 
legatos ex urbe proficiscitur. Lentulus cum his T. Vol- 
turcium quemdam Crotoniensem mittit, uti Allobroges, 
prius quam domum pergerent, cum Catilina, data et ac- 
cepta fide, societatem confirmarent. Ipse Volturcio' lit 
teras ad Catilinam dat, quarum exemplum infra scriptum 

" Quis sim, ex eo, quern ad to misi, cognosces. Fac 
cogites, in quanta calamitate sis, et memineris te virum 
esse ; consideres, quid tuse rationes postulent : auxilium 
petas ab omnibus, etiam ab infimis." 

Ad hoc mandata verbis dat : ' quum ab senatu hostis 
judicutus sit, quo consilio servitia repudiet ? in urbe pa- 
rata esse, quae jusserit; ne cunctetur ipse propius acced- 


XLV. His rebus ita actis, constitute node, qu& prof 
iciscerentur, Cicero, per legatos cuncta edoctus, L. Va« 
lerio Flacco et C. Pomptino praetoribus imperat, uti in 
ponte Mulvio per insidias Allobrogum comitatus depre- 
hendant; rem omnem aperit, cujus gratia mittebantur; 
cetera, utl facto opus sit, ita agant, permittit. Illi, hom- 
ines militares, sine tumultu praesidiis collocatis, sicuti 
praeceptum erat, occulte pontem obsidunt. Postquam 
ad id loci legati cum Volturcio venerunt, et simul utrim- 
que clamor exortus est, Galli, cito cognito consilio, sine 
mora praetoribus se tradunt. Volturcius primo, cohorta- 
tus ceteros, gladio se a multitudine defendit ; deinde, ubi 
a legatis desertus est, multa prius de salute sua Pompti- 
num obtestatus, quod ei notus erat, postremo timidus ac 
vitae diffidens, velut hostibus sese praetoribus dedit. 

XL VI. Quibus rebus ^onfectis, omnia propere per 
nuntios consuli declarantur. At ilium ingens cura atque 
laetitia simul occupavere : nam laetabatur, intelligens, 
conjuratione patefacta, civitatem periculis ereptam esse : 
porro autem anxius erat, dubitans, in maximo scelere ' 
tantis civibus deprehensis, quid facto opus esset ;■ pcenam 
iilorum sibi oneri, impunitatem perdendae reipublicae fore 
credebat. Igitur, confirmato animo, vocari ad sese jubet 
Lentulum, Cethegum, Statilium, Gabinium, itemque 
Cceparium quemdam Terracinensem, qui in Apuliam ad 
concitanda servitia proficisci parabat. Ceteri sine mor& 
veniunt* Coeparius, paulo ante domo egressus, cognito 
indicio, ex urbe profugerat. Consul Lentulum, quod 
praetor erat, ipse manu tenens perducit; reliquos cum 
custodibus in aedem Concordiae venire jubet. Eo sena- 
tum advocat, magnaque frequentia ejus ordinis, Voltur- 
cium cum legatis introducit : Flaccum praetorem scrini- 


urn cum litteris, quas a legatis acceperat, eddem afferre 

XL VII. Volturcius interrogatus de itinere, de litteris, 
postremo quid, aut qua de causa, consilii habuisset, pri- 
mo fingere alia, dissimulare de conjuratione ; post, ub 
fide publica dicere jussus est, omnia, uti gesta erant, ape- 
rit ; docetque * se paucis ante diebus a Gabinio et Coepa- 
rio socium adscitum nihil amplius scire quam legatos; 
tantummodo audire solitum ex Gabinio P. Autronium, 
Servium Sullam, L. Vargunteium, multos praeterea in ea 
conjuratione esse.' Eadem Galli fatentur, ac Lentulum 
dissimulantem coarguunt praeter litteras sermonibus, 
quos ille habere solitus erat : ' ex libris Sibyllinis regnum 
Romae tribus Corneliis portendi; Cinnam atque Sullam 
antea, se tertium esse, cui fatum foret urbis potirr; prae- 
terea ah incenso Capitolio ilium esse vigesimum annurr\, 
quern saepe ex prodigiis haruspices respondissent bello 
civili cruentum fore.' Igitur perlectis litteris, quum pri- 
us omnes signa sua cognovissent, senatus decernit, * uti 
abdicato magistratu Lentulus, itemque ceteri in liberis 
custodiis haberentur.' Itaque Lentulus P. Lentulo Spin- 
theri, qui turn aedilis erat, Cethegus Q. Cornificio, Sta- 
tilius C. Caesari, Gabinius M. Crasso, Cceparius (nam is 
paulo ante ex fuga retractus erat) Cn. Terentio senatori 

XLVIII. Interea plebes, conjuratione patefacta, qua* 
primo cupida rerum novarum nimis bello favebat, muta- 
ta mente, Catilinae consilia exsecrari, Ciceronem ad cae- 
lum tollere; veluti ex servitute erepta, gaudium atque 
laetitiam agitabat. Namque alia belli facinora praedae 
magis quam detrimento fore, incendium vero crudele, 
immoderatum, ac sibi maxime calamitosum putabat- 


quippe cui omnes copiae in usu quotidiano et cultu cor 
poris erant. Post eum diem quid am L. Tarquinius ad 
senatum adductus erat*, quern ad Catilinam proficiscen- 
tem ex itinere retractum aiebant. Is quum se diceret 
indicaturum de conjuratione, si fides publica data esset, 
jussus a consule, quae sciret, edicere, eadem fere, quae 
Volturcius, de paratis incendiis, de caede bonorum, de it 
inere hostium senatum docet : praeterea ' se missum a M. 
Crasso, qui Catilinae nuntiaret, ne eum Lentulus et Cethe- 
gus aliique ex conjuratione deprehensi terrerent; eoque 
magis properaret ad urbem accedere, quo et ceterorum 
animos reficeret, et illi facilius e periculo eriperentur.' 
Sed ubi Tarquinius Crassum nominavit, hominem nob- 
ilem, maximis divitiis, summa potentia, alii rem incredib 
ilem rati, pars, tametsi verum existimabant, tamen quia 
in tali tempore tanta visjhominis lenienda magis quam 
exagitanda videbatur, plerique Crasso ex negotiis privatis 
obnoxii conclamant 'indicem falsum esse,' deque ea re 
postulant, uti referatur. Itaque, consulente Cicerone, 
frequens senatus decernit, « Tarquinii indicium falsum 
videri, eumque in vinculis retinendum, neque amplius 
potestatem faciendam, nisi de eo indicaret, cujus consilio 
tantam rem mentitus esset.' Erant eo tempore, qui ex- 
istimarent indicium illud a P. Autronio machinatum, quo 
facilius, appellato Crasso, per societatem periculi reliquos 
illius potentia tegeret. Alii Tarquinium a Cicerone im- 
missum aiebant, ne Crassus, more suo suscepto malorum 
patrocinio, rempublicam conturbaret. Ipsum Crassum 
ego postea praedicantem audivi, ' tantam illam contume- 
liam sibi ab Cicerone impositam.' 

XLIX. Sed isdem temporibus Q. Catulus et C. Pise 
neque orecibus, neque gratia, neque pretio Ciceronerr 

CATILINA. # 121 

impellere potue're, uti per Allobroges aut per alium indi- 
cem C. Caesar falso nominaretur. Nam ,uterque cum 
lllo graves inimicitias exercebant ; Piso oppugnatus in 
judicio pecuniarum repetundarum, propter cujusdam 
Transpadani supplicium injustum ; Catulus ex petitions 
pontificates odio incensus, quod extrema aetate, maximis 
honoribus usus, ab adolescentulo Caesare victus discesse- 
rat. Res autem opportuna videbatur, quod is privatim 
egregia liberalitate, publice maximis muneribus grandem 
pecuniam debebat. Sed ubi consulem ad tantum faci- 
nus impellere nequeunt, ipsi singulatim circumeundo, 
atque ementiendo, quae se ex Volturcio aut Allobrogibus 
audisse dicerent, magnam illi invidiam conflaverant ; us- 
que adeo, ut nonnulli equites Romani, qui praesidii causa 
cum telis erant circum aedem Concord iae, seu periculi 
magnitudine, seu animi mobil|tate impulsi, quo studium 
suum in rempublicam clarius esset, egredienti ex senatu 
Caesari gladio minitarentur. 

L. Dum hsec in senatu aguntur, et dum legatis Allob- 
rogum et Tito Volturcio, comprobato eorum indicio, 
praemia decernuntur; liberti et pauci ex clientibus Len- 
tuli diversis itineribus opifices atque servitia in vicis ad 
eum eripiendum sollicitabant ; p&rtim exquirebant duces 
multitudinum, qui pretio rempublicam vexare soliti erant. 
Cethegus autem per nuntios familiam atque libertos suos, 
lectos et exercitatos in audaciam, orabat, ut, grege facto, 
cum telis ad sese irrumperent. Consul, ubi ea parari 
cognovit, dispositis praesidiis, ut res atque tempus mone- 
bat, convocato senatu, refert, ' quid de his fieri placeat, 
qui in custodiam traditi erant.' Sed eos paulo ante fre- 
quens senatus judicaverat ' contra rempublicam fecisse.' 
Turn D Junius Silanus, primus sententiam rogatus. quod 


eo tempore consul designatus erat, de his, qui in eustodiis 
tenebantur, praeterea de L. Cassio, P. Furio, P. Umbreno, 
Q. Annio, si depreherisi forent, supplicium sumendum 
decreverat: isque postea, permotus oratione C. Caesaris, 
pedibus in sententiam Tib. Neronis iturum se dixerat ; 
quod de ea re, prsesidiis additis,* referendum censuerat. 
Sed Caesar, ubi ad eum ventum est, rogatus sententiam a 
consule, hujuscemodi verba locutus est. 

LI. " Omnes homines, patres conscripti, qui de rebus 
dubiis consultant, ab odio, amicitia, ira atque misericor- 
dia vacuos esse decet. Haud facile animus verum prov- 
ldet, ubi ilia officiunt, neque quisquam omnium libidini 
simul et usui paruit. Ubi intendeds ingenium, valet ; si 
libido possidet, ea dominatur, animus nihil valet. Magna 
mihi copia est memoranoli, patres conscripti, qui reges 
atque populi, ira aut miserjcordia impulsi, male consul ue- 
rinr ; sed ea malo dicere, quae majores. nostri contra libid- 
inem animi sui recte atque ordine fecere. Bello Mace- 
donico, quod cum rege Perse gessimus, Rhodiorum civi* 
tas, magna atque magnifica, quae populi Romani opibus 
creverat, infida atque adversa nobis fuit : sed postquam, 
bello confecto, de Rhodiis consultum est, majores nostri, 
ne quis divitiarum ma^fs, quam injuriae causa bellum in- 
cept um diceret, impunitos eos dimisere. Item beliis Pu- 
nicis omnibus, quum saepe Carthaginienses et in pace et 
per inducias multa nefaria facinora fecissent, nunquam 
ipsi per occasionem talia fecere : magis, quid se dignum 
forot, quam quid in illis jure fieri posset, quaerebant 
Hoc idem vobis providendum est, patres conscripti, ne 
plus valeat apud vos P. Lentuli et ceterorum scelus, 
quam vestra dignitas ; neu magis irae vestrae quam famae 
consulatis. Nam si digna poena pro factis eorum reperi- 


tur, novum consilium approbo; sin magnitudo seeleris 
omnium ingenia exsuperat, his utendum censeo, quae 
legibus comparata sunt. Plerique eorum, qui ante me 
sentonlias dixerunt, composite atque magnified casum 
reipublicas miserati sunt : quae belli saevitia esset, quae 
victis acciderent enumeravere : rapi virgines, pueros ; 
divelli liberos a parentum complexu ; matres familiarum 
pati, quae victoribus collibuissent ; fana atque domos ex- 
spoliari ; caedem, incendia fieri ; postremo armis, cada- 
veribus, cruore atque luctu omnia compleri. Sed, per 
deos immortales ! quo ilia oratio pertinuit ? an, uti vos 
infestos conjurationi faceret? Scilicet, quern res tanta 
atque tarn atrox non permovit, eum oratio accendet ! 
Non ita est ; neque cuiquam mortalium injuriae suae par- 
vae videntur: multi eas gravius aequo habuere. Sed 
alia aliis licentia est, patres ccfnscripti. Qui demissi in 
obscuro vitam habent, si quid iracundia deliquere, pauci 
sciunt; fama atque fort una eorum pares sunt: qui mag- 
no imperio praediti in excelso aetatem agunt, eorum facta 
cuncti mortales novere. Ita in maxima fortuna minima 
licentia est: neque studere, neque' odisse, sed minime 
irasci decet: quae apud alios iracundia dicitur, ea in 
imperio superbia atque crudelitas appellatur. Equidem 
ego sic' existimo, patres conscripti, omnes cruciatus mi- 
nores, quam facinora illorum esse ; sed plerique mortales 
postrema meminere, et in hominibus impiis seeleris 
eorum obliti de poena disserunt, si ea paulo severior fuit. 
D. Silanum, virum fortem atque strenuum, certo scio, 
quae dixerit, studio reipublicae dixisse, neque ilium in 
tanta re gratiam aut inimicitias exercere : eos mores, 
earn modestiam viri cognovi. Verum sententia ejus mi- 
hi non crudelis, (quid enim in tales homines crudele fieri 


potest ?) sed aliena a republica nostra videtur. Nam pro- 
fee to aut ntetus aut injuria te subegit, Silane, consulem 
designatum, genus pcenae novum decernere. De timore 
super vacaneum est disserere, quum praescrtim diligentia 
clarissimi viri, consulis, tanta praesidia sint in armis. De 
poena possumus equidem dicere, id quod res habet, in 
luctu atque miseriis mortem aerumnarum requiem, non 
cruciatum esse, earn cuncta mortalium mala dissolvere ; 
ultra neque curae neque gaudio locum esse. Sed, per 
deos immortales ! quamobrem in sententiam non addi- 
disti, uti prius verberibus in eos animadverteretur ? An, 
quia lex Porcia vetat ? At aliaa leges item condemnatis 
civibus non animam eripi, sed exsilium -permitti jubent. 
An, quia gravius est verberari quam necari ? Quid au- 
tem acerbum aut nimis grave in homines tanti facinoris 
convictos ? Sin, quia lev)ius est ; qui convenit in minore 
negotio legem timere, quum earn in majore neglexeris 1 
At enim quis reprehendet, quod in parricidas reipublieae 
aecretum erit? Tempus, dies, fortuna, eujus libido gen- 
tibus moderatur. Illis merito accidet, quidquid evenerit; 
-ceterum vos, patres conscripti, quid in alios statuatis, 
considerate. Omnia mala exempla ex bonis orta sunt ; 
sed ubi imperium ad ignaros aut minus bonos pervenit, 
novum illud exemplum ab dignis et idoneis ad itidignos 
et non idoneos transfertur. Lacedaemonii devictis Athe- 
niensibus triginta viros imposuere, qui rempub ] icam eo- 
rum tractarent. Hi primo coepere pessimum (juemque 
3t omnibus invisum indemnatum necare: ea populus 
cetari et merito dicere fieri. Post, ubi paulatim licentia 
^revit, juxta bonos et malos libidinose interficere, ceteros 
metu terrere. Ita civitas servitute oppressa stultae laetit- 
ia? graves poenas dedit. Nostra memoria, victor SulJa 



quum Damasippum et alios hujusmodi, qui malo reipub 
licae creverant, jugulari jussit, quis non factum ejus lau- 
dabat ? ' Homines scelestos et factiosos, qui seditionibus 
rempublicam exagitavejrant, merito necatos' aiebant. Sod 
ea res magnae initium cladis fuit : nam uti quisque do- 
mum aut villam, postremo aut vas aut vestimentum 
alicujus concupiverat, dabat operam, uti is in proscripto- 
rum numero esset. Ita illi, quibus Damasippi mors las- 
titise fuerat, paulo post ipsi trahebantur ; neque prius 
finis jugulandi fuit, quam Sulla omnes suos divilns ex- 
plevit. Atque ego hasc non in M. Tullio neque his 
temporibus vereor; sed in magna civitate multa et varia' 
ingenia sunt. Potest alio tempore, alio consule, cui item 
exercitus in manu sit, falsum aliquid pro vero credi. Ubi 
hoe exemplo per senati decretum consul gladium eduxe- 
rit, quis illi finem statuet, aut quis moderabitur ? Majores 
nostri, patres conscripti, nequa consilii neque audaciae 
unquam eguere ; neque illis superbia obstabat, quo minus 
aliena instituta, si modo proba erant, imitarentur. Anna 
atque tela militaria ab Samnitibus, insignia magistratuum 
ab Tuscis pleraque sumpserunt: postremo quod ubique 
apud socios aut hostes idoneum videbatur, cum summo 
studio domi exsequebantur ; imitari quam invidere bonis 
malebatit Sed eodem illo tempore, Graeciae morem im- 
itati, verberibus animadvertebant in cives, de condem- 
natis summum supplicium sumebant. Postquam respub- 
lica adolevit, et multitudine civium factiones valuere, 
circumveniri innocentes, alia hujuscemodi fieri coepere, 
turn lex Porcia aliaeque leges paratas sunt, quibus legi- 
bus exsilium damnatis permissum est. Hanc ego cau- 
sam, patres conscripti, quo minus novum consilium capi 
nmus, in primis magnam puto. Profecto virtus atque 


sapientia major in illis fuit, qui ex parvis opibus tanturn 
imperium fecere, quam in nobis, qui ea bene parta vix 
retinemus. Placet igitur eos dimitti et augere exercitum 
Catilinae ? Minime ; sed ita censeo : * publicandas eo- 
rum pecunias, ipsos in vinculis habendos per municipia, 
quae maxime opibus valent ; neu quis de his postea ad 
senatum referat, neve cum populo agat : qui aliter fece- 
rit, senatum existimare eum contra rempublicam et salu- 
tem omnium facturum.' " 

LII. Postquam Caesar dicendi finem fecit, ceteri ver- 
b.o alius alii varie assentiebantur : at M. Porcius Cato, 
rogatus sententiam, hujuscemodi orationem habuit. 

" Longe mihi alia mens est, patres conscripti, quum 
res atque pericula nostra considero, et quum sententias 
nonnullorum mecum ipse reputo. Illi mihi disseruisse 
videntur de poena eorum, qui patriae, parentibus, aris at- 
que focis suis bellum paravere : res autem monet cavere 
ab illis magis quam, quid in illis statuamus, consultare. 
Nam cetera maleficia turn persequare, ubi facta sunt: 
hoc, nisi provideris, ne accidat, ubi evenit, frustra judicia 
implores: capta. urbe, nihil fit reliqui victis. Sed, per 
ieos immortales ! vos ego appello, qui semper domos, 
villas, signa, tabulas vestras pluris quam rempublicam 
t'eeistis, si ista, cujuscumque modi sunt, quae amplex- 
itmini, retinere, si voluptatibus vestris otium praebere 
vultis, expergiscimini aliquando, et capessite rempub- 
licam. Non agitur de vectigalibus, neque de sociorum 
mjuriis; libertas et anima nostra in dubio est. Saepe- 
numero, patres conscripti, multa verba in hoc ordine 
feci, saepe de luxuria atque avaritia nostrorum civium 
questus sum, multosque mortales ea causa adversos 
habeo. Qui mihi atque animo meo nullius ^nquam de- 


licti gratiam fecissem, haud facile alterius libidini male- 
facta condonabam. Sed ea tametsi vos parvi pendeba- 
tis, tamen respublica firma erat ; opulentia negligentiam 
tolerabat. Nunc vero non id agitur, bonisne an rnalis 
moribus vivamus, neque quantum aut quam magnificum 
imperium populi Romani sit; sed cujus haec cumque 
modi videntur, nostra, an nobiscum una hostium futura 

" Hie mihi quisquam mansuetudinem et misericordi- 
am nominat. Jampridem equidem nos vera rerum vo- 
cabula amisimus, quia bona aliena largiri liberalitas. 
malarum rerum audacia fortitudo vocatur; eo respub- 
lica in extremo sita est. Sint sane, quoniam ita se mo- 
res habent, liberates ex sociorum fortunis, sint misericor- 
des in furibus aerarii : ne illi sanguinem nostrum largian- 
tur; et dum paucis scelera/is parcunt, bonos omnes 
perditum eant. Bene et composite C. Caesar paulo ante 
in hoc ordine de vita, et morte disseruit ; credo, falsa 
existimans ea, quae de inferis memorantur; ' diverso itin- 
ere malos a bonis loca tetra, inculta, foeda atque formid- 
olosa habere.' Itaque censuit ' pecunias eorum publi- 
canrias, ipsos per municipia in custodiis habendos;' videl- 
icet timens, ne, si Romse sint, aut a popularibus conju- 
rationis, aut a multitudine conducta per vim eripiantur. 
Quasi vero mali atque scelesti tantummodo in urbe, et 
non per totam Italiam sint, aut nori ibi plus pessit au- 
dacia, ubi ad defendendum opes minores sunt. Qua re 
vanum equidem hoc consilium est, si periculum ex illis 
metuit ; sin in tanto omnium metu solus non timet, eo 
magis refert me mihi atque vobis timere. 

" Quare quum de P. Lentulo ceterisque statuetis, pro 
certo habetote vos simul de exercitu Catilinas et de om- 


nibus conjuratis de^ernere. Quanto vos attentius ea 
agetis, tanto illis animus infirmior erit: si paululum 
mod6 vos languere viderint, jam omnes feroces a'dcrunt 
Nolite existirnare majores nostros armis rempublicam ex 
parva magnam fecisse. Si ita res esset, multo pulcher- 
rimam earn nos haberemus : quippe sociorum atque civ- 
ium, praeterea armorum atque equorum major nobis co- 
pia quam illis. Sed alia fuere, quae illos magnos fecere, 
quae nobis nulla sunt; domi -industria, foris justum im- 
perium, animus in consulendo liber, neque delicto neque 
libidini obnoxius. Pro his nos habemus luxuriam atque 
avaritiam, publice egestatem, privatim opulentiam ; lau- 
damus divitias, sequimur inertiam; inter bonos et malos 
discrimen nullum ; omnia virtutis praemia ambitio possi- 
det. Neque mirum, ubi vos separatim sibi quisque con- 
silium capitis, ubi domi Woluptatibus, hie pecuniae au! 
gratiae servitis ; eo fit, lit impetus fiat in vacuam rem- 
publicam. Sed ego haec omitto. 

" Conjurav^re nobilissimi cives patriam incendere, 
Gallorum gentem infestissimam nomini Romano ad bel- 
lum arcessunt; dux hostium cum exercitu supra caput 
est : vos cunctamini etiam nunc, quid intra moenia dep- 
rehensis hostibus faciatist Misereamini, censeo, (deli- 
quere homines adolescentuli per ambitionem,) atque 
etiam armatos dimittatis. Ne ista vobis mansuetudo et 
misericordia, si illi arma ceperint, in miseriam vertet 
Scilicet res ipsa aspera est, sed vos non timetis earn, 
[mmo vero maxime ; sed inertia et mollitia animi alius 
alium exspectantes cunctamini, videlicet dis immortali 
bus confisi, qui hanc rempublicam in maximis saepe peric- 
ulis servavere. Non votis neque suppliciis muliebribus 
auxilia deorum parantur; vigilando, agendo, bene con 


sulendo prospera omnia cedunt: ubi socordiae te atque 
ignaviae tradideris, nequidquam deos implores ; irati in- 
festique sunt. Apud majores nostros T. Manlius Tor- 
quatus bello Gallico filium suum, quod is contra impe- 
rium in hostem pugnaverat, necari jussit, atque ille 
cgregius adolescens, immoderatae fortitudinis, morte poe- 
nas dedit : vos de crudelissimis parricidis quid statuatis, 
cunctamini? Videlicet vita cetera eorum huic sceleri 
obstat. Verum parcite dignitati Lentuli, si ipse pudi- 
citiae, si famao suae, si dis aut hominibus unquam ullis 
pepercit : ignoseite Cethegi adolescentiae, nisi iterum 
patriae bellum fecit. Nam quid ego de Gabinio, Sta- 
tilio, Coepario* loquar ? quibus si quidquam unquam pensi 
fuisset, non ea consilia de republica habuissent. 

" Postremo, patres conscripti, si mehercule peccato 
locus esset, facile paterer vos( ipsa re corrigi, quoniam 
verba comtemnitis ; sed undique circumventi sumus. 
Catilina cum exercitu faucibus urget; alii intra moenia 
atque in sinu urbis sunt hostes; neque parari, neque 
consuli quidquam occulte potest: quo magis properan- 
dum est. Quare ita ego censeo : ' quum nefario con- 
silio scelejratorum civium respublica in maxima pericula 
venerit, hique indicio T. Volturcii et legatorum Allobro- 
gum convicti confessique sint caedem, incendia, aliaque 
se foeda atque crudelia facinora in cives patriamque para- 
visse, de confessis, sicuti de manifestis rerum capitaliun^ 
more majorum supplicium sumendum.' " 

LI1L Postquam Cato assedit, consulares omnes item- 
que sonatus magna pars sententiam ejus laudant, virtu- 
tem animi ad coelum ferunt, alii alios increpantes timi- 
dos vocant; Cato clarus atque magnus habetur ; senati 
decretum fit, sicuti ille censuerat. Sed mihi multa le- 


genti, multa audienti, quae populus Romanus domi mi 
litiaeque, mari atque terra, praeclara facinora fecit forte 
libuit attendere, qua3 res maxime tanta negotia sustinu- 
isset. Sciebam saepenumero parva manu cum magnis 
legionibus hostium contendisse ; cognoveram parvis co- 
piis bella gesta cum opulentis regibus ; ad hoc saepe for- 
tunae violentiam toleravisse ; facundia Graecos, gloria 
belli Gallos ante Romanos fuisse. Ac mihi multa agitanti 
constabat, paucorum civium egregiam virtutem cuncta 
patravisse ; eoque factum, uti divitias paupertas, multi- 
tudinem paucitas superaret. Sed postquam luxu atque 
desidia civitas corrupta est, rursus respublica magnitu- 
dine sua imperatorum atque magistratuum* vi'da susten- 
tabat, ac, sicuti effeta parente, multis tempestatibus haud 
sane quisquam Romae virtute magnus fuit. Sed memoria 
mea, ingenti virtute, diversjs moribus fuere viri duo, M. 
Cato et C. Ca*sar: quos quoniam res obtulerat, silentio 
praeterire non fuit consilium, quin utriusque naturam et 
mores, quantum ingenio possem, aperirem. 

LIV. Igitur his genus, aetas. eloquentia prope cequalia 
fuere ; magnitudo animi par, item gloria, sed alia alii, 
Caesar beneficiis atque munificentia magnus habebatur; 
integritate vitae Cato. Ille mansuetudine et misericordia 
clarus factus ; huic se Veritas dignitatem addiderat. Cae- 
sar dando, sublevando, ignoscendo ; Cato nihil 
gloriam adeptus est. In altero miseris perfugium ; in 
altero malis pernicies : illius facilitas, hujus constantia 
laudabatur. Postremo Caesar in animum induxerat lab- 
orare, vigilare ; negotiis amicorum intentus, sua neg- 
ligere; nihil denegare, quod dono dignum esset ; sibi 
magnum imperium, exercitum, novum bellum exopta- 
bat, ubi virtus enitescere posset. At Catoni studium 

CATIL1NA. 131 

modestiae, decoris, sed maxirne severitafis erat. Non di- 
vitiis cum divite, neque factione cum factioso, sed cum 
sfrenuo virtute, cum modesto pudore, cum innocente ab- 
stine/itia certabat ; esse quam videri bonus malebat: ita, 
quo minus gloriam petebat, eo magis sequebatur. 

LV. Postquam, ut dixi, senatus in Catonis sententiam 
discessit. consul optimum factum ratus noctem, qua) in- 
stabat, antecapere, ne quid eo spatio novaretur, triumvi- 
ros, quas supplicium postulabat, parare jubet: ipse, dis- 
positis praesidiis* Lentulum in carcerem deducit; idem 
fit ceteris per prastores. Est locus in carcere, quod Tul- 
lianum appellatur, ubi paululum descenderis ad laevam, 
circiter duodecim pedes humi depressus. Eum muniunt 
undique parietes, atque insuper camera lapideis fornici- 
bus vincta, sed incultu, tenebris, odore foeda atque ter- 
ribilis ejus facies est. In eum (locum postquam demissus 
est Lentulus, vindices rerum capitalium, quibus praecep- 
tum erat, laqueo gulam fregere. Ita ille patricius, ex 
clarissima gente Corneliorum, qui consulare imperium 
Romas habuerat, dignum moribus factisque suis exitium 
vitae invenit. De Cethego, Statilio, Gabinio, Coepario 
eodem*modo supplicium sumptum est. 

LVI. Dum ea Romae geruntur, Catilina ex omni co- 
pia, quam et ipse adduxerat, et Manlius habuerat, duas 
legiones instituit; cohortes pro numero militum com- 
plet: deinde, ut quisque voluntarius aut ex sociis in 
castra venerat, aequaliter distribuerat, ac brevi spatio 
legiones numero hominum expleverat, quum initio non 
amplius duobus millibus habuisset. Sed ex omni copia 
circiter pars quarta erat militaribus armis instructa; cct- 
eri, ut quemque casus armaverat, sparos aut lanceas, alii 
praeacutas sudes portabant. Sed postquam Antonius euro 


exercitu adventabat, Catilina per montes iter facere* 
mo 16 ad urbein, modo in Galliam versus castra movere. 
hostibus occasionem pugnandi non dare: sperabat pro- 
podiem magnas copias sese habiturum, si Roma? socii 
incepta patravissent. Interea servitia repudiabat, cujus 
initio ad eum magna3 copice concurrebant, opibus conju- 
rationis fretus, simul alienum suis rationibus existimans, 
videri causam civium cum servis fugitivis communica- 

LVIL Sed postquam in castra nuntius pervenit Romse 
conjurationem patefactam, de Lentulo, Cethego, ceteris, 
quos supra memoravi, supplicium sumptum ; plerique, 
quos ad bellum spes rapinarum aut novarum rerum stu- 
dium illexerat, dilabuntur: reliquos Catilina per montes 
asperos magnis itineribus in agrum Pistoriensem abdu- 
cit, eo consilio, uti per tran)iites occulte perfugeret in Gal- 
liam. At Q. Metellus Celer cum tribus legionibus in 
agro Piceno prsesidebat, ex difficultate rerum eadem ilia 
existimans, quae supra diximus, Catilinam agitare. Igi- 
tur, ubi iter ejus ex perfugis cognovit, castra propere 
movit, ac sub ipsis radicibus montium consedit, qua illi 
descensus erat in Galliam properanti. . Neque tamen An- 
tonius procul aberat, utpote qui magno exercitu locis 
aequioribus expeditus in fuga sequeretur. Sed Catilina, 
postquam videt montibus atque copiis hostium sese clau- 
sum, in urbe res adversas, neque fugae neque prcesidii 
ullam spem, optimum factum ratus in tali re fortunani 
belli tentare, statuit cum Antonio quam primum con- 
fligere. Itaque, concione advocata, hujuscemodi ora- 
tionem habuit, 

LV1II. "Compe'rtum ego habeo, milites, verba virtu- 
tem non addere; neque ex ignavo strenuum, neque 


fortem ex timido exercitum oratione imperatoris fieri 
Quanta cujusque animo audacia natura aut moribus in- 
est, tanta in beilo patere soJet : quern neque gloria neque 
pericula excitant, nequidquam bortere ; timor animi au 
ribus officit. Sed ego vos, quo pauca monerem, advo 
cavi; simul uti causam mei consiiii aperirem. Scitia 
equidem, milites, socordia atque ignavia Lentuli quantam 
ipsi cladem nobisque attulerit ; quoque modo, dum ex 
urbe prassidia opperior, in Galliam proficisci nequiverim. 
Nunc vero quo in loco res nostras sint, juxta mecum 
omnes intelligitis. Exercitus hostium duo, unus ab 
urbe, alter a Gallia obstant : diutius in his locis esse, 
si maxime animus ferat, frumenti atque aliarum rerum 
egestas prohibet. Quocumque ire placet, ferro iter ape- 
riendum est. Quapropter vos moneo, uti forti atque pa- 
rato animo sitis, et, quum premium inibitis, memineritis 
vos divitias, decus, gloriam, prasterea libertatem atque 
patriam in dextris vestris portare. Si vincimusr omnia 
nobis tuta erunt, commeatus abunde, colonias atque 
municipia patebunt: sin metu cesserimus, eadem ilia 
adveisa fient: neque locus neque amicus quisquam te- 
get, quern arma non texerint. Praaterea, milites, non 
eadem nobis et illis necessitudo impendet : nos pro pa- 
tria, pro libertate, pro vita certamus : illis supervacaneum 
est pugnare pro potentia paucorum. Quo audacius ag- 
gredimini, memores pristinse virtutis. Licuit vobis cum 
summa turpitudine in exsilio astatem agere ; potuistis 
nonnulli Romas, amissis bonis, aljenas opes exspectare. 
Quia ilia foeda atque intoleranda viris videbantur, hasc 
sequi decrevistis. Si hasc relinquere vultis, audacia opus 
est : nemo nisi victor, pace bellum mutavit. Nam in 
luga salutem sperare, quum arma, quis corpus tegitur, 


ab hostibus aver tens, ea vero dementia est. Semper in 
prcdio iis maximum est periculum, qui maxi ne timent ; 
audacia pro muro habetur. Quum vos considero, mili- 
tes, et quum facta vestra aestimo, magna me spes victo- 
rias tenet. Animus, aetas, virtus vestra me hoitantur, 
prseterea necessitudo, quae etiam timidos fjrtes facit- 
Nam multitudo hostium ne circum venire queat, prohi- 
bent angustiae loci. Quod si virtuti vestrse fortuna in- 
viderit, cavete inulti animam amittatis; neu capti potius 
sicuti pecora trucidemini, quam virorum more pugnan- 
tes, cruentam atque luctuosam victoriam hostibus relin- 

LIX. Hasc ubi dixit, paululum commoratus, slgna 
canere jubet, atque instructos ordines in locum aequum 
deducit : deinde, remotis omnium equis, quo militibus, 
exsequato periculo, animus amplior esset, ipse pedes ex- 
ercitum pro loco atque copiis instruit. Nam, uti planit- 
ies erat inter sinistros montes, et ab dextra rupes as- 
pera, octo cohortes in fronte constituit, reliqua signa in 
subsidio artius collocat. Ab his centuriones omnes lec- 
tos et evocatos, prseterea ex gregariis militibus optimum 
quemque' armatum in primam aciem subducit. C. Man- 
Hum in dextera, Passulanum quemdam in sinistra parte 
curare jubet: ipse cum libertis et colonis propter aqui- 
lam assistit, quam bello Cimbrico C. Marius in exercitu 
habuisse dicebatur. At ex altera parte C. Antonius, 
pedibus seger, quod proelio adesse nequibat, M. Petreio 
legato exercitum permittit. Ille cohortes veteranas, quas 
tumulti causa, conscripserat,- in fronte ; post eas ceterum 
exercitum in subsidiis locat. Ipse equo circumiens, 
unumquemque nominans appellat, hortatur, rogat, uti 
meminerint se contra latrones inermes, pro patria, pro 


liberis, pro ans atque focis suis cernere. Homo rnilita- 
ris, quod amplius annos triginta tribunus, aut praefectus, 
aut legatus, aut prastor cum magna gloria in exercitu 
fnerat, plerosque ipsos factaque eorum fortia noverat; ea 
commemorando militum animos accendebat. 

LX. Sed ubi, omnibus rebus exploratis, Petreius tuba 
signum dat, cohortes paulatim incedere jubet; idem facit 
hostium exercitus. Postquam eo ventum est, unde a 
ferentariis proelium committi posset, maximo clamore 
cum infestis signis concurrunt ; pila omittunt ; gladiis 
res geritur. Veterani, pristinae virtutis memores, com- 
inus acriter instare ; iili haud timidi resistunt ; maxi- 
ma vi certatur. Interea Catilina cum expeditis in prima 
acie versari, laborantibns succurrere, integros pro sauciis 
areessere, omnia providere, multum ipse pugnare, saepe 
hostem ferire : strenui militis et( boni imperatoris offioia 
simul exsequebatur. Petreius ubi videt Catilinam, con- 
tra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, cohortem praetoriam 
in medios hostes inducit, eosque perturbatos atque alios 
alibi resistentes interficit ; deinde utrimque ex latenbus 
ceteros aggreditur. Manlius et Faesulanus in primis pug- 
nantes cadunt. Postquam fusas copias, seque cum pau- 
cis relictum videt Catilina, memor generis atque pristinae 
dignitatis, in confertissimos hostes incurrit, ibique pug- 
nans confoditur. 

LXI. Sed confecto proelio, turn vero cerneres. quanta 
audacia quantaque vis animi fuisset in exercitu Ca til man 
Nam fere queni quisque vivus pugnando locum ceperaf, 
eum, amissa anima, corpore tegebat. Pauci autem, quos 
medios cohors praetoria disjecerat, paulo diversius, sed 
omnes tamen adversis vulneribus conciderant. Catilina 
vero longe a suis inter hostium cadavera repertus est 


paululum etiam spirans, ferociamque animi, quam habu- 
erat vivus, in vultu retinens. Postremo ex omni copia 
neque in proelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus 
captus est : ita cuncti suae hostiumque vitae juxta peper- 
cerant. Neque tarrien exercitus populi Romani laetam 
aut incruentam victoriam adeptus erat; nam strenuissi- 
mus quisque aut occiderat in proelio, aut graviter vulne- 
ratus discesserat. Muiti autem, qui de castris visendi 
aut spoliandi gratia processerant, volventes hostilia ca- 
davera, amicum alii, pars hospitem aut cognatum reperi- 
ebant; fuere item, qui inimicos suos cognoscerent. Ita, 
varie per omnem exercitum laetitia, moeror, luctus atque 
gaudia agitabantur. 


A., an abbreviation of the promo- 
men Aulus. 

A, Ab, Abs, prep, with the abl. § 
195, R. 2. From ; in regard to, in re- 
spect of. Before the agent of a pas- 
sive verb, by, Denoting relative posi- 
tion, on, at, in : as, ab dextera parte, 
on the right side. Denoting order of 
time, after. After verbs of requesting 
or demanding, of, from. In composi- 
tion, see $ 196, 1, & $ 197, 1. 

Abdicatus, a, um, part., disinherited, 
dismissed, deposed : from 

Abdico, are, avi, latum, a. {ab fy dico, 
are, to give,) to turn out of doors, dis- 
inherit; to depose; to lay down, re- 
sign, abdicate. 

Abditus, a, um, part. § adj., hidden, 
concealed, removed, secret, retired, 
private. Abditce regiones, unknown 
regions : from 

Abdo, ere, tdi, ttum, a. {ab fy do), to 
remove from view, hide, conceal, se- 
crete; to remove. 

Abduco, tre, xi, ctum, a. {ab fy ducd), 
$225, IV, to take away, remove; to 
iead, lead away or off, lead aside, car- 
ry; to diaw off, withdraw. 

Abeo, ire, ii, itum, irr. n. {ab § eo), 
$ 242, R. 1. to go away, depart,* go 
off, go, escape, retire, withdraw. Prce- 
cens abire, to go headlong, to plunge 
headlong into crimes. 

Abjectus, a, um, part, cast off, 
thrown away, cast down, thrown 
aside : from 

Abjlcio, ere, jeci, jectum, a. {ab fy 
jacio) to cast, throw, throw or cast 


away ; to throw on the ground pros 
trate ; to lay by, throw aside, remove 

Abjuro, are, avi, dtum, a. {ab $ 
juro,) to deny falsely upon oath. Ab- 
jurare creditum, to forswear a debt, 
falsely to deny under oath one's in- 

Abnuo, tre, ui, a. {ab fy nuo, obs.), to 
deny or refuse by countenance or ges- 
ture ; to express dissent by a nod or 
shake of the head; with ace. and dat., 
to refuse, deny, decline, reject ; Mili- 
tes fessi et abnuentes omnia, — declin- 
ing/all farther efforts. 

Aborigines, um, m. pi. {ab fy origo), 
a people of Italy who anciently inha- 
bited the region where Rome was 
afterwards built, and whose kings 
were Saturn and Janus ; the Aborigi- 
nes. C. 6. 

Absens, ends, adj. {abs § ens, $ 154, 
R. 1.), absent, abroad. 

Absolvo, ere, olvi, olutum, a {ab <£ 
solvo), to loose, unloose ; to set at lib 
erty, discharge, release, liberate; to 
despatch, dismiss ; to finish, complete. 
Absolvere paucis, to despatch in a few 
words, declare briefly, speak briefly or 

Abstinentia, a,f. (abstinens, tempe- 
rate), abstinence, moderation; free- 
dom from avarice, uprightness, disin- 
terestedness ; temperance, sobriety. 

Absttneo, ere, ui, a. {abs fy teneo 4 ), to 
abstain from, keep from, refrain from 

Abstractus, a, um, part. : from 

Abstr&ho, Ire, traxi, tractum, a. (abs 
ty tralw), $ 242, R. 1. to draw or tear 




away; tane away by force, lead away, 
lead or di aw aside ; to tear, rend, divide. 

Absum, esse,fui, irr. n. (ab fy sum), 
$ 242, R. 1. to be absent to be dis- 
tant; to be wanting in assistance, 
withhold one's help, keep or stand 
aloof. Paulum abesse, to be near, be 
upon the point, want but little. 

Absumo, Ire, psi, ptum, a. (ab fy 
sumo), to consume, destroy ; to slay, 
cut off. 

Absumptus, a, um, part, (absumo). 

Absurdus, a, um, adj. (ab fy surdus, 
deaf), absurd, inconsistent, foolish, 
ridiculous, unapt, unbecoming; des- 
picable, contemptible. Absurdum est, 
$ 269, R. 2. 

Abundantia, <b, f. (abundans, abun- 
dant), abundance, plenty. 

Abande, adv. fy indec. subs. § 212, R. 
4. (abundus, abundant), abundantly, 
amply, sufficiently, plentifully ; in abun- 
dance, enough, plenty. \ 

Abator, i, usus sum, dep. (ab fy 
utor), to abuse, turn to an improper 
use, misuse. 

Ac, oo7ij. the same as atque, but it is 
used b 'fore consonants only, § 1 98.1, R.i 

(I.) and. After alius, aliter,juxta, simi- 
liter, par, similis, etc. than or as, 
198, 3, R. Ac si, as if, $ 263. 2. Ac 
is sometimes used for et quidem. See 
Atque. Like et, it sometimes connects 
adversative sentences, and may then be 
translated but. 

Accedo, ere, essi, essum, n. (ad ty 
cedo), § 233, & (Remark 2,) §224, § 210. 
to draw near, approach, arrive at, 
come, come to, resort to, accost; to 
go; to attack; to be added to, joined, 
annexed; to accrue. Hue accedebat, 
to this was added. 

Accendo, ere, di, sum, a. (ad fy can- 
do, obs.), to set on fire, light up, kin- 
dle ; to burn. Fig. to excite, inflame, 
stir up, heighten, increase. Accendi 
ad dominationem, to be inflamed with 
% lust of power 

Accensus, a, um, part, fy adj (accen- 
do), set on fire, &c. Fig. excited, en 
kindled, inflamed, stirred up, animated, 
stimulated, prompted; exasperated. 

Acceptio, onis, f. (accipio), an ac- 
cepting or receiving. 

Acceptus, a, um, part, ty adj, (acci- 
pio), received, accepted, heard, &c. ; 
grateful, pleasing, acceptable, $ 222. 

Accldo, ere, didi, n. (ad ty cado), $ 
224, to fall, fall down at or before. 
Qud accidam ? i. e. ad cujus genua 
supplex accidam? to whom shall I 
prostrate myself (in supplication?) To 
fall upon, come upon. Quo gravior 
accideret, that he might fall (upon him) 
with greater weight or effect : — to hap- 
pen, occur, befall. -Si quid mali acci- 
disset, if any calamity had occurred. 

Accio, Ire, ivi, itum, a. (ad Sf do, to 
move), to send for, call, call in, sum- 
mon, desire to come, invite. 

Accipio, ere, epi t eptum, a. (fid $ 
capio), $ 272, $ 273, § 230, R. 2. to re- 
ceive, take ; to bear, suffer, bear with ; 
to hear, learn, be informed, compre- 
hend, understand ; to admit ; to obtain, 
gain, get; to accept of. In regnum 

accipere, to adopt as an heir to the 
throne, to admit to a participation of 

Accitus, a, um, part, (accio), sum- 
moned, invited, Ire accitus, to go on 

Accurate, adv. (accuratus, accurate), 
diligently ; accurately, carefully, atten- 
tively, cautiously. Habere accurate, to 
treat with attention. Accuratissime 
recipere, to receive with every atton 

Accurro, ere, curri fy cucurri, cur' 
sum, n.(ad ty curro, to run), to run to ; 
to run. 

Accuse, are, avi, atum, a. (ad fy 
causa), $217, to accuse, arraign, im- 
peach ; to blame, chide, complain of, 
find fault with, censure. 

Acer, acris, acre, adj., sharp, sour. 




acrid. Fig. sharp, brisk, powerful, 
vehement; cruel, savage; fiery, im- 
petuous, furious ; severe ; brave, bold, 
enterprising, gallant, fierce, courage- 
ous; diligent, strenuous; acute, quick, 
keen, penetrating : violent, energetic, 

Acerbe, adv., sharply, severely, bit- 
terly, harshly, cruelly : from 

Acerbus, a, um, adj., unripe, sour. 
Fig. cruel, inimical, bitter; hurtful, 
troublesome, disagreeable, unpleasant ; 
hard, severe, harsh ; austere, mo- 

Acerrtme, see Acriter. 

Acies, ei,f, the sharp edge or point 
of any thing ; the organ of sight, the 
pupil of the eye, the eye ; a line of sol- 
diers, file, battalion. Prima acies, the 
first rank or van of an army. Postre- 
ma acies, the rear rank, the rear :— an 
army ; an army in battle array ; force, 
power; acuteness, shrewdness, talent. 
Statuit non prodiis neque acie helium 
gerendum, — not by pitched battles, nor 
by regular warfare. 

Acqulro, ere, quisivi, quisitum, a. 
ad fy qucero), to acquire, get, procure, 
gain, obtain. 

Acriter, adv. comp. acrius, sup. acer- 
rime (acer), vehemently, sharply, keen- 
ly, eagerly, hard, closely; valiantly, 
stoutly, courageously ; vigorously ; 
strenuously; exceedingly; studiously, 
diligently ; severely, cruelly. 

Acta, drum, n. pi. (actus), acts, ac- 
tions, deeds ; glorious exploits. 

Actio, dnis, f. (ago), an act, action, 
proceeding, measure, official conduct ; 
an accusation, charge ; an action at 
law, arraignment, judicial process or 
proceeding. Prior actio, the first 
stage of a judicial process or action. 

Actus, a, um, part, (ago), led, con- 
ducted &c. ; brought up or near. Acta 
testudir.e, the testudo being brought 
up - — forced, compelled ; finished, 
achieved, performed, done ; past, over, 


gone by, spent. Acta edocere, to ' 
make known what has been done. 

Ad, prep, with the ace, to, unto ; at, 
near, hard by; in; even to; towards, 
about ; against ; according to ; besides, 
in addition to ; after ; for ; in regard to, 
in what pertains to. In composition, 
see § 196, 2. & § 197, 2. 

Adcequo, are, avi, atum, a. (ad $ 
czquQ, to level), to equal, level; to 
equal, make equal. 

Additus, a, um, part, ty adj., added ; 
appointed ; placed near or over : 

Addo, he, didi, ditum, a. (ad $ do), $ 
224, to add; to throw or cast in or upon, 
to appoint, give, put, impart, bestow nomen gloriamque sibi, to ac- 
quire, gain — . Addere multum rei 
publicce, to aid, assist, benefit—-. Ad- 
der eformidinem alicui, to inspire with 
fear, to intimidate. 

Adduco, ere, uxi, uctum, a. (ad fy 
ducoL to conduct, bring, lead ; to in- 
duce, cause; to bring to, reduce; to 
bring, persuade. 

Adductus, a, um, part, (adduco), 
brought, brought to, led to, conduct- 
ed ; induced. Adductus in spem, led 
to hope or to entertain hopes. 

Ademptus, a, um, part. (adVmo), ta 
ken away. 

Aded* adv. (ad ty eb), so, so far, to 
such a degree, insomuch ; too, indeed. 
Id adeo, and this or that indeed, and 
this too, and what is more ; then, 
therefore, accordingly. 

Adeo, ire, ii, Itum, irr. n. ty a. (ad 
ty eo), § 233, to go to ; to approach ; 
to review, reconnoitre ; to come near; 
to approach in a hostile manner, at- 
tack ; to undertake. 

Adeptus, a, um, part, (adipiscor) 
that has obtained, gained, acquired 
Pass, obtained, acquired, gained, $ 
162, 17, (a.) 

Adesse, Ade'ram, etc, see Adsum. 

Adherbal, alis, m., a Numidian 




prince, the son of Micipsa J 5. 9, 
10, &c. 

Adhtbeo, ere, ui, ttum, a. (ad fy lia- 
beo), to adopt, use, employ; to take, 
admit, receive, call for; to apply; to 
bring, bring on ; to offer, pay; to treat, 

Adhibttus, a, um, part, (adhibeo), 
Rent for, called for, admitted. 

Adhuc, adv. (ad ty hue), hitherto, 
thus far, as yet, still, even yet. 

Adigo, ere, egi, actum, a. (ad fy ago), 
to drive, thrust, impel ; to force, com- 
pel. A.digere ad jusjurandum, to 
oblige to make oath, to bind by an 

Adimo, ere, emi, emptum, a. (ad fy 
emo), to take away, remove, deprive of. 

Adipiscor, i, adeptus sum, dep. (ad 
fy apiscor, to get), to acquire, get, ob- 
tain, gain, procure; to reach, over- 
take; to undertake, assume, take upon 
one's self. 

Aditus, ils, m. (adeo), a going jo, ap- 
proach, access ; an entrance. 

Adjumentum, i, n. (adjuvo), aid, 
help, assistance. Adjumenta ignavics, 
rhe incentives to sloth, the means of 

Adjungo, tre, junxi, junctum, a. (ad 

' fy jungo, to join), § 224, to add, join, 

annex, unite ; to associate, take or 

admit as an associate ; to conciliate ; 

to acquire, obtain. 

Adjutor, oris, m., an aider, abettor, 
helper, assistant : from 

Adjuvo, are, juvi, jutum, a. (ad fy 
juvo), to help, succor, aid, assist. 

Administer, tri, m. (ad § minister, a 
servant) a servant, inferior officer, 
manager ; a laborer, workman ; an 
assistant, promoter, abettor. 

Administro, ZLre, avi, atum, n. $■ a. 
(ad fy mimstro, to serve), to act, min- 
ister, attend, serve, work, do work or 
service ; to perform one's part ; to ad- 
minister, operate, manage, conduct, 
direct, govern, regulate. Adminis- 

[trare bellum, to have the management 
of, or to be the leader in a war. to 
wage war, to carry on war. 

Admirandus, a, um, part, fy sulj , 
admirable, worthy of admiration, to 
be wondered at, astonishing, amazing, 
wonderful : from 

Admiror, ari, atus sum, dep. (ad ty 
miror), to wonder greatly, marvel, b( 
astonished or surprised; to look ai 
with admiration, admire, wonder at. 

Admissus, a, um, part. : from 

Admitto, e~re, misi, missum, a. (ad $ 
mitto), to send to, or onward ; to re- 
ceive, admit : Fig. to commit a crime, 
perpetrate ; to permit, allow. 

Admodum, adv. (ad $■ modus), very 
exceedingly, much, greatly, truly 

Admonco, ere, ui, \tum, a. (ad fy mo* 
neo), $ 218, & R. 1., to remind, put in 
mind, warn, admonish, advise, sug 
gest; to incite, encourage, stimulate, 
urge on. 

Admoriitus, a, um, part (admoneo) 

Adnitens, tit, part., striving, exert 
ing one's self, using one's interest 

Adnitor, i, isus fy ixus sum, dep 
(ad fy nitor), to rest or lean upon ; \ 
273, 1. to strive, aim at, exert one'? 
self to reach or obtain. 

Adolescens, entis, adj. fy subs. m. <f 
f. (adolesco), young ; a j oung man oi 
woman ; a youth, one growing to ma 

Adolescentia, ce, f. (adolescens) 
youth, the period of life intervening 
between one's fourteenth and twenty 
eighth years, or, as others ray, be- 
tween one's fifteenth and thirtieth 

Adolescentulus, i, m, dim. \aCuts- 
cens), a young man, youth, stripling 
Also adj., young, very young. 

Adolesco, ere, olevi, adultum, n. (ad 
fy olesco, to grow), to grow, grow np, 
increase Fig. to advance, increase 




twomc greater; to mature, ripen, 
corne to maturity. 

Adoptatio, onis, f (adopto), an 
adopting, adoption. 

Adoptdtus, a, um, part. : from 

Adopto, are, avi, alum, a. (ad $• 
<*pto), to choose, assume, take ; to se- 
lect ; to adopt, take for a son. 

Adscisco, ere, scivi, scitum, a. (ad fy 
scisco, to inquire), to take, receive, ap- 
prove, admit, unite ; to gain over, en- 
list in one's cause. 

Adsdtus, a, um, part, (adscisco), re- 
ceived, admitted. 

Adsisto, see Assislo. 

Adstrictus, a, um, part., straitened, 
bound ; occupied, engaged, engrossed, 
absorbed, earnestly intent : from 

Ad string o, Zre, nxi, ictum, a. (ad fy 
stringo. to bind), to bind close, tie, 

Adsum, adesse, adfui, irr. n. (ad #■ 
mm), § 2#4, to be present, be at hand, 

Adventus, us, m. (advenio), a com- 
ing, arrival, approach. 

Adversarius, i, m., an adversary * 
an enemy : from 

Adversor, art, dtus sum, dep. freq. 
(adverto), to oppose, resist. 

Adversus, a, um, part fy adj. (ad- 
verto), § 222, opposite, over against, 
fronting, in front, Vulnera adverse 
wounds in front. Adverso corpore, in 
front, in the fore part of the body ;— 
adverse, hostile, contrary, opposing 
Passively, that which is an object ot 
hostility or aversion to any one ;— op- 
posed, averse, unfavorable, disadvan 
tageous, bad. Adversae res, calami- 
ties, misfortunes, adversity. Volun- 
tates ipsm sibi adverser, — inconsistent, 
— at variance with. In adversa mu 
tari, to be changed to the opposites 
Adverso colle evadere, to ascend the 
hill in front. Adversis equis concur 
rere. to charge directly forward. Ad 

be here; to arrive, come; to defend, verbis, i, m., an adversary, enemy, 
aid, assist, succor, stand by ; to come opponent. Metello adverso popuh 
upon, fall on, press on or upon ; to partium. $ 222, R ° 

be; to be near, be fast approaching; 
to give attention. 

Adulter, eri, m., an adulterer ; a de- 
bauchee, seducer. 

Adulterinus, a. um, aJj. (adulter)^ 
adulterous, spurious ; adulterated, 
forged, false. 

Adidtus, a, um, part, fy adj., (ado- 
lesco), grown up; full grown, adult, 
perfect, mature, ripe. 

Advectitius, a, um, adj., brought 
from abroad, foreign, imported: 

Advtho, %re, exi, ectum, a. (ad. ty 
teho, to carry), to conduct, carry to, 
carry or remove ; to import, convey, 

Adversiis fy Adversum, adv. fy prep, 
with the ace, against, in front of, op- 
posite to, over against, facing ; unfa- 
vorable to ; towards. Cibus illis ad' 
versumfamem erat, their food was for 
the removal of hunger : from 

Adverto, ere, erti, ersum, a. (ad <§r 
verto), to turn to or towards. Fig. to 
advert to, apply one's thoughts to, at* 
tend, heed, observe, perceive, under- 
stand; so, adverto animum, or Am* 
madverto, which see. 

Advocdtus, a, um part., being call- 
ed, summoned, invited, called toge- 
ther : from 

Advoco, are, avi, dtum, a. (ad. $• 
\voco), to call, call to; to summon, em- 

AdvZnio, ire, eni, entum, n. (ad § ploy, use. 

teirio), to come, come to, arrive. 

Advenio, are, avi, n.freq. (advenio), 
to come frequently; to come on, 
noma approach, arrive at. 

JEdes fy Mdis, is, f, in the sing., a 
room, chamber, apartment ; a temple ; 
in the pi., a house, habitation, dwell- 
ing, edifice ; temples. 




Mdifcium, i, n., an edifice struc- 
ture, building : from 

JEdiflco, are, dm, alum, n. ty a. 
fades $■ facio), to build ; to erect or 
rear a building ; to construct. 

AZdilis, is, m. (cedes), an edile, a Ro- 
man magistrate who superintended 
the repairs of the temples and other 
public buildings. 

JEger, cBgra, cegrum, adj., § 250, 
weak, infirm, lame, diseased, corrupt- 
ed ; faint, sick, ill ; sorrowful, unhap- 
py, troubled, afflicted. 

JEgre, adv. comp. (Bgriits, sup. ceger- 
rime, (ceger), unwillingly, discontent- 
edly; with inconvenience; hardly, 
scarcely, with difficulty, with much 
ado. JEgre ferre, to bear ill, dislike, 
be offended with, displeased. 

JEgrxtudo, mis, f. (csger), sorrow, 
grief, affliction, anguish, solicitude, 
care, trouble. Nimis molliter cegritu- 
dinem pad, to take trouble too much 
to heart, to feel affliction too sensi- 
tively ; — bodily infirmity, illness. 

JEgyptus, i,f., Egypt, a large coun- 
try in the northeastern part of Africa ; 
but, by some of the ancients, it was 
reckoned a part of Asia. J. 19. 

JEmilius, i, m., a Roman name be- 
longing to the JEmilian gens. 

jEmulus, a, um, adj. fy subs., emu- 
lous; a rival, emulator, imitator. 

JEnlas, cb, m., the son of Venus and 
Anchises, who, after the fall of Troy, 
is said to have led a colony of Tro- 
jans into Italy, and to have laid the 
foundations of the Roman state. C. 6. 

JEquabilis, e, adj. (cequo, to level), 
equal; equable, uniform, always the 
same, unchanged; consistent. Vir 
fama cequabili, — of consistent charac- 
ter, of unsullied reputation. 

JEquabittter, adv. comp. cequabilius, 
<Bquabilis), equally, evenly, uniformly 
calmly, equably. 

JEqualis, e, adj. (cequus), equal, like 
similar ; even, level, plain, flat ; coe- 

val, coetaneous. Subs, a contempo 
rary, one equal in years, of the same 

JEquaUter, adv. (cequalis), equally; 

JEque, adv. (cequus), equally, in an 
equal degree, similarly, alike, indif- 
ferently, as* it happens. 

JEquitas, atis', f. (cequus), equality. 
Fig. equity, impartiality, regard to the 
equal rights or natural equality of 
others ; justice ; moderation, equanimi- 
ty ; moderation of affections, tranquil- 
lity of mind. 

JEquum, i, n., equity, justice : from 

JEquus, a, um, adj., level, smooth, 
plain, equal, even ; like, similar. Fig 
just, equitable, fair, impartial, honest, 
upright ; reasonable, right, fair, mode 
rate. Injurias gravius cequo habere, 
to feel injuries too deeply, § 256, R. 9 ; 

•moderate, calm, unruffled, com- 
posed, undisturbed. JEquo animo, pa- 
tiently, calmly, with equanimity, with 
indifference, without emotion. Ex 
cequo bonoque, in accordance with jus- , 
tice and equity. 

JErarium, i, n. (ces, § 100, 8.), the 
place where the public money was 
kept, treasury, exchequer ; the public 
money, national revenue. 

JErumna, ce,f, labor, toil, hardship; 
difficulty, calamity, trouble, misfor- 
tune, misery, adversity. 

JEs, ceris, n., copper, brass, bronze ; 
any thing made of copper, &c. ; mo- 
ney, coin. JEs alienum, money owed 
to another, a debt. JEs mutuum, a 
loan,, money borrowed or lent. 

JEstas, dtis,f. (ceslus), the summer ; 
summer air, summer heat. 

JEstimo, are, dvi, alum, a., to esti' 
mate?$alue, appreciate, regard ; to set 
a value on any thing. Fig. to esti 
mate, rate ; to think, hold, judge, be 
lieve, determine ; to consider, weigh 

JEstlvus, a, um, adj. (cestus), relat 
ing to summer, summer. JEstiva cas- 




tra f or simply (Estiva, brum, n. sum- 
mer quarters, a stationary summer 
camp ; a campaign. 

JFsStuo, are, avi, atum, n. (cestus), to 
be very hot ; to boil with heat ; to boil, 
undulate, flow. Fig. to burn with de- 
sire; to be anxious, perplexed, unde- 
cided, disturbed in mind. Invidia, to 
be inflamed — . 

JEstus, us, m., any burning or 
scorching heat, hot weather ; the ebb- 
ing and flowing of the tide ; a boiling 
or bubbling up. Fig. force, violence ; 
doubt, uncertainty, perplexity. 

JElas, dtis, f (cevum), age, time of 
life ; life. JEtatem agere, or habere, to 
live ; to pass one's life. JEtas extre- 
ma, old age. 

JEternus, a, um, adj. (cevum), eter- 
nal, everlasting ; durable* lasting, per- 
petual ; immortal. 

JElhiops, opis, m., an Ethiopian. J. 

JEvum, i, n., length of time, dura- 
tion ; time, life, age. ^Evi brevis, of 
short duration, short-lived ;— an age, 

Afer, Afra, A/rum, adj., African. 
Afri, drum, m. pi., the Africans. J. 18. 
Affatim, adv. (ad fy fatim, sufficien- 
cy), abundantly, largely, in abundance, 
copiously, sufficiently. 

Affecto, are, avi, atum, a, freq. (offi- 
cio, to affect), to seek after, aim at stu- 
diously, solicit; to covet, desire, as- 
pire to; to strive after, try to gain 

Affero, afferre, attuli, allatum, irr. a. 
K ad fy fero) to take, bring, carry ; to 
assert; to report, announce; to pro- 
duce, cause, occasion. 

Afflnis e adj. (ad $ finis), contigu- 
ous, adjoining; related by marriage. 
Subs, a relation by marriage. 

Affiriitas, atis, f. (affinis), vicinity, 
near union, connection ; affinity, alli- 
ance by marriage. 
Afflicto, are, &vi, Mum, a. freq. (affli- 

go), to agitate, toss. Fig. to afflict, 
vex, torment, distress, harass. Afflic* 
tare se, to be cast down or afflicted * 
to sorrow, grieve, give a loose to dis- 
tress, to beat one's breast or wring 
the hands in grief. 

Affiictus, a, um, part, fy adj., trou- 
bled, afflicted, ruined, prostrated, des- 
perate : from 

Affllgo, ere, ixi, ictum, a, (ad <$rfligo r 
to dash against), to dash against, 
throw to the ground, overthrow. Fig. 
to harass, distress, vex, disquiet, trou- 
ble ; to injure, hurt, ruin. 

luo, Sre, uxi, n. (ad fy fluo, to 
flow), to flow to or towards. Fig. to 
run or flock towards ; to have in abun- 
dance ; § 224, to abound, be abundant. 

Affore, def. verb (ad ty fore), fut. 
inf., to be about to be present : with a 
subject accusative, would be present 
would assist. 

Africa, cb, /., Africa, one of the 
thrive great divisions of the world, as 
known to the Greeks and Romans. 
It is sometimes put for the Roman 
province in Africa. J. 5, 13, 14, 17 — 23, 
39, &c. 

Afficanus, a, um, adj. (Africa), Af- 
rican. Africdnus, i, m., the agnomen 
of the two Scipios, by whom the Car- 
thaginians were conquered. J. 5., 

Afrtcus, a, um, adj. (Africa), Afri- 
can. Mare Africum, the Mediterra- 
nean Sea. J. 18. 

Agendus, a, um, part, (ago), to be 
done. Agendarum rerum licentia, 
power to negotiate. 

Agens, tis, part, (ago) 

Ager, agri, m„ a field, farm ; ground, 
land, soil ; an estate ; a territory, tract, 

Agger, tris, m. (aggho, to heap up> 
a heap or pile, as of stones, earth, 
wood, $c. ,• a mound, bulwark, bank, 
rampart, dam, mole 

Aggredior, i, essus sum, dep. (ad $ 
gradior, to step), $ 233, (3.) $ 271, to 





go to, come near, approach ; to attack, 
assail, assault, to accost, address, 
make court to. Fig. to undertake, 
attempt, go about, prepare for, enter 
upon, commence. Aggredi majora et 
mag is aspera, to attempt greater and 
more difficult enterprises. Aggredi or 
aggredi pecunia, to try to bribe or cor- 
mpt, to tamper with. 

Aggressus, a, um, part, (aggredior). 

Agitdtus, a, um, part : from 

Agito, are, dvi, alum, a. freq. (ago), 
to drive, conduct; to toss about, drive 
to and fro, agitate, disturb, toss, put 
in motion ; to debate, discuss ; to fol- 
low, pursue ; to pass, spend ; to be, live, 
dwell, remain; to deport or conduct 
one's self, behave, act ; to make, exer- 
cise, be employed in, be engaged in. 
Agitare imperium, to govern, adminis- 
ter the government. Agitare presi- 
dium or prcBsidia, to mount or keep 
guard, to guard, to do duty in a gar- 
rison or escort. Agitare inducia/, to 
keep or observe a truce. Agitare pa- 
cem, to be at peace; — to meditate, 
think of, weigh, ponder over, revolve 
in the mind. Mente or animo agitare, 
abs. to think; to think of, plot; — to 
prepare, set about, attempt ; to consi- 
der. Id modo agitari, that this was 
the only question, $ 265. Pass, imp, 
debates are had, there is conversation. 
Agitare gaudium, Icetitiam, luctum, etc., 
to manifest, exhibit or feel gladness, 
&c. Maror agitabatur, — was felt, pre- 
vailed, was. Varius, incertusque agi- 
tare, to be in doubt and perplexity. 
Statuit nihil sibi agitandum, — that 
nothing was to be done by him, that 
he must adopt no active measures. 
Paucorum arbitrio agitabatur, life was 
passed, or affairs were conducted, ac- 
cording to the will of the aristocracy. 

Agmen, Vnis, n., an army on the 
march , the act of marching, d march; 
an army, troop, multitude. In agmine, 
on a march ? from 

Ago, ire, egi actum, a., to copduct 
drive, lead; to pursue; to guide, di- 
rect, move. Animus agit cuncta,— 
directs, moves, animates. Agere vin- 
eas, to push forward the mantelets; 
— to do, perform, act, execute, trans- 
act ; to be ; to live ; to abide, tarry, re- 
main; to be employed, be engaged. 
Agere se, to conduct one's self, be* 
have. Agere cum aliquo, to hold in- 
tercourse, treat with ; to pass, spend, 
consume; to procure; to treat, dis- 
cuss. Agere cum populo, to treat 
with or address a request to the peo- 
ple, to apply to the people ; — to man- 
age, conduct, direct. Agere pro vic- 
toribus, to act the part or assume the 
air of victors. Agere joca atque seria, 
to converse sportively or seriously. 
Non agitur de vectigalibus, the ques- 
tion is not concerning (our) revenues. 
Dum hcec aguntur, while these things 
are going on. Id agitur, this is at- 
tempted, the aim is this, § 273, 1. 

Agrestis, e, adj. (ager), belonging to 
the fields, rustic, rural. Fig. unpo- 
lished, savage, uncivilized wild, rude 
Subs, a peasant, countryman, rustic. 

Aio, ais, ait, def. verb, $ 183, 4. $ 
272, to say, speak ; to affirm, assert, 
testify, aver. 

Ala, ce, /., a wing ; the wing of an 
army, flank ; a squadron of horse sta- 
tioned on the flanks of an army. 

Aldcer, cris, ere, adj., lively, spright- 
ly, cheerful, ready, active, prompt t 
fierce, eager. 

Alblnus, i, m. (albus, white), a Ro- 
man surname of the Posthumian gens 
Sp. Albinus, a Roman consul, A. U 
C. 644. J. 35, 36, 44, 77. 

Algor, oris, m. (algeo, to be cold), 
cold, dullness. 

Alias, adv. (alius), in another way , 
at another time; otherwise; some* 

Alibi, adv. (alius fy ibi), elsewhere* 
in another place. Alii— alibi, in dif 1 




ferent places, some in one place, and 
others in other places. 

Alien atuSy a, um, part., estranged, 
alienated, made the property of an- 
other, transferred, set aside, cast off, 
rejected, slighted, repulsed : from 

Alieno, are, am, atum, a„ to alien- 
ate, cause to become the property of 
another, transfer, separate, cast off 
estrange : from 

Alienus, a, um, adj. (alius), § 222, 
& R. 2, & R. 6. belonging to another 
or others, of another, another's, fo- 
reign. Alieni appetens, greedy of the 
property of others. JEs alienum, a 
debt ;— averse from, opposed to, alien- 
ated or estranged in affection, inimi- 
cal to ; unseasonable, inconsistent, in- 
congruous, unsuitable, not adapted to 
one's nature or genius ; hurtful, disad- 
vantageous, unfavorable. Neque alie- 
na consilii, not unsuitable for the pur- 
pose. Alienus locus, a place or posi- 
tion chosen by an opponent, and 
hence, unfavorable, disadvantageous. 
Subs, a stranger, one of another fa- 

Alio, adv. (alius), § 191, R. 1, to 
another place, thing or person; to 
another subject; to another end or 
purpose. Alius — alio, one to one 
place another to another, one hither — 
another thither. 

Aliquamdiu, adv. (aliquis ty diu), for 
some time. 

Aliquando, adv. (alius $ quando), 
at some time, sometimes; formerly; 
at length, now at last. 

Aliquantum, adv., somewhat, some, 
considerably, a little, rather : from 

Ahquantus, a, um, adj. (alius fy 
quantus), some, somewhat, considera- 
ble. With a genitive, some part, a 
considerable part. Aliquanto, abl. 
with comparatives, considerably, a 
good deal. 

Aliquis, qua, quod <£• quid, gen. ali- 
cujus. indef. pro. § 138. (alius <jr quis), 

some, somebody, some one, some 
thing, any, any one. 

Aliquot, ind. adj. pi. (alius fy quot, 
how many), some, seyeral, some cer- 
tain, a few, not many. 

Aliter, adv., in a different manner, 
otherwise, in any other. way, else. 
Aliter ac, otherwise than, different 
from what; — moreover, however, ne- 

Alius, a, ud, adj. § 107, another,, 
other, another person or thing; di- 
verse, different ; alius — alius, one — 
another, in which expression alius de- 
notes one of many ; alii — alii, partim 
— alii, pars — alii or alii — pars, some 
— others. Aliis alia licentia, what is 
lawful for some is not lawful for 
others, all have not the same license. 
Reguli alius alio concessere, the prin- 
ces retired one to one place another 
to another, or, to different places. 
Alius alii assentiebantur, one agreed 
wi\h one (leader) another with an- 
other. Alia deinde alia loca petive- 
rant, — first one place and then another. 
Prcelia multa alia aliis locis facere, — 
in various places, § 207, R. 32. Alius 
ab alio, one after another. Alius ac 
or atque, other than. With a corn.- 
parative, any one or any thing else ; 
with the addition of a negative, no one 
or nothing else. In the plural it is 
sometimes used for ceteri, the rest, the 

Alldtus, a, um, part, (affero^ 

Allevatus, a, um, part. : from 

Allevo, are, avi, atum, a. (ad <jr levo), 
to lift up, raise aloft, support. 

AlUcio, ere, exi, ectum, a. (ad & 
lacio, to allure), to attract, invite, al- 
lure, entice, decoy, inveigle, wheedle- 

Allobrox, ogis, pi. Allobroges, ogum, 
m., the Allobroges, a people of Gallia 
Narbonensis, whose principal city was 
Vienna near the Rhone. C. 40 — 50 




Alo, Ire, alui, aUtum or altum, a., to 
support by feeding; to nourish, cher- 
ish, feed, support, maintain. Pass, to 
be maintained, to live. 

Alte, adv. {altus), on high, high 
highly ; deeply, low. Liber ius altius- 
que processi, — too freely and too far. 

Alter, era, erum, adj. gen. alterius, 
$ 107 $ 212, one of two, the other. 
Alter — alter, the one— the other, the 
former — the latter, the one part — the 
other part; — the second, $ 120, 1. 
Units et alter, one and the other, 
several, some, one after the other. 
It is used to express reciprocal action ; 
as, Alteri alieros sauciant, — one an- 
other, each other. 

Altiludo, friis, f. {alius) highness, 
loftiness, height; depth. Fig. depth, 
inscrutableness, profundity. Aucta in 
altitudinem, — in height, upwards. 

Altus, a, um, part. {aid). 

Altus, a, um, adj., high, tall, lofty ; 
deep. Fig. lofty, elevated, noyle, 
great ; deep, profound. 

Alveus, i, m., the channel or bed of 
a river; a trough; the hull, body, or 
hold of a ship. 

Ambio, Ire, ii, Hum, a, iamb, § 196, 
(6). & 1, ty eo), to go around; to sur- 
round, encompass, invest ; to go about 
soliciting votes, canvass for an elec- 
tion ; to solicit or endeavor to gain by 
earnest entreaty, to endeavor to make 
interest with. 

Arnbitio, onis, f. {ambio), a going 
round; a soliciting or canvassing for 
office ; an eager desire of honor, popu- 
larity, power, &c, ambition; flatteiy, 
hdulation, seeking popularity, curry- 
ing favor 

Amuitiosus, a, um, adj. {arnbitio), 
going or winding round; ambitious; 
tending or calculated to conciliate fa 
vor, popular. 

Ambitus, us, m. {ambio), a going 
round ; a compass, circuit ; an unlaw- 
ful seeking or canvassing for office, as 

by bribery, courting of popular lavof, 
Lex ambitus, a law concerning bribery 
and corruption. 

Ambo, cb, o, adj. § 118, 1. R. 1. both. 

Amentia, cb, f. {amens, mad), mad- 
ness, insanity, folly. 

Amicitia, ce, f., friendship, amity, 
an alliance, league of friendship -.from 

Amicus, a, um, adj. {amo), § 222, 
friendly, kind, cordial, benevolent. 

Amicus, i, m, {amicus, a, um), a 
friend ; an ally. 

Amissus, a, um, part. : from 

Amitto, ere, Isi, issum, a. {a cy mitto), 
to send away, dismiss, let go; to lose, 
throw away. 

Amo, are, avi, atum, a., to love, be 
fond of, delight in; to fall in love; to 
make love ; to be in love, to have a 
mistress. Omnia qua ira fieri amat, 
— delights to have done, is wont to do, 
$ 272. 

Amcenus, a, um, adj. (amo), pleasant, 
delightful, charming, sweet. 

Amor, oris, m. {amo), love, desire- 
affection, passion. 

Amotus, a, um, part. : from 

Amoveo, ere, ovi, ctum, a. \,a fy mo- 
veo), to remove, take away, withdraw. 
Amovere aliquem senatu, to expel from 
the senate. 

Ample, adv. K amplus), amply, large- 
ly, profusely. 

Ample-dor, i, exus sum, dep. {am $ 
plecto, to intertwine), to embrace, en- 
circle, surround, clasp. Fig. to love, 

Amplexor, an, atus sum, dep freq. 
{amplector), to embi ace. Fig. to love, 

Amplius, adv. (comp. of ampU), $ 
256, R. 6. more, further, longer; be- 
side. Morari amplius opinione, to 
tarry longer than is expected. Amplius 
posse or valuisse, to be more powerful 

Amplus, a, um, adj., large, spacious, 
ample, great, 'extensile. Fig. splen 
did illustrious, magnificent, glorious 




high honorable. Amplior, larger, 
greater, more abundant, higher,, more 
honorable, &e. Amplior vero, larger 
than the reality, larger than it was. 

An, adv. <fy conj., of doubt or inter- 
rogation; in indirect questions, whe- 
ther ; in direct questions it is not trans- 
lated. An — an, whether — or: the first 
an is sometimes omitted, or its place 
supplied by ne or utrum, § 265, R. 2. 

Anceps, cipitis, adj. § 111, (am § 
caput, $ 112,2.), having two heads; dou- 
ble, twofold; doubtful, uncertain, du- 
bious ; faithless. 

Ancilla, a, /., a maid-servant, fe- 
male slave. 

Angustia., <b, f, a narrow place, de- 
file ; narrowness, straitness. It is used 
most frequently in the plural : from 

Augustus, a, um, adj. (ango, to 
strangle), strait, narrow, close, con- 
fined, limited. 

Anima, ce,f, air, breath; the living 
principle, life; the soul, spirit, mind, 

Animadverto, ere, rti, rsmn, a. {ani- 
mus fy adverto), § Zll, to take heed, 
attend to; observe, take notice of, 
perceive; to punish, inflict punish- 
ment. Animadvertitur, imp., punish- 
ment is inflicted. 

Animal, alls, n. (anima), a living 
creature, animal. 

Animus, i, m., wind, breath; the 
mind, soul, intellect; the attention; 
the thoughts, will, purpose, desire, de- 
sign; inclination, disposition, regard, 
affection, feeling, anger; courage, 
spirit. Animum advertere, to turn 
one's mind to, observe, see Animad- 
verto. Vertere animum, to turn one's 
mind, change one's purpose or de- 
sign. Bonum animum habere, to have 
good courage, be of good courage. 
Volvere, reputare or trahere cum ani- 
mo, to revolve in one's mind. Animo, 
abl., in mind, imagination, or purpose. 
It. mav often be translated by a pro- 

noun ; as, Fatigare animum, to wear) 
one's self. See J. 11, 13, 39, 62, 70, 
81, 110, &c. The genitive animi is 
often annexed somewhat pleonastical 
ly to words denoting qualities or attri- 
butes of the mind, as, timor animi, 
judicium animi, virtus animi, munifi- 
centia animi, instead of timor, judi- 
cium, etc. 

Annitor, i, ixus or isus sum, dep. (ad 
ty nitor), to rest or lean upon ; to strive, 
aim at, exert one's self to reach or 

Annius, i, m. (C), a Roman prsefect 
sent by Metellus to command the gar- 
rison of Leptis. 

Annius, i, m. (L.), a tribune of the 
Roman people. J. 37. 

Annius, i, m. (Q.), a Roman senator 
who was confederate with Cataline. 
C. 17, 50. 

Annus, i, m., a year. Annis infir- 
mus or confectus, — with age. 

Annuus, a, um, adj. (annus), lasting' 
a year ; recurring every year, yeany, 

Ante, prep, with the ace, before, 
previous to ; in advance of; opposite 
to; with persons, in a comparison, 
more than, superior to. Ante te cog- 
nitum, before knowing you. § 274, 
R. 5, (a). 

Anth, adv., before, formerly. Paulo 
ante, just now, a little while ago, a 
short time since, just before; — for- 
ward, in advance. 

Antea, adv. (ante fy is), before, afore' 
time, previously, formerly, heretofore 

Antecapio, ere, cepi, captum, a. (ante 
ty capio), to take possession of before- 
hand, pre-occupy; to anticipate, pre- 
vent; to provide beforehand. Ante- 
capere famem, sitim, etc., to excite 
hunger and other appetites prema- 

Anteeo, Ire, ii, irr. a. (ante #• eo), $ 
233, to go before, precede. Fig. to 
surpass, outstrip, outdo, excel 




Antefiro, ferre, tuli, latum, irr. a. 
*finte <\ fero), $ 224, to carry before ; 
to set before. Fig. to prefer, give the 
preference to. 

. Antlhic, adv. (ante <$• hie), before, 
beforetime, formerly ; before that time, 

Antepbno, ere, osui, ositum, a. (ante 
fy pono), $ 224, to set before. Fig. to 
prefer, assign a higher place. 

Antevenio, ire, eni, entum, a. $ n. 
(ante fy venio), § 233, to get before, 
get the start of, anticipate. Fig. to 
prevent, thwart ; to excel, exceed, sur- 

Antonius, i, m. (C. Hibrida), a Ro- 
man consul, and the colleague of 
Cicero, was the son of M. Antonius 
the orator and the uncle of M. Anto- 
nius the triumvir. He was the com- 
mander in chief of the army by which 
Catiline and his followers were de- 
feated. C. 21, 36, 57. 

Anxie, ado., anxiously, earnestly, 
with concern, grief or pain : from 

Anxius, a, urn, adj. (ango, to stran- 
gle), $ 213, R. 4, (1.) & $ 265, anxious, ' 
disquieted, vexed, troubled, disturbed, 
uneasy, apprehensive, solicitous, fear- 

ApZrio, Ire, erui, ertum, a. (ad <y 
pario), to open, set open. Ferro iter 
aperire, to open a passage, — cut one's 
way through with the sword : — to un- 
cover, unveil. Fig. to open, display, 
discover, show, disclose, make known, 
exhibit, portray. 

Aperte, adv., openly, clearly, dis- 
tinctly, manifestly, without disguise; 
publicly : from 

Apertus, a. um, part, § adj. (aperio), 
open, standing open. Fig. clear, ma- 
nifest, evident. In aperto esse, to be 
plain, evident or intelligible. 

Appello, are, avi, atum, a. (ad fy 
petto, tos. to speak), § 230, to call, 
name, term, entitle ; to pronounce, de- 
clare; to denominate? to designate; 

to speak to, address, accost, hail, ap- 
ply or betake one's self to; to calJ 
upon, invoke, entreat, beseech ; to ac- 

Appello, tre, puli, pulsum, a. (ad $ 
pello, ere), to drive to or towards; to 
direct one's course to, arrive at, reach. 

Appetens, ends, part, fy adj., § 213, 
desirous of, thirsting after, fond of, 
eager for ; covetous, greedy : from 

Appeto, ere, mi, itum, a. (ad. fypeto), 
to try to get or obtain, seek; strive 
for, aim at ; to approach ; to attack ; 
to wish for, desire eagerly, covet. 

Apprehendo, ere, endi, ensum, a. (ad 
cy prehendo, to lay hold of), to catch 
or lay hold of, take, seize, apprehend 

Apprehensus, a, um,part. (apprehen- 

Approbo, are, avi, atum, a. (ad if 
probo), to approve, commend, applaud 
to prove, confirm, demonstrate, make 


Appropinquo, are, avi, atum, n. (ad 
Sf propinquo, to approach), to.diaw 
nigh, approach. 

Appulsus, a, um, part, \appello, ere), 
driven to, guided, having reached or 
put into, having made for. 

Apud, prep, with the ace, at, close 
by, near, with, among, in, before, by, 
on the part of, at or in the house of, in 
the possession of. 

Apulia, ce, /., Apulia, a country ot 
lower Italy bordering upon the Adri- 
atic sea. C. 27, 30, 42, 46. 

Aqua, &,f., water. Hiemales aquce, 
the winter-rains. 

Aquila, cb, /., an eagle ; the stand* 
ard of the Roman legion. 

Aquor, ari, atus sum, dep. (aqua), to 
get, draw or fetch water; to water. 

Ara, cb, f, an altar; a monument. 
Fig. religion. 

Arbiter, tri, m., an arbitrator, um 
pire, judge, mediator ; a witness. 

Arbitratus, us, m. (arbitror), wiU 




judgment, opinion, pleasure, choice; I used in battering down walls wuh \ 

mediation, intervention 

Arbitrium, i, n. {arbiter), the sen- 
tence of an arbitrator; award, deter- 
mination, decision, judgment; will, 
pleasure, inclination. 

Arbitror, dri, atus sum, dep. (arbi- 
ter), § 272, to judge, think, imagine, 
be of opinion, suppose. 

Arbor ty Arbos, oris, /., a tree. 

Arbustum, i, n. (arbor), a plantation, 
bhrubbery, thicket, orchard ; brush- 

Arcesso, ere, wi, Itum, a., to call, 
fiend for, invite, summon, to summon 
to a court of justice; § 217, accuse, 
arraign. Arcessere capitis, to accuse 
of a capital crime. In the pres. inf. 
pass, this verb is of either the 3d or 
the 4th conjugation, arcessi or arces- 

Arcis, see Arx. 

Arctk, or Artk, adv. (arctus, strait), 
straitly, closely, strictly, compactly, in 
close order. 

Ardens, entis, part, fy adj., on fire, 
burning. $ 213, R. 4, (5.) # (4). 
Fig. eager, ardent, impatient : from 

Ardeo, ere, arsi, arsum, n., to burn, 
be on fire ; to be ready, eager, impa- 

Ardor, oris, m. (ardeo), heat, burn- 
ing heat, fire. Fig. eagerness, impa- 
tience, ardent desire, ardor. Hand 
procxil ab ardoribus, not far from the 
burning heat, i. e. near the equator. 

Ardmis, a, um, adj., high, lofty, 
steep, difficult to reach. § 222 Fig. 
difficult, hard, ^laborious, arduous, 

Arena, ce, f. (areo, to be dry), sand, 

Arenosus, a, um, adj. (arena), sandy. 

Argentum, i, n., silver; silver mo- 
ney ; money. 

Aridus, a, um, adj. (areo, to be dry), 
dry parched, dried up, thirsty, arid. 

Aries, Mi m., a ram; an engine 

head like that of a ram, a battering 

Arma, drum, n. pi., all kinds of war 
like arms offensive and defensive 
weapons ; war, warfare. Arma atqut 
tela militaria, arms defensive and of- 
fensive. Manus armare, to take arms 
in one's hands. 

Armalus,a, um, part, (armo), armed, 
equipped. Armati, orum, m. pi., arm- 
ed men, men in arms, soldiers, 

Armenius, a, um, adj., of Armenia, 
a country of Asia, lying between the 
Taurus and the Caucasus, Armenian 
Armenii, drum, m. pi., the Armenians. 
J. 18. 

Armo, are, dvi, atum, a. (arma), to 
arm, equip. 

Aro, are, dvi, atum, a. 6f n., to 
plough ; to till, cultivate ; to acquire by 

\Arpinum, i, n., a town of Latium, 
near Campania, where Plautus, Cice- 
ro, and Marius were born. It is now 
called Arpino. J. 63. 

Arrectus, a, um, part, (arrigo). 

Arreptus, a, um, part, (arripio). 

Arretlnus, a, um., adj., of or per' 
taining to Arretinum, a city of Etru- 
ria, now called Arezzo. C. 36. 

Arrigo, ere, cxi, ectum, a. (ad $• rego) 
to lift up, raise ; to excite, rouse, ani- 
mate, encourage. 

Arripio, he, ipui, eptum, a. (ad Sf 
rapio), to take by force, seize, lay 
hold of. 

Arrogo, are, dvi, atum, a. (ad $■ 
rogo), § 224, to arrogate, claim or 
attribute to one's self unjustly. 

Ars, artis, f, an art. faculty, quali 
ty, endowment, character; method, 
way, trait of character, manner 
means ; profession, occupation, em- 
ployment, habit, practice, pursuit > 
science ; contrivance, skill, ability 
exertion, industry. In dlvs artibus 




tn other respects, in other points: — 
deceitful art, stratagem, artifice. 

Arte, artius, artissime, see Arete. 

ArUfex, Ids, m. $■ f (ars <$- faciei), 
an artificer, artist. Adj. skillful, tried, 

Artificium, i, n, (artifex), an art, 
trade ; skill, science, contrivance, arti- 
fice, artfulness, 

Arvum, i, n. (aro), a ploughed field ; 
a fallow field; arable land, glebe; a 
field. Fig. agriculture, tillage ; stand- 
ing corn. 

Arx, arcis, /., a lofty place, top or 
summit of a hill; a castle, fortress, 
strong hold, citadel, bulwark. 

Ascendo, ere, di, sum, a. fy n. (ad fy 
scando, to climb), to ascend, mount, 
climb. Navim ascendere, to embark. 

Ascensus, us, m. {ascendo), the act 
of ascending; an ascent. 

Asia, as, /., Asia, one of the three, 
great divisions of the earth as known 
to the ancients, including also, accord- 
ing to some writers, Egypt, or at 
least that par. of it east of the Nile. 
In a more limited sense, Asia Minor. 
J. 17, C. 2, 11. 

A spar, aris, m„ the name of a Nu- 
midian, sent by Jugurtha as ambassa- 
dor to Bocchus. J. 108—113. 

Asper, a, um, adj., $ 222, 3, rough, 
rugged, harsh ; craggy, uneven ; sour, 
acrid ; unpleasant, disagreeable. Fig. 
unpolished; cruel, savage, bloody; 
troublesome, difficult, calamitous ; 
dungerous, perilous, stormy; severe, 
rigorous, strict. Asperce res, difficult 
enterprises, also troubles, calamities, 
perils. Mala res, spes multo asperior, 
(our) circumstances are bad, (our) 
prospects still worse. Asperum fee- 
dumque evenire, to terminate unsuc- 
cessfully and disgracefully. Asperum 
?t acerbum, dangerous and trouble- 

Asj)ere, adi, (asper), roughly harsh- 
1\ , bitterly, severely 

Asperitas, atis,f (asper), roughness* 
ruggedness, harshness, unevenness, 
cragginess; sourness. Fig. trouble, 
difficulty, danger, peril, formidable na- 
ture or character. 

Aspernor, ari, atMs supn, dep. (ad fy 
sperno, to reject), to reject, avoid, 
shun, spurn; to slight, despise, dis- 
dain, contemn, scorn. 

Assentior, iri, ensus sum, dep. (id 
<Sr sentio), to assent, consent, approve 
agree, express one's assent. 

Assfyuor, i, cuius sum, dep. (ad ty 
sequor), § 229, to come up with, reach, 
overtake. Fig. to gain, obtain, pro* 
cure, compass, accomplish. 

sideo, ere, edi, essum, n. (ad $ 
sedeo, to sit), $ 233, to sit, sit down 
seat one's self, take one's seat near 
or by. 

Assisto, tire, stiti, n. (ad ty sisto, to 
stand), to stand near or by ; to stand. 

Assumo, ere, psi, ptum, a. (ad fy 
sumo), $ 210, R. 4, to take, assume, 
choose, adopt, use ; claim, arrogate. 

Astutia, (b, f. (astutus, shrewd), 
craftiness, knavery; circumspection 
wariness, address. 

At, conj. § 198, 9, but, yet. At enim, 
but, is used to mark strong opposition 
or dissent, and likewise serves to in- 
troduce an objection. So likewise at. 
especially with a pronoun ; as, at ego, 
C. 40. 

Athence, drum, f. pi., Athens, the 
capital of Attica, and most celebrated 
city of Greece. 

Atheniensis, e, adj. (Athence), Athe- 
nian, belonging to Athens. Atheni- 
enses, ium, m. pi., the Athenians. C 
2, 8, 51. 

Atque, conj. $ 198, 1, R. (6.) and; but 
but even, and even, certaimy. After 
aliter, secus, alius, etc. than. It often ' 
has the force of et quid em, and that 
too, and in truth, and serves to connect 
two words or propositions of whir.]) tht 
latter enhances or adds weight to the 




*tgnifi cation of the former ; as, atque 
id, and that too. 

Atrocitas, dlis, f. (atrox), cruelty, 
atrocity, barbarity, severity; terrible- 
ness, horribleness. 

Alrociter, adv., cruelly, fiercely, 
atrociously, barbarously, severely, vio- 
lently, harshly : from 

Atrox, dels, adj., raw, crude ; savage, 
atrocious, barbarous, fierce, cruel ; ter- 
rible, horrible; perilous, dangerous. 

Attendo, ere, di, turn, a. (ad fy tendo), 
to stretch, extend. Attendere sc. an- 
imum, to attend or give heed to, mind, 
give or direct one's attention to, mark, 
observe, $ 233, § 265. 

Aitente, adv. (attentus, attentive), at- 
tentively, deliberately, diligently, care- 
fully, assiduously, vigorously, with 

Attero, ere, trivi, tritum, a. (ad fy 
tero, to rub), to rub against ; to chafe, 
wear away, impair; to wear, weaken, 
wear out, destroy. 

Aitineo, ere, inui, entum, a. (ad <$- 
teneo), to hold, keep, detain; to occu- 
py, keep possession of, keep in sus- 
pense, amuse. 

Attingo, ere, tgi, actum, a. (a/I <fy tan- 
go, to touch), to touch, come in con- 
tact with; to reach, arrive at, attain; 
to border upon; to engage in, enter 
upon; to treat slightly of, touch light- 
ly upon, speak briefly of. 

Attribuo, ere, ui, utum, a. (ad fy tri- 
buo), to attribute, assign, bestow, 

Attrltus, a, um, part (attero.) 

Auctor, oris, m. fy f. (augeo), an au- 
thor, contriver, creator, maker, found- 
er, cause; a reporter, informant; an 
adviser, approver, instigator; a doer, 

AuctorVas, atis, f (auctor), authori- 
ty, dominion, power, jurisdiction ; pro- 
perty in a thing; commission, autho- 

regard. Aucioritas senatus, an ordi 
nance or decree of the senate. 

Auctus, a, um, part, fy adj. (augeo) 
enlarged, increased, augmented 
grown, &c, advanced, promoted 
Mo rib us a acta, improved— 

Audacia, ce, f. (audax), boldness 
courage, intrepidity, spirit, valor; au- 
dacity, impudence, presumption. 

Audaciler § Audacter, comp. auda- 
cius, adv. boldly, courageously, auda- 
ciously : from 

Audax, acis, adj., bold, resolute, 
confident, courageous ; audacious, 
daring, impudent : from 

Audeo, ere, ausus sum, n. pass. § 
142, 2, & $271, to dare, presume. It 
may be followed by an accusative with 
facere,aggredi or the like understood, 
to attempt, endeavor to do, undertake. 

Audio, ire, ivi, itum, a., to hear, 
hearken, listen to. It is construed 
with the inf. and ace. or with an ace. 
and a present jjarticiple, $ 272, & R. 5. 
Audii.ur, imp., it is reported, a report 
is heard, $ 141 R. 2. 

Audltus, a, um, part, [audio). 

Augeo, ere, auxi, auctum, a. fy n., to 
increase, augment, enlarge ; to height- 
en, exalt, dignify, advance, promote; 
to grow, increase. 

Augesco, ere, n. inc. (augeo), to in- 
crease, grow greater. 

Aulus, i, m., a Latin prcenomen ; a 
brother of the consul Sp. Albinus. J. 
36—39, 55. 

Aurelia, <B,f. (Orestilla), the wife of 
Catiline. C. *15, 35. 

Auris, is,f, the ear. 

Aurum, i, n., gold; money. 

Ausus, a, um,, part, (audeo). 

Aut, conj., § 198, 2, or; aut — aut, 
either— or ; non — aut, neither — nor. 

Autem, conj., § 198, 4, but, yet, never 
theless, however ; also, likewise. 

Autronius, i, m. (P.), a Roman se- 

rity to act ; influence ; force, weight, nator, who was an associate of Cati- 
interest credit, reputation, esteem, line. Tn his childhood he Lad beer. 





'he school-fellow of Cicero. He was 
elected to the consulship, for the year 
689, in conjunction with P. Sylla, but 
thej were both set aside on account 
of bribery He was afterwards ban- 
ished from his country on account of 
the part he took in the conspiracy of 
Catiline, as were also Cassius, Lseca, 
Vargunteius, Servius Sylla and C 
Cornelius. C. 17. 18, 47'. 48. 

Auxiliarius, a, um, adj. (auxilium), 
aiding, helping, auxiliary. 

Auxilior, ari, atus sum, dep., § 223, 
R. 2, to assist, help, aid, succor: from 

Auxilium, i. n. (augeo), assistance. 
aid, help, succor : pi, auxiliary troops, 

Avarilia, ce,f (avarus, avaricious), 
avarice, covetousness. 

Ave, avefo, n. def. § 183, 8, hail, be 
thou safe : farewell, adieu. It is often 
aspirated, have, haveto. 

Aveniinum, i, n., Mount Aventine, 
one of the seven hills of Rome. J. 31. 

Aversus, a, um, part. $• adj., $ 222, 
turned away, turned from, opposite 
to ; unfriendly, hostile, alienated, op- 
posed : from 

Averto, ere, erti, ersum, a. (a fy ver- 
to), $242, R. 1, to turn away, avert, 
remove, divert, turn ; to alienate, es- 
trange : to put to flight. 

A vide, adv., eagerly, earnestly : from 

Avidus, a, um., adj. (uveo, to desire), 
$213, eager, earnest, ardent, desirous, 
greedy; avaricious, covetous; ambi- 

Avius, a, um, adj. (a fy via), impas- 
sable, inaccessible ; unfrequented, so- 
litary, lonely. 

Avus, i, m>. a grandfather. 


Balms, i, m (C), a tribune of the 
Roman people, A. U. C. 643 ; corrupt- 
ed by Jugurtha J. 33, 34. 

Balearis, e, adj., Balearic, of the 
Balearic isles. The Baleares, or Ba- 

learic isles, were two m number, lying 
in the Mediterranean sea; they are 
now called Majorca and Minoica. 
Their inhabitants were ancienfly cele- 
brated as skillful slingers. J. 105. 

Barbarus, a, um, adj., barbaric, not 
Greek nor Roman, foreign; barba- 
rian, wild, savage, barbarous, rude* 
uncivilized. Barbari, drum, m. pi. 
barbarians; neither Greeks nor Ro- 
mans; savages. 

Bellicosus, a, um, adj. (bellum), war- 
like, valorous. 

Bellicus, a, um, adj. (bellum), of or 
relating to war ; warlike, martial. 

Belliemis, i, m. (L.), the name of- a 
Roman prsetor. J. 101. 

Bellua, ce,f, a beast. 

Bellum, i, n., war. Belli, gen. fy 
bello, abl., $ 221, R. 3, in war, in time 
of war. Belli domique. see Domus. 

Bene, adv. (benus, obs. for bonus"* 
comp. melius, sup. optime, well, large- 
ly. Bene polliceri, to promise well, 
make many and fair promises : — suc- 
cessfully, happily. Benefacere, to act 
well, perform illustrious deeds, see 
Bene factum, under Factus, Bene di- 
cere, to speak well or eloquently. 

Benedico, ere, xi, ctum, a <$■ n., to 
speak well of, commend. 

Benefacio, ere, lei, actum, n. (bene fy 
facio), to do good, benefit, confer a 

Benef actum, i, n. (benefucio), a kind- 
ness, benefit, favor; a good act or 

Beneficium, i, n. (benefacio), a kind- 
ness, benefit, favor ; an office, promo 

Benevolentia, ce,f (benevolens,hene- 
volent), benevolence, good-will, kind- 
ness, favor. 

Benigne, adv. (benignus, kind), kind 
]y, courteously, liberally, freely, wil 

BenignVas, atis,f (benignus, kind} 
kindness liberality, bounty, benignity 




courtesy. In benignitate habere, to 
attribute to kindness, to ascribe to 

Bestia, <z,f., a wild beast. 

Bestia, ce, m. (L. Calpurnius), a Ro- 
man senator and tribune of the people, 
A. U. C. 691, confederate with Cati- 
line. C. 17, 43. Also, Q. Calpurnius 
Piso Bestia, a grand-son of the former, 
who was consul, A. U. C. 643. J. 27— 
35. 77. 

Biduum, i, n. (bis fy dies), the space 
of two days. 

Btm, ce, a, adj. pi. § 119, III, two by 
two ; two : from 

Bis, num. adv. $ 119, twice, on two 

Bocchus, i, m., a king of Mauritania 
in alliance with Jugurtha. J. 19, 61, 

Bomilcar, aris, m., a Numidian, in 
whom Jugurtha placed great confi- 
dence. J. 35. 49, 53. 61, 70—73. 

Bonum, i, n., any good or blessing ; 
a good thing; right, rectitude, what 
is right or proper ; benefit, advantage ; 
profit; a favor; excellence, virtue, 
equity. Bonum honestumque, virtue 
and honor;— an endowment, qualifi- 
cation, good quality. Maximum bo- 
num, the chief good. Neque recte 
neque pro bono, i. e. neque recte neque 
bene. Bona drum, n. pi., goods, pro- 
perty, effects, advantages, good things : 

Bonus, a, um, adj. (comp. melior, 
sup. optimus), § 250, good ; brave, gal- 
lant, resolute, energetic ; valuable, pre- 
cious, useful, $ 222 ; virtuous, worthy ; 
well disposed, friendly. Boni, drum, 
m. pi., the opulent, prosperous ; able, 
respectable, men of character or tal- 
ent. Bona amicitia, faithful, steadfast, 
true — Boni fratres, affectionate — . 
Ager bonus pecori, — rsuitaoie ior, — 
adapled to. Imperium a minus bono 
transfertur, — from the less able or c? 
pable, the less skillful or expert. 

Brevis, c. adj., short, of short dura- 
tion, transitory, short-lived, brief. Bre 
vi, abl., or brevi tempore, shortly, in a 
short time. 

Brevtter, adv. (brevis), shortly, in 
brief, in a word, briefly. 

Bruttius, a, um, adj. of or belong- 
ing to the Bruttii, a people inhabiting 
a. country at the southern extremity 
of Italy, now called Calabria. Brut- 
tius ager, the country of the Bruttii 
C. 42. 

Brutus, i, m. (D. Junius), a Roman 
consul A. U. C. 677 ; he was the hus- 
band of Sefnpronia, who favored the 
conspiracy of Catiline, but Brutus him- 
self does not appear to have taken 
part with the conspirators. C. 40. 


C, an abbreviation of the prozno- 
men Caius. 

\ Cadaver, eris, n., a corpse, carcass, 

' dead body : from 

Cado, ere, cecidi, n., to fall ; to fall 
or die in battle ; to be slain ; to perish ; 
to fall out, happen, occur, turn out, 
issue or result in. 

Ccbcus, a, um, adj., blind. Ccp.cum 
corpus, i. e. cceca pars corporis, the 
blind side, the back. Cupidine ccbcus, 
blinded by passion, or desire. 

Cades, is, f, a cutting; a wound 
ing ; murder, slaughter, massacre, car- 
nage : jrom 

Ccedo, ere, ccecidi, caesum, a., to cut, 
cut down; to strike, beat; to kill, 
slay, slaughter, destroy. 

I Ccelatus, a, um, part., carved, sculp- 

: tured, embossed : from 

j CgbIo, are, avi Mum, a. (cesium a 
graving tool), to carve figures in re- 
lief; to emboss. 

i CcEpio, onis, m. (Q. Servilius), a Ro- 
man general who was defeated by trie 
Gauls and Cimbri A. U. C. 649. J 

! 114. 

I Casar, aris. m. (C. Julius), was the 




«on of L. Julius Caesar and Aurelia, 
the daughter of Aurelius Cotfa. After 
the conquest of the Germans, Gauls, 

Campus, i, m , a level surface ; a 
plain, open field. Campus or Campus 
Martins, the field of Mars, an open 

and Britains, he turned his amis field in Rome where the comitia were 

against Pompey, who had espoused 
the cause of the senate, and having 
defeated him, estabLshed himself as 
sole monarch of the Roman empire. 
In the conspiracy headed by Catilme, 
Caesar was suspected of favoring the 
cause of the conspirators. C. 47, 

Ccesar arts, m. (L. Julius), was 
consul with C. Figulus A. U. C. 690. 
He was the uncie of the triumvir JV1. 
Antony, and brother in law of Lentu- 
lus. C. 17. 

Caius, i, m„ a Roman prcenomen. 

Calarriiias, atis,/., calamity, mishap, 
misfortune, disaster, adversity, loss, 
injury, damage ; distress. 

Calamitosus, a, um, adj. (cdlamitas), 


Canis, is, m. tyf., a dog. 

Cano, ere, ceclni, cantum, n. $■ a., to 
sing; to play upon a musical instru- 
ment. With signum,canere is some- 
times active and sometimes neuter, and 
signum, accordingly, is either the ob- 
ject or the subject. Tabid ties signa 
carter e (i. e. canebant), the trumpeters 
sounded or gave the signal. Signa 
canunt, the signals sound or are giver.. 

Capesso, ere, ivi, itum, a. intensive, 
§ 187, If, 5, to take, catch at, lay hold 
of, seize, take in hand, undertake, en* 
ter upon, take the management of. 
Capessere rempublicam, to engage 
zealously in public affairs or in the 
service of the republic, take care of 

$ 222, calamitous, ruinous, disastrous, j the state : from 

pernicious, destructive. ' Capio, ere, cepi, captum, a., to take, 

Calendce., arum, J. pi., (calo, to call,)' take up, receive, adopt; to hold, con- 
$ 326, the first day of the month ; the j tain; to seize, lay hold of, overtake, 
calends. catch; to make use of. Arma capere. 

Collide', adv. (callidus), skillfully, to seize or take up arms Consilium 
expertly, shrewdly, cunningly, art- caper e, to form a design, adopt a plan, 
fully. conclude, determine, consult; — to ac- 

Calliditas, atis, /., skillfulness, art- quire, obtain, derive,' to choose, se- 
fulness, shrewdness, skill, craft, sub- lect; to enjoy, feel; to capture, take 

tilty : from 

CalUdus, a, um, adj. (callum, callus;, 
skillful, tried, experienced, shrewd, 
crafty, sly, subtle, cunning. 

Color, oris, m. (caleo, to be warm), 
warmth, heat. 

Calpurnius, i, m., see Bestia. 

Calumnia, <b, f, false accusation, 
*lander, calumny; wiles, chicanery, 

Camera, <b, f., a vault, arched roof, 
or ceihng. 

Camers. eriis, adj., of or pertainin 

possession of, occupy, overpower, op- 
press ; to charm, captivate, allure, gain 
over, attract ; to take prisoner ; to take 
in, deceive, cheat, entrap, ensnare, 
circumvent, get the advantage of 
Capere pcenam or pcenas, see Pcrna. 
Capere detrimentum, to suffer — . 
Rempublicam capere, to seize, usurp — . 

Capita lis, c, adj. (caput), relating to 
the head or life, capita!, deadly. Rts 
capitalis, a capital crime, a crime to 
be punished with dc-aih. 

Capilo, bnis, m., a Roman cogna 

to Camerlnum, now Camerino, a town men, see Gahinius. 

of Umbria Subs., a Camertian. C. j Capitolium, i, n., (caput), the Capi 

27. i tol, one of the seven hills of Rome 




the citadel of Rome and the temple 
of Jupiter Capitolinus, built upon the 
Capitohne hill. * 

Capsa, <b, /., a city of Numidia, 
built in the midst of vast deserts, but 
taken and destroyed by Marius. J. 
89—94, 97. 

Capsenses, ium, m. (Capsa), the in- 
habitants of Capsa. J. 89, 92. 

Captivus, a, um, adj. (capio), cap- 
tive, taken prisoner. Subs, a pri- 

Capto, are, avi, dtum, a. freq. (ca- 

rival of Rome, founded oy a colony of 

Ty'rians under the direction of queen 
Dido. It was destroyed by the Ro- 
mans under P. Scipio iEmilianus, A 
U. C. 608. J. 18, 19, 41, 79. C 10. 

Car us, a, um, adj. § 222, dear, pre 
cious, costly; beloved, valued. Carum 
cBstimare, to reckon precious, value 

Cassius, i, m. (L.) a Roman praetor 
who was sent to invite Jugurtha to 
come to Rome, A. U. C. 643. As a 
judge he was distinguished for the 

pio), to catch at, catch, strive to ob- j soundness and wisdom of his deci- 
tain, seek for or strive after eagerly, sions, and it is to him that cicer^ a* 
Captus, a, um, part, (capio), seized, cribes the custom of enquiring, in ju- 

captured, taken, enslaved, caught, 
overtaken, captivated. Captus somno, 
overtaken or overcome by sleep. 

Capua, cb,j\, a city of Campania, in 
Italy. C. 30. 

Caput, ttis, n., a head ; a man, per- 
son ; life. Capite censl, the poorest 
class of Roman citizens, who, in the 
assessments, were rated at nothing, 
but merely numbered as citizens. 
Supra caput, see Supra. Capite poz- 
nas solvere, to suffer capital punish- 
ment, be put to death. 

Career, eris, m., a prison, gaol, 
place of confinement. 

Careo, ere, ui, n., § 250, & 2, (2.) 
to be without, want, be in want of, be 
free from, be destitute of; abstain 

Carina, ce,f., the keel or bottom of 
a ship. 

Caro, carnis,/., flesh. 

Carptim, adv (carpo, to pluck), by 
detached parts; separately, in separate 

Carthaginiensis, e, adj., of or be- 
longing to Carthage, Carthaginian. 
Caithaginienses, ium, m. pi , the Car- 
thafinians, inhabitants of Carthage. 
J. 5, 14, 19, 79. C. 51. : from 

Cazthago, \nis,f., Carthage, a cele- 
brated maritime city of Africa, and the 

dicial investigations, cui bono fuissct. 
See also Longinus. J. 32, 33. 

Castellani, drum, m., soldiers in gar- 
rison ; a garrison : from 

Castellum, i, n, dim. (castrum, a 
castle), a castle, fortress, fort, fortified 

{Castra, orum, n, pi., a camp, en- 
campment. Facere or locare castra, 
to encamp, pitch. Fig. war, wa r fare. 

Casurus, a, um, part. (cado). 

Casus, us, m. (cado), a fall or fall- 
ing. Fig. misfortune, adversity, disas- 
ter, calamity ; an event, case, circum- 
stance, situation, accident, fortune, 
chance. Casu, abl., by chance, acci- 
dentally; — occasion, opportunity. Pro 
meo casu, considering my situation 
case or circumstances. Casum dare, 
to afford an opportunity. 

Catabathmos, i, m. $ 54, a declivity, 
gradual descent; a sloping valley be- 
tween Egypt and Africa, the Catabath- 
mus. J. 17, 19. 

Catena, ce,f, a chain. 

Caterva, <b, f, a troop, battalion, 
band or company of soldiers; a mul- 
titude, concourse of people. 

Catervdtim. adv. (caterva), in com 
panies or troops ; in crowds. 

Catilina, <b, m. (L. Sergius), Cati- 
line, a Roman of noble birth but pro 





fligatc manners, who, with many 
others of the nobility, conspired 
against the republic, and collected an 
army in Etruria, intended to act 
against his country. His conspiracy 
being brought to light by the vigi- 
lance of M. T. Cicero, the consul, 
Catiline took the command of his ar- 
my, which he attempted to lead to 
Rome, but was defeated by C. Anto- 
nius. tllfe other consul, and, with most 
of his army, perished in a desperate 
battle. C. 4, ft. &c. 

Cato, dnis, m (M. Porcius), was the 
grandson of Cato the censor, and like 
him was distinguished for great strict- 
ness and severity of manners. After 
the rest of Pompey's party had surren- 
dered to Caesar, i ;ato, who had com- 
manded the army in Africa, put an 
end to his own life at Utica ; whence 
he has obtained the agnomen of Uti- 
censis. C. 52 — 55. 

Catulus, i, m. (Q. Lutatius), a Ro- 
man senator of great dignity and in- 
fluence. He was consul with M. 
Lepidus, A. U.C.676. C. 34, 35, 49. 

Causa, cb, /., a cause, reason, 
ground. Causa with a genitive, on 
account of, for the sake of, as; a 
color, pretext, pretence, excuse ; occa- 
sion, motive, provocation; a cause, 
suit or process at law. Causa m di- 
cere, to plead for one's self, to plead, 
to defend, make a defence. Qua de 
causa ? from what motive ? for what 
reason ? 

Caveo, ere, cavi, cautum, n. <$r a. $ 
273, 1, $ 262, R. 6. to beware or take 
heed of, be aware, be on one's guard, 
avoid, shun; with prev. a or ah, to 
guard against; to take care, provide; 
to keep off, ward off 

Cscldi, see Cado. Cecldi, see Ccedo. 

Cedo, Ire, cessi, cessum, n. § a., to 
give piace, give way, yield, withdraw, 
retire, leave, depart; to cede, give up, 
yield concede, grant * to submit; $223. 

to yield to, give place to, retire before 
retreat, fly ; to happen, turn out, sue 
ceed, end, result, ^sue, go on. 

Celeb ratus, a, um, part. <f- adj., cele- 
brated, extolled, distinguished, brought 
into notice; solemnized, frequented. 

Celebro, are, avi, atum, a. (ceUbcr, 
frequented), to frequent, resort to ; to 
celebrate, solemnize ; to praise, extol, 
celebrate, honor, render famous, illus- 
trious, or distinguished. 

Celer, eris, m. (Q. Metellus), a Ro- 
man praetor, who commanded the 
forces of the state in the country of 
the Piceni, during Catiline's conspi- 
racy, A. U. C. 691. C. 30, 42, 57 

Celeritas, atis,f. (celer, swift), swift- 
ness, quickness, speed, celerity, acti- 

Censeo, ere, ui, censum, a., $272, 
$ 273, 2, $ 262, R. 4, to think, judge, 
suppose, imagine, apprehend, be of 
opinion ; to express one's opinion in 
a deliberative assembly, to vote, ad- 
vise; to ordain, decree, resolve; to 
rate, assess, tax, appraise ; to make a 
census or an estimate of the property, 
and an enumeration of the families 
of the citizens ; to estimate, value. 

Censor, oris, m. (censeo), a censor, 
a Roman magistrate appointed every 
fifth year to take the census, and to 
inquire into the character of the citi- 

Census, a, um, part, (censeo). Capite 
censi, see Caput. 

Centum, num. adj. pi. ind., a hun- 

Centuria, ce,f. (centum), a century 
or hundred of any thing ; a squadron, 
consisting of a hundred horse ; a hun- 
dred foot soldiers; a division o f the 
Roman people, a century, a hundred 

Centurio, dnis, m. (centuria) a cap 
tain of a century or hundred a cen 
. turion. 
! Cepi, see Capio, 




Cera, <b, /., wax ; the material of 
which family images were formed. 

Cerno, ere, crevi, crefum, a., to sift ; 
to consider, delibe^ ate, distinguish, de- 
cide, judge, decree; $272, to discern, 
see ; perceive ; to contend, right. 

Certamen, Inis, n. (certo), a contest, 
strife, contention, debate, dispute, dis- 
sension ; a battle, engagement ; com- 
petition, zeal. The adverse parti/ is 
in the abl. with cum. Certamen ejf . $-265. 

Certans, tis, part, (certo), contend- 
ing, striving, vieing with one another. 

Certatim, adv. (ceHo), earnestly, 
eagerly, emulously. 

Certe or Certo, adv. (certus), cer- 
tainly, for certain, assuredly. 

Certo, are, avi, atum, n., to con- 
tend, strive, vie, struggle, fight,- to 
strive emulously, try to outdo each 
other, strive to be first. Certalur, the 
contest is carried on, they contend, 
§ 184, % The thing in which one con- 
tends is in the abl. without a prep., and 
the person with whom he contends is in 
the ahl. with cum. 

Certus, a, urn, adj., determined, re- 
solved; fixed upon, established, ap- 
pointed ; sure, well acquainted. Cer- 
tiorem facere, to inform, acquaint, no- 
tify, apprise ; Cerdor fieri, to receive 
notice, be informed,— tried, faithful ; 
safe, trust-worthy, certain, fixed; re- 
solute, bold ; clear, well-fcnown, well- 
ascertained, manifest, evident. Pro 
certo habere, credere, etc., to consider 
as certain, be well assured, confident- 
ly believe. Certa, n. pi., certainties. 

Cessi, see Cedo. 

Cetera, cctcrum, adj. (not used in 
nom. mas.), other, the other, the rest, 
residue, remainder. Cetera, ace. pi. 
in other respects, as for the rest § 234, 

Cetlrum, adv. fy adversative conj. 
{cetera), as for the rest, in other re- 
bpects, otherwise; but, furthermore, 

Cethegus, i, m. (C), a Roman sono- 
tor of the Cornel an gens. He was 
put to death for the part he took in 
the CatiLnarian conspiracy. C. 17 
32, 43, &c. 

Cibus, i, m., food, nourishment, ah 
ment, v.ctuals, meat. 

Cicatrix, wis,/., a cicatrice, scar. 

Cicero, onis, m. (Mi Tallius), the 
most illustrious of the Roman orators, 
was bom at Arpinum in the year B 
C. 103. In his consulship, A. U. C 
691, occurred the celebrated conspi 
racy of Catiline, which was detected 
and suppressed by his patriotic 
lance. He was put to death during 
the triumvirate of Antony, Octavius, 
and Lepidus, at the age of sixty-four. 
C. 23. 26, &c. 

Cimbricus, a, urn, a rl j., Cimbrian 
pertaining to the Ciinbri, a people ol 
Germany. C. 59. 

China, (B, m. (L. Cornelius), an as- 
sociate of Marius in the civil wars, 
and distinguished for his acts of cru- 
elty. His daughter Cornelia was th< 
wife of Julius Cdesar. C. 47. 

Circlter, prep, with the ace. fy adv. 
about, near. 

Circum, prep, with the ace, around 
about; near. Adv., around, near. 

Circumdatus, a, um, part. : from 

Circumdo, dare, dedi, datum, a. {cir- 
cum <$■ do), to put, place or set round , 
to surround, encompass, environ, in- 

Circumeo, ire, ii, ztum, irr. a. (cfr 
cum fy eo), to go round; to surround 
Circumire vigilias, to visit the guanls. 
go the rounds. 

Circumfero, ferre, lull, latum, irr 
a. (circum <$■ fero), to ca^ry round 

Circumfundo, ere, ud.x, umm, a 
(circum $■ /undo), to pour around 
sprinkle about, circunfuse; to aur 
round, encompass. 

Circumfusus, a, um part, (circum 
fund^. poured round ; surrounding; 




Circumsideo, ere, edi, essum, a. fy n. 
circum <fy sedeo, to sit), to sit or take 
one's stand round ; to besiege, invest, 
lay siege to. 

Circumspecto, are, a. fy n.freq., to 
look round or about ; to look upon or 
regard with suspicion : from 

Circumspicio, Ire, exi, ectum, a. fy n. 
'circum ty specio, to see), to look round. 
Fig. to take heed, weigh, consider 

Circumvenio, ire, eni, entum, a. {cir- 
cum § venio), §233, (3.) to come round ; 
to surround, encompass, enclose, in- 
vest, bLckade, beset. Fig. to oppress, 
crush, overthrow, take by surprise ; to 
circumvent, defraud, deceive, betray, 
beset. Falsis criminibus circumvenire, 
to beset with false charges. 

Circumventus, a, um, part, (circum- 
venio), surrounded, encompassed, be- 
set on all sides; circumvented, op- 

Cirta, <B,f., a city of Numidia not 
far from the sea, the capital of the 
kingdom of Syphax, of Masinissa, and 
of his son Micipsa. It is now called 
Constantia. J. 21—26, &c. 

Citerior, adj. of the comp. degree, 
sup. citzmus, § 126, 1, (cis, on this side), 
nearer, hither 

Citb\ adv. (citus), soon, quickly, 
speedily, shortly. 

Citus, a, um, part, ty adj. (cieo, to 
excite), excited; swift, quick, rapid. 
Speculatores citi sese ostendunt, — at 
foil speed. 

Civilis, e, adj., of or belonging to a 
citizen, civil. Civilia studia, ciyil con- 
tention, strife among the citizens. 
Civilis victoria, a civil victory, a vic- 
tory in a civil war. Civile imperium, 
a government befitting citizens, cour- 
teous or humane government : from 

Civis, is, m. tyf, a citizen, free in- 
habitant of a town or city. 

Civttas, atis, f, gen. pi. in um or 
turn, g 83, 4, (1.) (civis), the body *of citi- 

zens living in the same place, and an 
der the same laws ; a city, state, na 
tion, empire, government ; the freedom 
of the city, citizenship. 

Clades, is,f, loss, injury, misfor- 
tune, disaster; overthrow, discomfit- 
ure ; slaughter, destruction. 

Clam, adv. fyprep. with ace. and abl., 
privately, privily, secretly ; without the 
knowledge of. 

Clamor, oris, m., (clamo, to cry 
aloud), a loud voice, cry, shout y shout- 
ing ; a loud noise, din. 

Claritudo, mis, /., clearness, dis- 
tinctness ; fame, character, reputation, 
renown: from 

Clarus, a, um, adj., clear, bright, 
splendid; loud, distinct. Fig. mani- 
fest, open, evident; famous, illustri- 
ous, noble, renowned, distinguished, 

Classis, is,f, a class, company, or- 
der or rank of citizens, one of the five 
or, including the capite censl six divi- 
sions of the Roman people made by 
Servius Tullius, according to the com- 
parative value of their estates ; a fleet 
of ships of war, an armament. Ex 
classibus, according to classes. 

Claudo, ere, si, sum, a., to shut, 
close, confine, shut in, inclose ; to sur 5 
round, encompass ; to finish. 

Clausus, a, um, part, (claudo), shut 
up, inclosed, surrounded, hidden, con- 
cealed. Subs, clausum, i, n., an en- 
closure, a place shut up. 

Clavis, is,f. (claudo), a key. 

Clemens, entis, adj., quiet, placid, 
calm, gentle; mild, meek, merciful; 
light, easy. Clemens rumor a mild 
report, i. e. extenuating the deed a 
mild rumor, a doubtlul, obscure, or 
vague repoit. 

dementia, ce,f. (clemens), mildness, 
gentleness, calmness, slillness; kind- 
ness, humanity, clemency, mercy, mo 

Cliens, entis, m., a client, one undei 




the protection of a patron ; a retainer, ; check; to repress, curb, control, stop 
beneficiary, dependent. 

Clienteta, cc,f. (cliens), the relation 
of cheats to their patrons, clientship; 
protection; a train of clients, or de- 

Cn., an abbreviation of Cnceus. 

Cnceus, i, m., a Roman prcsnomen. 

Coactus, a, um, part. (cogo). 

Cocequo, are, avi, a. (con fy cequo, to 

to chastise, punish. 

Cocrcttus, a, um, part, fy adj. (coer 
ceo), restrained, controlled; capable 
of being restrained. 

Cogito, are, avi, a'.um, a. fy n. (con 
$ agdo), $ 265, to revolve in the mind 
think, ponder, consider, meditate, re 
fleet, dehberatf . 

Cognatlo,,f. (con (jr nascor), re 

level), to make equal or even, to level, lation by blood, kindred. 

Coalesro, ere, lui, lltum, n. (con <$• j Cognatus, a, um, adj. (con § nas 
alesco, to grow), to grow together, co- cor), connate; related by biood, nearly 
alesce, unite, blend or be blended, akin, closely allied, kindred. Subs.. 
grow to, grow. Fig. to be or become a relative, kinsman, lelation by blood 

united ; to agree. 

Coarguo, ere, ui, a. (con intensive ty 
arguo, to show), to prove, show, de- 
monsfate; to convince, 
disprove, confute. 

Cochlea, cs,f., a snail, cockle, peri- 

Coctus, a, um, part, (coquo). 

Cotgi, see Cogo. 

Cognilus, a, um, part, ty adj. (cog- 
nosco), § 222, ascertained, known, dis- 
covered, tried, proved, understood, ex 
convict ; to amined. Causa, cognila, — the cause 
having been tried, judicially investi 
gated. Hence it may be translated, af- 
ter trial. Cogniium est mihi, I have 
ascertained or learned. § 272. 

Cognomen, inis, n. (con fy nomen), a 

Caium, i, n., heaven, the heavens; surname, family name, name subjoin- 
the air, skies, legion of the air, atmos- ed to the nomen or name, as prcsno- 
phe;e. Cd:io terra [tie penuria a t ua- men was prefixed to it; as P. Come- 
r.:nt, — from the atmosphe:e and the has Scipio, $279,9. It is sometimes 
earth, i. e. — of lain and spring-water, used for the agnomen, the appellation, 

Cwnatus, a, um, part. § 162, 16, hav- 
ing supped:/royi 

Cozno, are, avi, atum, n. ty a. (ccena, 

title ; 

as, P. Cor?ielius Scipio Africa- 

Cognosco, ere, novi, mtum, a. (con fy 

supper), to sup. Esse ccenatus, to sup, j nosco), § 265, § 272, to know ; to learn, 

dispatch supper. 

hear, find, find out, make one's self" 

Cojparius, i, m. (Q.), a Terracinian acquainted with, ascertain, discover; 
who was confederate with Catiline. he?ice, to know, understand, be in- 

C. 46, 47, 52, 55. 

Co-pi, def. verb, $ 183, 2, $271, I be- 
gan, commenced. Perf. pass., cepptus 
es', which has an active signification, 
but is used in preference to coepit be- 
fore a passive infinitive: see § 183, 
% N. 

formed, be assured ; — to study, exam- 
ine, investigate, explore, inspect; to 
try a cause ; to find by experience ; to 
recognize ; to acknowledge, confess ; 
to perceive, see. Promissa ejus c<g 
nitum mi sit, despatched (some) to ex- 
amine his proposals, i. e. to ascertain 

Cceptvs, a, um, part, (cozpi), having : the practicab.lity of what he proposed, 
begun. Pass, begun. j Cogo, ere, coegi, coactum, a. (ion <fy 

Cocrceo, ere, ui, Vum, a. (con fy ar- ago), to collect, assemble, gather, driv: 
ceo, to waid off), to surround, em- or bring together; to drive, impel ; to 
brace; to keep in, confine, restrain, constrain, compel, force, urge, nece& 




fiitate induce, prevail on ; to confine, 
restrain, restrict. Cogere sub imperi- 
um, to reduce, bring. — . Cogere in 
unum; to bind or unite together. With 
inf. and ace. or subj with ut. The 
passive takes the inf. § 271. 

Cohors, tis,/., a pen or coop; a co- 
hort, a band of soldiers consisting of 
the tenth part of a legion, and conse- 
quently containing at different peri- 
ods from 300 to 600 men. Cohortes 
legionaries or ex legionibus, legionary 
cohorts or cohorts of the legions. See 

Cohorlatus, a, urn, part. : from 

Cohortor, ari, atus sum, dep. {con fy 
hortor), § 273, 2, to exhort, encourage. 

Collectus, a, urn, part, (colligo). 

Collega, <b, m., a colleague, copart- 
ner in office. 

Collibet, libuit or libitum est, imp. 
verb, (con ty libet), it pleases, is agree- 
able. It is sometimes used personally, 
as, quce victoribus collibuissent, what 
should please the victors, what the 
victors pleased. 

Chlligo, ere, egi, ectum, a. (con ty 
lego), to gather together, collect, as- 

Collis, is, m., a hill, hillock, rising 

Colloco, are, avi, atum, a. (con fy 
loco), to place, settle, dispose, arrange, 
set, set in order, station, post. 

Colloquium, i, n., conversation, con- 
verse, discourse ; a conference, inter- 
view : from 

Colloquor, i, cutus sum, dep. (con <$r 
loquor), to speak together, converse, 

Colo, ere, colui, cultum, a., to exer- 
cise, practise, pursue, study, labor 
upon, cultivate, attend to, tend, till, 
cherish, take care of; to respect, 
honor, regard, venerate, worship, love, 
esteem, favor, treat respectfully, culti- 
vate the friendship of; to inhabit. iVe- 
que illos arte colam, me opulenter, I 

will not treat them rigorously and 
myself indulgently. 

Colonia, cB,f, a colony, plantation, 
settlement; a number of people emi- 
grating by public authority to a dis- 
tant settlement, colonists, emigrants: 

Colonus, i, m. (colo), a hust landman, 
tenant, farmer, cultivator; a colonist, 
settler, emigrant. 

Color, or colos, oris, m., a color, 
complexion, tint, hue. Colos is used 
by Sallust in preference to color. 

Comes, ids, m. tyf, a companion 
associate, attendant, assistant, com- 
rade, friend. 

Conunus, adv. (con fy manus), hand 
to hand, in close combat. 

Comitatus, us, m. (comttor, to ac- 
company), a number of followers, a 
train, company, retinue, suit. 

Comitia, drum, n. pi. (comes), a pub- 
lic meeting or assembly of the people 
for the purpose of voting; a public 
election. Comitia habere, to hold an 
assembly of the people. 

Commaculo, are, avi, alum, a. (con 
fy maculo, to stain), to spot, stain, pol- 
lute, disgrace. 

Commeatus, us, m. (commeo,- to go 
and come), a passage ; a furlough ; a 
convoy ; provisions, supplies, victuals. 

Commemoro, are, avi, atum, -a. (con 
fy memoro), to mention, make mention 
of, call to mind, recount, relate. 

Commendatio, onis, /.. commenda- 
tion, recommendation, praise : from 

Commendo, are, avi, atum, a. (con Sf 
mando), to commit to the charge of 
any one, consign to any one's care, 
intrust with; to commend, recom- 

Commercium, i, n. (con fy merx. mer- 
chandise), commerce, trade, traffic, 

Commercor, an, atus sum, dep. (con 
ty mercor), to buy together, purchase, 
buy up 




Comrriinuo, Vre, ui, utum, a. (con 4" 
minuo), to lessen, diminish ; to crush 
or break to pieces. Fig. to weaken 
impair, wear away. 

Comminutus, a, um, part, (commi- 

Committo, ere, tsi, issum, a. (con § 
mitto), to join together, unite or bring 
together ;' to do, act,- cause, perform, 
perpetrate, commit; to begin, com- 
mence. Committere prcelium, pug- 
nam, etc., to begin a battle, to make an 
attack, to fight, engage. 

Commodo, are, avi, atum, a. (com- 
modus, convenient), to adjust, adapt, 
accommodate; to give, afford, allow, 
lend, furnish, supply. 

Commodum, i, n. (commodus), ad- 
vantage, profit,' interest, utility, con- 
venience. Ex commodo cestimare, to 
estimate according to (its) profk. Ex 
"ommodo pugnam facer e, — at a favora- 
ble opportunity, under favorable cir- 

Commonefacio, ere, feci, factum, a. 
{commoneo, to remind, ^ facia), § 218, 
to put in mind, remind, advise. 

Commoratus, a, um, part. : from 

Commoror, ari, atus sum, dep. (con 
Sf moror), to stop, pause, stay, abide, 
remain, tarry. 

Commotus, a, um, part, moved, 
troubled, disturbed, &c. : from 

Commoveo, ere, ovi, btum, a. (con <$■ 
moveo), to move together, move, stir, 
remove; to move, touch, affect; to 
disquiet, trouble, alarm ; to stir up, ex- 
cite, provoke. 

Communicatus, a, um, part.: from 

Communico, are, avi, atum, a. (com- 
munis), to communicate, impart, share 
with any one, commune, confer; to 
join, unite, connect; to share, par- 
take, mingle. Causam commwiicare, 
to make common cause. 

Communio, Ire, ivi, Itum, a. (con $• 
munio), to fortify, secure. 

Communis, e, adj. $ 222, 3, common, 

the same, general, universal, belong 
ing to many or all, belonging to the 
public. Res communis, a joint or mu 
tual interest, common concern. 

Commutatio, onis, f. (commuto) a 
changing, change, alteration. 

Commutatus, a, um, part. . from 

Commuto, are, avi, atum, a. (con $ 
muto), to change, alter ; to exchange, 

Comparatus, a, um, part. . from 

Comparo, are, avi, atum, a. (con $ 
paro), to procure, get, furnish, pre- 
pare, provide, get ready ; to collect ; to 
establish, institute, ordain; to acquire; 
to connect ; to compare. 

Comperio, ire, peri, pertum, a. or 
Comperior, zri, pertus sum, dep. (con 
fy pario), § 272, $ 265, to discover, find 
out, ascertain, learn, be informed 
know. Parum comperimus, I have 
not ascertained, I am uncertain. 

Compertus, a, um, part., (comperio^, 
found out, fully ascertained, known 
for certain; discovered, detected. 
Narfare compertum, to speak with 
certainty. Compertum est mihi, or 
compertum habeo, $ 274, R. 4, it has 
been made known to me, I have as- 
certained, I know, I am certain, $ 

Compleo, ere, evi, Hum, a. (con fy 
pleo, obs., to fill), $ 249, 1, to fill, fill up; 
to complete, perfect, finish, perform. 

Complexus, us, m. (complector), a 
compassing, encircling; an embrac 
ing, embrace. 

Complures, ura, $ 110, adj. pi, (con 
Sf plus), many, a great mary a con- 
siderable number. 

Compono, ere, osui, ositum, a. (con $■ 
pono), to put or place together ; to put 
in order, arrange, dispose, order > to 
lay up; to bury; to end, bring *o a 
close or conclusion; to settle, adjust, 
accommodate ; to calm, still, appease, 
tranquilize; to compound, compose, 
make up; to make, compose, contriva 




plan; to agree upon, arrange, concert; 
to compare. 

Comporto, are, avi, atum, a. (con fy 
porto), to carry or bring together, 
bring, carry, collect. 

Composite, adv., sedately, calmly, 
quietly, orderly, neatly, handsomely; 
in elegant language, in well turned 
periods, in good set terms : from 
• Composttus, a, um, part, fy adj. 
(compono), put together, arranged, 
composed, made up, compounded ; 
elegant, regular, well arranged, in 
good order, skillfully disposed set in 
order, apt, fit, beautiful; ended, set- 

Comprobdtus, a, um, part. : from 

Comprobo, are, avi, atum, a. {con fy 
probo), to appiove, prove, confirm; to 
allow; to make good, verify. 

Conatus, a, um, part, (conor). 

Concedo, ere, essi, essum, n. $■ a. 
(con $ cedo), § 223, & $ 225, IV. to re- 
tire, yield, depart, withdraw, give 
place ; to go, repair ; to assent to ; to 
yield, give up; to grant, give, "allow, 
permit, concede, resign, relinquish. 
Concedere natures, to pay the debt of 
nature, to die a natural death. Inju- 
riai concedere, to submit to. In gen- 
tern nomenque imperantium concessere, 
were merged, sunk or lost in — . In 
jus atque ditionem concedere, to come 
under, become subject to, yield to—. 
Concessum est, imp., it was yielded or 

Concessus, a, um, part, (concedo), 
permitted, conceded, granted, allowed, 

CoTwido, ere, tdi, n. (con $■ cado), to 
fall down, fall to the ground. Fig. 
to fall, die ; to perish, sink. 

Concio, bnis, f. (concieo, to call to- 
gether), a meeting or assembly of peo- 
ple- Pro condone, in public, before 
a public assembly : — an oration, 
narangue, public speech or address. 

Concitatus, a, um, part. : from 

Condito, are, avi, atum, a. (co?i <$■ 
cito, to excite), to stir up, put in mo- 
tion, excite, stimulate, incite, rouse* 
provoke, irritate, move, cause, raise. 

Conclamo, arc, avi, atum, n. fy a, 
(con <fy clamo, to cry), § 272, to cry out 
together, cry aloud, cry out with a 
loud voice, shout, exclaim. 

Concordia, as, f. (concors, concord- 
ant), concord, agreement, union, har- 
mony, unanimity. Also the name of 
a Roman goddess, Concord. C. 46, 

Concubtna, ce, f. (concubo, to lie 
with), a concubine. 

Concupio, ere, fy Concupisco, £re, 
wi, Hum, a. (con fy cupio), to desire 
greatly, long for, covet. 

Concurro, ere, curri, cursum, n. (con 
fy curro, to run), to run. together, 
meet, flock together ; to fight, engage 
in fight, charge, rush to the fight, join 
battle, engage, contend, rush together; 
to concur, agree. Concurritur, they 
rush together, charge, an onset or 
charge is made. 

Concursus, us, m. (concurro), a run- 
ning or meeting together; a con- 
course ; a conflict, charge, engage- 
ment, onset, shock. 

Concutio, Ire, ussi, ussum, a. (con ty 
quatio, to shake), to shake, move vio- 
lently, agitate, cause to tremble. Fig. 
to trouble, disquiet, alarm, terrify, put 
in fear, agitate ; to injure, weaken. 

Condemnatus, a, um, part. : from 

Condemno, are, avi, atum, a. (con ty, § 217, to condemn. 

Condtdi, see Condo. 

Conditio, bnis.f. (condo), a making, 
constructing, framing; a laying up, 
preserving; a state, situation, condi 
tion, circumstances ; a contract, stipu 
lation, condition, promise, advantage- 
terms of agreement. 

Conaltor, oris, m.. (condo), a miker 
builder, founder, inventor, author. 

CondUus, a, um, part. f foulvled 




buili. Post conditam urbem, after or 
since the foundation of the city sc. 
Rome: from 

Condo, ere, dldi, ditum, a. (con. fy 
do), to lay or treasure up, hoard ; to 
hide, conceal, bury; to finish, end; 
to make, build, found, establish. 

Conddno, are, avi, atum, a. (con $ 
dono), to give freely, grant, present, 
bestow; to remit, excuse, pardon, 
overlook, oass over, forgive ; with the 
accusative of the crime and the dative 
of the person, it signifies to pardon the 
fault for his sake, on his account. 
Alterius libidini malefacta condonare, 
to pardon crimes to gratify the lust of 
another ; — to give up, devote, sacrifice. 
Conduco, ere, xi, cium, a. (con fy. du- 
co,) to bring or lead together, conduct, 
assemble, collect ; to hire, bargain for. 
Conductus, a, um, part, (conduco), 
brought together, collected; hired. 

Confectus, a, um, part, (conficio), fin- 
ished, ended, destroyed, injured ; wast- 
ed, worn out. Confectus annis, su- 

Confercio, Ire, si, turn, a. (con ty far- 
do, to stuff),, to stuff or cram to- 
gether, crowd together; to stuff, or 
fill full. 

Confe'ro, ferre, contuli, collatum, a. 
irr. (con $ fero), to bring, carry, put 
or lay together ; to collect, gather. 

Confertim, adv., closely, in a heap 
or crowd, in a compact body : from 

Confertus, a, um, part, fy adj. (con- 
fercio), crammed full, crowded, full : 
thick, close, dense, in close array. 

Confessus, a, um, part, (confiteor), 
having confessed. Subs, one who has 
made confession. 

Conficio, ere, eci, ectum, a. (con $• 
facio), to make together; to make, 
cause, effect, execute, prepare, per- 
form: to end, finish, terminate, ac- 
complish, complete, conclude ; to kill, 

away, wear out, injure, weaken. Sitl 

confici, to perish with thirst. 

Confido, ere, fisus sum, n. pass 
§ 142, 1 & 2, (con $fido, to" trust to, N 
abs. to trust, feel confident ; with dot 
or abl. $ 223, R. 2, & $ 245, II. or inf. 
with acc.§ 272. depend upon, believe 
confidently, confide or put confidence 
in, trust to, rely upon. 

Confinis. e, adj. (con fy finis), $ 222, 
R. 1. next to, adjoining, bordering up- 
on, contiguous, near. 

Confirmatus, a, um, part. . from 
Confirmo, are, avi, atum, a. (con $r 
firmo), to confirm, strengthen, estab- 
lish, reestablish, restore strength, to 
render efficient ; $ 273, 2, to encour- 
age, animate, support; to persuade, 
induce, inspire with courage, reas- 
sure; to ratify, confirm; to prove, 
show; to affirm, assert, assure, de- 
clare. § 272. Labores et victorias con* 
firmare, to crown — . 

Conflsus, a, um,part. (confido), trust- 
ing to, relying or depending on, being 
confident, trusting. 

Confiteor, eri, essus, sum, dep. (con 
fyfateor), § 271, <fc Rem. 4, to con- 
fess-, acknowledge, own. 

Confiigo, ere, xi, ctum, a. (con tyfiigo, 
to beat against), to strike against ; to 
fight, contend, engage, conflict. 

Conflo, are, avi, atum, a. (con fyfio, 
to blow), to blow together, bring to- 
gether; to make up, compound; to 
raise, make, create, excite. JEs alie- 
num confiare, to contract a debt, to 
run into debt: — to excite, stir up, 
cause, occasion. 

Confiuo, ere, xi, n. (con fyfiuo, to 
flow), to flow or run together ; to flock 
or crowd together. 

Confodio, ere, odi, ossum, a. (con fy 
fodio, to dig), to dig. Fig. to wound> 
pierce, stab, thrust through. 

Confugio, ere, ugi, ugltum, n. (con 

slay, destroy, consume; to overpower, I <$rfugio)> to flee to for succor,* flee w 
subdue prostrate; to waste. wearl have recourse to. 





Conglobo, are, Wvi, atum a., (con $• 
globo, to make round), to gather into 
a round body, conglobate, crowd to- 
gether, gather together, collect. 

Congredior, i, gressus sum, dep. (con 
4" gradior, to step), to move or go to- 
gether, go with; to meet, come to- 
gether go up to, accost, address, speak 
to, converse with ; to fight, engage. 

Congressus, us, m. (congredior), a 
coming together, meeting ; a conflict, 
encounter, contest, battle, engage- 

Congressus, a, um, part (congre- 

Conjicio, %re, jeci, jectum, a. (con fy 
jacio), to throw together, throw, cast, 
hurl, discharge, thrust, force, impel. 
Conjicere in vincula, to put in prison, 
to imprison. 

Conjunctus, a, um, part, fy adj., con- 
nected, united, attached : from 

Conjungo, £re, nxi, nctum, a. (con fy 
jungo, to join), $224, to join or unite 
together, connect, associate. 

Conjuralio, onis, f. (conjuro), a 
swearing together, a confederacy or 
combination confirmed by oath; a 
plot, conspiracy ; the body of conspi- 

Conjurdlus, a, um, part, combined, 
leagued. Subs, conjurati, drum, m. 
conspirators : from 

Conjuro, are, avi, atum, n. (con fy 
juro),§211, to swear together, com- 
bine, league together ; to conspire, en- 
ter into a conspiracy. 

Connubium, i, n. (con fy nubo), a 
* lawful marriage, wedlock, marriage, 

Conor ari, alus sum, dep., § 271, to 
strive, endeavor attempt, try, under- 

Conquiro, tre, istvi, isltum, a. (con $- 
quaro), to seek after, search for dili- 
gently, get together, try to procure 

Conscientia, ce, f. (conscio, to be 

conscious), joint knowledge; c *i 
science, consciousness; conscio *«- 
ness of guilt, a bad conscience, an 
evil or guilty conscience ; guilt, guil- 

Conscius, a, um, adj. (conscio), $213, 
& § 222, R. 3. conscious, privy to, ac- 
cessary, witness of, partaking of, con- 
cerned in, in the secret of. The noun 
denoting the crime is sometimes want- 
ing, and it is then translated guilty, 
conscious of guilt. Alius alii — conscii, 
being witnesses for one another, being 
mutually privy. 

Conscribo, ere, ipsi, iptum, a. (con ty 
scribo), to write, write together. Con- 
scribere milites, to raise, levy, enlist, 
enroll — . 

Conscriptus, a, um, part, (conscribo), 
written; enlisted, enrolled. Patres 
conscripti, the senators, the conscript 
fathers. The first Roman senators 
were called patres, and those subse- 
quently added to their number were 
denominated conscripti. In process 
of time it became customary to ad- 
dress the whole body of senators by 
the term patres conscripti. 

Consecro, are avi, atum, a. (con fy 
sacro, to consecrate), to consecrate, 
dedicate, make sacred, devote to the 
gods ; to devote, appropriate. 

Consenesco, ere, senui, n* (con ty se- 
nesco), to grow old ; to grow into dis- 
use, become obsolete, or out of date; 
Fig. to grow weak or feeble fade, de- 
cay, waste, lose energy or strength, 
be impaired. 

Conslro, ere, sevi, situm, a. (con fy 
sero, to sow), $ 249, 1, to sow, seti 
plant, fill. 

Conse"ro, %re, ui, turn, a. (c<m ty sero 
to join together), to join or knit to- 
gether, Conserere manum, to join 
battle, fight hand to hand, engage in 
close combat. 

Conservo, are, avi, atum, a. (con <f 




servo), to preserve, keep, defend, pro- 
tect, save, maintain. 

Considero, are, avi, atum, a., § 265, 
to consider, meditate, think of, weigh. 

Consldo, ere, edi, essum, n. (con ty 
sido, to sit), to sit down together ; to 
sit down, seat one's self; to settle, 
take up one's abode ; to fall, sink ; to 
pitch, encamp; to sit in ambush. 

Consilium, i, n. $ 275, III. R. 1, (1.) 
counsel, advice; deliberation, consi- 
deration, consultation, agreement, pre- 
meditation ; a notion, idea, design, in- 
tention, measure, aim, plan, scheme, 
intent, purpose, end; determination, 
judgment, resolve Non est consi- 
lium, it is not (my) intention, § 273, 1. 
Consilium capere or trahere, to form 
a design or resolution, adopt a plan or 
measures : — prudence, wisdom, dis- 
cretion, skill, sagacity, forethought, 
penetration, reason; artifice, strata- 
gem, art, management; a council, 
assembly of men in council. Prce- 
senti consilio, in presence of the coun- 
cil. Quo consilio! for what reason? 
why? Habere consilium, to hold a 
council. Non est consilium, may be 
followed by quin for ut non. § 262, 
R. 10, 2. 

Consisto, %re, constiti ,n. {con fy sisto, 
to place), to stand firmly, stand fast, 
make a stand, stand, stand still, stop, 
post one's self, stay. 

Consitus, a, um, pari, (consero), 
planted, sown, set, filled, overgrown. 

Conspectus, us, m., the act of see- 
ing ; a sight, view, observation : from 

Conspicio, ere, exi, ectum, a. (con fy 
specio, to see), to see, behold, look at, 
observe, discern, perceive ; to look at 
with admiration, look upon, mark. 
Conspici, to be admired, to attract at-i 
tention, to gain admiration, to render 
one's self conspicuous. 

Conspicor, clri, cttus sum, dep. (con fy 
yecio, to see), to see, behold, descry. 

Constanter, iiis, issime, adv. 'con- 

stans, firm), firmly, steadiljfc uniform 
ly, evenly, regularly. 

Constantia, ce, f. (constans), firm 
ness, steadiness, uniformity of con 
duct, constancy, consistency, perse 

Consterno, ire, stravi, stratum, a. 
(con $■ sterno, to strew), to strew oi 
cover over. 

Constttuo, ere, ui, utum, a. (con $ 
statuo), to set up, erect; to found, 
build ; to place, put, dispose, arrange, 
station,, post; to stop, cause to halt, 
to establish, appoint, fix, assign, set- 
tle, vindicate, assert; § 271, § 273, 2, 
to resolve, determine, decide, decree, 
ordain, prescribe. Conslituere in 
diem, to agree upon, fix, appoint — . 
Iter constituere, to resolve to advance 
or march. Qua? utilia visa consti- 
tuere, to decide upon such measures 
as seemed proper, to adopt suitable 

Constitutus, a, um, part, (constituo) 

Consto, are, sttti, n. (con fy sto, to 
stand), to stand together, stand ; to be 
consistent, correspond. Imp., constat, 
§ 223, it is evident, manifest, clear or 
certain ; it is agreed, it is the common 
opinion, § 269, R. 2. § 265. 

Constratus, a, um, part, (consterno). 

Constructus, a, um, part. .- from 

Construo, ere, xi, ctum, a. (con fy 
struo, to build), to put together, to 
construct, fabricate, build, form. Con* 
struere maria, to form seas, i. e. fish 
ponds of vast extent. 

Consuefacio, Zre, feci, factum, a. 
(consuesco fy facio), $ 272, to ace us* 
torn, train by use or practice, inure, 
habituate. **.„. 

Consuesco, £re, evi, etum, n. fy a. (con 
fy suesco, to become accustomed), $ 
271, to become accustomed or used to 
a thing, acquire a habit by practice, 
to accustom, inure Co?isvevi, 1 am 
accustomed, am wont or used. Con 
suevit, imp., is wont, customary 




Consuehiido, Vnis,f. (consuesco), cus- 
tom, usage, use, habit; intercourse, 
familiarity, intimacy. Stupri consue- 
tudo, a criminal intercourse. 

Consueius, a, turn, part, fy adj., ac- 
customed, habituated, inured; usual, 
ordinary, wonted. Pericula consueta 
habere, to be inured to — . 

Consul, ulis, m. (consulo), a consul, 
one of the two supreme magistrates 
annually elected at Rome. Consul 
designates, consul elect, one who had 
been elected consul, but had not yet 
entered upon the duties of his office. 
The Romans marked the year by the 
names of the consuls then in office, 
as L. Ccesare et C. Figulo consulibus. 
in the consulship of L. Caesar and C. 

Consularis, e, adj. {consul), of or be- 
longing to a consul, consular. Subs, 
consularis, is, m., one who has been 
consul, an ex-consul, a man of consu- 
lar rank or dignity. 

Consulates, us, m. (consul), the of- 
fice of consul; the consulship or con- 

Consulo, tre, ui, turn, n. fy a., to con- 
sult, deliberate; to deliberate upon, 
discuss, take counsel, ask one's opi- 
nion, ask advice, consider, consult 
about, judge, $ 265. Male consulere, 
to adopt wrong measures. De aliquo 
consuliiur, a discussion or delibera- 
tion is had, we, they, &c, deliberate, 
$ 248, 1. R. 1. Senates consulitur, the 
opinion of the senate is asked : — with 
the dative, to provide for, take care of, 
look to, consult for, regard, respect, 
serve, aid. Consultum est mild, my in- 
terests haveheen provided for, my 
safety has been consulted. Consulere 
ir(B,fam<B, etc., to be influenced by or 
by a regard for — . Gravius in aliquem 
consulere, to adopt severe measures 
towards — . 

Consultatio, onis, f. (consulto), a 
consultation, deliberation. 

Consultd, adv. (consultus), designed 
ly, on purpose, deliberately. 

Consulto, are, avi, atum, n. fy a.freq 
{consulo), § 265, to advise, consult, de* 
liberate ; to take care of, provide for, 
look to, consult for, constitute a coun 
cil for. • 

Consultor, oris, m. (consulo), one 
who asks counsel or advice, a client , 
one who gives counsel, a counsellor, 
adviser, counsel. 

Consultum, i, n. (consultus, part) 
deliberation, consideration <, a decree, 
statute, ordinance, resolution; coun- 
sel, advice ; a measure, plan, design ; 
a subject of deliberation, consultation 
or discussion, a question. Consulto 
abl., by design, on purpose. 

Consultus, us, m. (consulo), a decree, 
ordinance, statute, resolution.* 

Consultus, a, um, part, fy adj. (con- 
sulo), deliberated upon, considered; 
asked, consulted. Consulto opus est, 
there is need of deliberation. Con- 
sulta sese omnia cum illo integra ha- 
bere, that every thing deliberated upon 
with him, was (still) unchanged. 

Consumo, ere, umpsi, umptum, a 
(con § sumo), to eat, devour, consume, 
destroy ; to kill, slay ; to waste, spend 
squander, exhaust, use up, lose, lay 
out, employ, use, make use of. Mul- 
tarn orationem consumcre, ti> waste 
many words, to debate a long time. 

Consumptus, a, um, part, (consumo) 

Conlagio, onis, f. (contingo, to 
touch), contact, touch; contagion, 
infection, disease. Fig. moral conta 
gion or infection. 

Contemno, ere, empsi, emptum, a 
(con <$r temno, to despise), to make no 
account of, contemn, despise, slight, 
hold in contempt, make light of, treat 
with contempt. 

Contemptor, oris, m. (contemnc), a 
despiser, contemner. Adj. disdainful, 
haughty, contemptuous. 

Contemptus, a, mr\, part, ty adj. \con- 




temno), despised, contemned, slight- 
ed ; contemptible, abject, vile, despica- 

Con tend o, tre, di turn, a. fy n. (con $ 
tendo), to stretch,, strain ; to exert, pit 
forth, employ , to strive, attempt, en- 
deavor; to seek for earnestly, urge, 
solicit; to compare; to go to, shape 
one's course, hasten ; to contend, dis- 
pute, fight, engage. 

Contentio, bnis, /. (contendo), a 
straining or stretching ; an effort, ex- 
ertion, endeavor; a contention, con- 
test, dispute, debate, controversy. 

Contero, ere, trivi trltum, a. (con § 
tero., to rub), to break or bruise small, 
pound, grind ; to wear out ; to spend, 
employ, waste, consume. 

Continentia, «,/., a holding, check- 
ing, restraining; probity; moderation, 
temperance, continence, abstinence, 
self-control: from 

Contineo, ere, tinui, tentum, a. (con $ 
teneo), to contain, hold or keep to- 
gether ; to hold, keep, retain ; to keep 
in, restrain, curb, check. 

Conttnuo, are, avi, atum, a. (con- 
tinuous, continued), to continue, pro- 
long, join one to another, connect, 
unite. Continuare magislralum, to pro- 
long a magistracy, to continue it be- 
yond its proper term. 

Contra, prep, with the ace, agains . 
contrary to, in opposition to. Facere \ 
contra rempublicam, to act against the j 
state, to be guilty of treason. Contra 
ea, in opposition to these things, on the 
other hand, on the contrary : followed 
by ac, atque, etc., contrary to what, 
otherwise than. Contra postulata, in 
reply to — . Contra inceptum suum 
venisse, had come for the purpose of 
opposing his design. Adv. against, 
in opposition, on the contrary, on the 
Other hand, in return, Contra ferire 
to return blows. With sum, the 
contrary, the opposite. Quod contra 


est, it is exactly the reverse, or the re- 
verse of this is true. 

Contraho, Ire, xi, ctum, a. (con <jr trd- 
ho), to draw together, assemble, unite 
together, collect. 

Contremo, ere, ui, a. (con ty tremo, to 
tremble), to tremble, tremble greatly, 
quake through fear, be greatly agita- 

Controversia, ce,f. (controversus, dis- 
puted), a controversy, debate, dispute. 

Contubernium, i, n. (con ty taberna, 
a hut,) a certain number of soldiers 
living in the same tent ; a tent , a liv- 
ing together, intimacy, companion- 
ship, intimate familiarity, constant in- 
tercourse, company. Also, a company 
of noble youth, who followed a gene- 
ral into his province, and continued 
near him, in order to learn the art of 
war, and the management of the 
affairs of a province. These served 
in the pretorian cohort. Is contuber- 
nio patris militabat, — was serving in 
the cohort of his father. 

Contuli, see Confero. 

Contumelia, ce,f„ an affront, an in- 
jury coupled with contempt, outrage, 
insult, contumely, reproachful- lan- 

Contumelibsus, a, um, adj. (contu- 
melia), reproachful, abusive, insolent, 
outrageous, injurious, contumelious* 

Contundo, tre, ztdi, usum, a. (con # 
tundo, to beat), to beat, batter, break, 
bruise, crush. Fig, to lessen, weaken, 
impair; to quell, subdue; to check, 
baffle, thwart. 

Conturbdtus, a, um, pari : from 

Conturbo, are, avi, atum a. (con ty 
turbo, to disturb,) to disturb, disquiet; 
disorder, confuse, throw into confu- 

Contusus, a, um, part, (contundoj, 
broken, bruised, reduced, weakened.. 




Convhiio, ire, veni, ventum, n. ty a. 
\con fy venio), to come together, meet, 
flock, assemble, collect. Convenire 
aliguem, to meet, meet or have an in- 
terview with, go up to, speak to, ac- 
cost, visit — ; — to agree, correspond, 
harmonize, consent ; to be agreed or 
settled. Pax convenit, a peace is 
agreed upon, and in the passive, Pax 
conventafuerat, — had been concluded : 
— $ 223, to suit, agree, fit, be adapted 
to, belong to ; to become or be be- 
coming to. Imp., convenit, it is fit, pro- 
per, suitable, becoming ; it is agreed, 
it is settled ; it is consistent. 

Conventio, onis,f. (convenio), a meet- 
ing or assembling together ; an assem- 
bly, meeting ; an agreement. 

Conventus, a, um, part, (convenio). 

Conventus, us, m. (convenio), a meet- 
ing either public or private, assembly, 
convention; a council, assembly for 
consultation. Primo conventu, at the 
first sitting or meeting. Facere con- 
ventus, to hold meetings. 

Conversus, a, um, part., turned, 
changed, altered : from 

Converto, ere, ti, sum, a. (con fy 
verUtfffo turn about, wheel, turn ; to 
turn back, return; to betake one's 
self; to change, transform, alter, con- 
vert ; to apply, turn, direct. Regium 
imperium in superbiam convertit, sc. se, 
turned, changed, $ 229, R. 4, 1. 

Convictus, a, um, part, '.from 

Convinco, ere,vzci, victum, a. (con $• 
vinco), $ 217, to convict, bonvince, 
overcome by argument, prove clearly. 

Convivium, i, n. (con $ vivo), a feast, 
banquet, entertainment. 

Convoco, are, avi, dtum, a. (con fy 
voco), to call together, assemble, sum- 
mon, convoke. 

CoopZrio, ire, ui, turn, a. (con fy ope- 
rio, to cover), to cover over, envelop. 

Coopertus, a, um, part, (cooperio), § 
249; 1, covered over. Fig. overwhelm- 
ed» covered, plunged, or sunk in. 

Coorior, Iri, ortus sum, $ 177, dep 
(con ty orior), to rise together ; to rise 

Coortus, a, um, part, (coorior). 

Copia, cb, f. (con $ ops), plenty, 
abundance, supply, store, number ; ef- 
fects, substance, wealth, riches, re- 
sources, property ; $ 275, HI, R. I, 
power, opportunity, ability, means, 
facilities, leave, permission. Est mihi 
copia, or habeo copiam, I have it in my 
power, I am able, I can. Magna mihi 
copia est memorandi, I could easily re- 
late. $ 259, R. 3. Habebat magnam 
copiam societatis conjungend<z, he had 
great facilities for forming, or he could 
easily form an alliance. Facere co- 
piam, to give or afford opportunity 
Populo Romano nunquam ea copia 
fuit, — that advantage. Jugurthm co- 
piam habebat, he had Jugurtha in his 
power. Ex copia, or ex copia rerum, 
from or in the existing state of things, 
in present, or under existing circum- 
stances, all things considered, on the 
whole. Pro rei copia, considering his 
circumstances. Rarely in the singu- 
lar, a multitude of men, also, an armed 
force, especially an undisciplined mul- 
titude ; in the plural copice, an army, 
forces, troops. 

Coquo, ere, coxi, coctum, a., to cook 
or dress victuals, to boil, roast, toast, 

Coquus, i. m. (coquo), a cook. 

Coram, prep, with the abt., Defore, 
in presence of, before the eyes of, in 
view of. 

Corium i, n., the skin or hide of a 
beast ; leather. 

Cornelius, i, m., a Roman name be- 
longing to persons of the gens Cor 
nelia. C. 47, 55. The Cornelian 
gens contained many families, among 
which were the Lentuli, Scipiones* 
Cinnm, Rufini and Sulla. C. Corner 
lius a Roman knight confederate witb 
Catiline. C.17,28. 




Corritcen, Vnis, m. {cornu $■ cano), 
he that blows a horn, a horn-blower, 

Cornificius, i, m. (Q.), a distinguish- 
ed Roman, the colleague of Cicero in 
the office of augur. C. 47. 

Cornu, n. indec. in sing, in pi. cor- 
nua, uum, $ 87, a horn; sail yards; the 
wing of an army. 

Corpus, oris, n., a body, solid sub- 
stance ; the body, the person ; cor- 
poreal or physical powers. Vis cor- 
poris, bodily strength. 

Correctus, a, um, part, (corrigo), set 
right corrected, remedied, repaired. 

Correptus. a, um, part, (corripio). 

Corrigo, ere, exi, ectum, a. (con fy 
rego), to set right, make straight, 
order, regulate. Fig. to amend, cor* 
rect, reform, remove, remedy. 

Corripio, ere, ipui, eptum, a. {con fy 
rapid), to snatch, lay hold of hastily, 
seize ; to attack ; to carry off 

Corrumpo, ere, upi, upturn, a. {con 
fy rumpo, to break), to waste, impair, 
mar, debase, spoil, damage, hurt, in- 
jure, destroy, ruin, corrupt. Res fa- 
miliares corrumpere, to impair — . Op- 
portunitates corrumpere, to lose, throw 
away. Fig. $ 273, 2, to bribe, seduce, 
corrupt, mislead, deceive. 

Corruptus, a, um, part, ty adj. (cor- 
rumpo), spoiled, mined, corrupted; 
bad, corrupt, depraved; misled, de- 
ceived, seduced, bribed. Ob rem cor- 
ruptam, on account of the ruin of the 
affair, or, of their failure in the busi- 
ness, (entrusted to them). $ 274, R. 5. 
Cntta. ce, m. (L. Aurelius), a Roman 
consul in the year of the city 689. 
C. 18. 

Crassus, i, m. (M. Licinius), sur- 
named Dives or the Rich, on account 
of his immense wealth, was a member 
of the first triumvirate in connexion 
with P ompey and Caesar. He perish- 
ed in a war with the Parthians, A. U. 
C. 700. G. 17, 38, 47, 4& | 

Creber, bra, brum, adj., frequent, oft 
repeated, thick, close, numerous. 

CrediMlis, e, adj. (credo), § 222, cre- 
dible, probable, likely, that may be 

Credttum, i, n„ any thing com- 
mitted to one's trust, a trust, debt, 
loan, credit : from 

Credo, ere, Idi, ttum, n. fy a., $ 223 
R. 2, $ 272, to credit, believe, trust, 
to think, suppose, imagine. Credo, 
when interposed between the parts of 
a sentence, may be translated, I sup- 
pose, I imagine, I should think, or, 
perhaps, probably;— to confide in, . 
trust, rely on ; to confide or consign 
to one's care,, commit to one's trust, 
intrust, commend. 

Creo, are, avi, alum, a., to make, 
create, form; to cause, occasion; to 
appoint, elect, create. 

Cresco, ere, crevi, n., to increase, 
grow; to extend, spread; to be pro- 
moted, advanced, rise; to become 
greater, thrive. 

Cretwus, i, m.. (&. Metellas) a Roman 
consul, A. U. C. 684, and a general 
in the war with Catiline. C. 30. 

Crevi, see Cresco. 

Crimen, tnis, n., a charge, accusa- 
tion, crimination, impeachment, re- 
proach ; a crime, fault. Falsa crimi- 
na, false accusations, slanders, calum- 


Criminor, ari, atus sum, dep. (cri- 
men), § 272, to accuse, charge with a 
crime, blame, reproach. 

Criminbsl, adv. (criminosus, accu- 
satory), reproachfully, slanderously, in 
an accusatory manner, severely, cen- 

Crotoniensis, e, adj. (Croton), ot 
Crotona, now Crotone, a town in the 
south part of Italy, Crotonian, Subs 
a Crotonian. C. 44. 

Cruciatus, us, m. (crucio, to tor 
ment), torment, torture, pain, agonv 




Crudelis, e, adj. (crudus, bloody), 
uruel, fierce, savage, barbarous. 

CrudelUas, atis, f. (crudelis), cruel- 
ty, inhumanity, 

CrudeUter, civ. (crudelis), in a cruel 
manner, cruelly. 

Cruento, are, avi, atum, a., to make 
bloody, stain, imbrue^ sprinkle with 
blood : from 

Crutmtus, a, um, adj., bloody, cruel, 
fierce, ferocious: from 

Cruor, oris, m„ blood from a wound, 

Crux, cruets, f, a cross. In crucem 
agere, to crucify. 

Cuiquam, see Quisquam. 

Cujuscumquemodi, or cujuscumque 
modi, (gen. of quicumque fy modus), of 
whatever kind or sort, whatsoever it 
may be. 

CujusUbet, see Quilibet. 

Cujusmodi, or cujus modi, of what 
kind or sort, of whatever kind. 

Cuj usquemodi, or cujusque modi, 
{gen. of quisque § jnodus), of what 
kind; of each or every kind, every. 

Culpa, a:, /., a fault, blame, guilt, 
offence, crime. 

Cultor, oris, m. (cold), a cultivator, 
tiller, husbandman ; an inhabitant. 
Exercitus agri ac pecoris magis quam 
belli cultor, — skilled in, conversant 
with fields and herds of cattle — . 

Cultus, iis, m. (cold), cultivation, cul- 
ture. Fig. culture, care, attention, im- 
provement, education; attire, dress, 
clothing, apparel, habit. Cultus cor- 
poris, dress, apparel; — style; manner 
of living, habits of life ; elegance in 
dress, furniture, &c. ; provision or sup- 
plies of the necessaries and conve- 
niences of life, things necessary or 
convenient for sustenance, education, 
•&C Filiorum ejus multus pueritice 
cultus, large supplies for the childhood 
of his sons, i+e. supplies of whatever 
was requisite for his sons during their 
childhood; — luxuries, delights, plea- 

sures, delicacies, indulgences. IAbida 
stupri, ganecs, ceterique cultus, — other 
sensual indulgences. Cultus misera- 
bilis, a sorry plight, a mean garb. 

Cum and Quum, adv., see Quum 

Cum, prep, with abl., with, along 
with, together with, in conjunction cr 
"company with. So simul cum or cum 
simul: — provided with. With verbs 
and phrases denoting contention, with, 
against. With the ablative of accom- 
paniment it may often be translated 
and. In composition, see $ 196, 5. 

Cunctans, tis, part. : from 

Cunctor, ari, atus sum, dep., \s de« 
lay, stay, linger ; to hesitate, be per* 
plexed or at a loss, doubt, scruple, 
§ 265. 

Cunctus, a, um, adj., all, all toge* 
ther, the whole. It either agrees with 
its noun or governs it in the genitive. 
§ 212, R. 2. N. 6. 

Cupidh, adv. (cupidus), eagerly 

Cupiditas, atis, f. (cupidus), desire, 
fondness ; e*ager or inordinate desire, 
lust, passion ; thirst for gain, avarice, 
excessive love of money, covetous- 

Cupido, tnis,f. fy m. (cupio), desire, 
eagerness, appetite, thirst, cupidity, 
passion. Cupido honoris, the desire 
of preferment, ambition. 

Cuptdus, a, um, adj. (cupio), § 213, 
$ 275, III, R. 1. (2.) desirous, fond, 

Cupiendus, a, um, part, fy adj. (cu- 
pio), to be desired, desirable. 

Cupiens, tis, part, fy adj., desiring, 
desirous, wishing, willing, favoring, 
friendly, eager, ardent : from 

Cupio, ere, ivi, itum, a., § 271, to 
covet, desire, be willing, wish, long 

Cura, cb, /., care, concern, anxiety, 
solicitude, trouble, sorrow, affliction, 
diligence, attention, study, thought, 
regard ; management, charge. Habe- 




re curat, $ 227, & R. ] & 2, to pay re- 
gard to, attend to, aid. Est mihi cures, 
I have a care or regard, I take care 
of, attend to. Cum curb, carefully, 
diligently. Curam habere, to be con- 
cerned or anxious, to care for. 

Curator, oris, m. (euro), an overseer, 
agent, manager, superintendent. 

Curia, ce, f., one of the thirty parts 
into which Romulus divided the Ro- 
man people, a curia or ward ; the con- 
secrated place where the curia- assem- 
bled ; the place where the senate met, 
the senate-house. 

Curius, i, m. (Q.), a profligate Ro- 
man senator who conspired with Ca- 
tiline. C. 17, 18. 

Curo, are, avi,atum, a. (cura), § 273, 
1. to take care of, look to, cause, 
Oider, attend to, provide, regard; also, 
either with or without an accusative, to 
have the superintendence, care, or 
control, to do the duties of a commander, 
to manage, preside over, govern, com- 

Cursus, us, m. (rurro, to run), a ru li- 
ning, the act of :unning; a course, 
journey, way. Cursu, all., quickly, 
speedily, in haste ; also, in running. 

Custodia, ce, f, the act of keeping 
or guarding ; a guard-house, a prison. 
Libera custodia, free custody, when a 
criminal of high rank was committed 
to the charge of some responsible indi- 
vidual, to be kept safely until he was 
tried, but without being committed to 
priso?i : — a guard, watch : from 

Custos, odis, m. fy f, a keeper, pre- 
server, guard, watch; a guardian, de- 
fender, protector. 

Cyrene, es, f § 44, Cyrene, a Gre- 
cian city in the north part of Africa. 
J. 19. 

Cyrenensis, e, adj. (Cyrene), Cyre- 
nian, relating to Cyrene. Cyrenenses, 
ium, m., the Cyrenians. J. 79. 

Cyrus, i, m , Cyrus the Great, the 
founder of the Persian empire. C 2. 

D., an abbreviation of the prceno 
men Decimus. 

Dabar, aris, m., a Numidian, the 
grandson of Masinissa. J. 108, — 

Damasippus. L m., (L.) was city- 
pretor, A. U. C. 671. He was attach- 
ed to the party of Marius, and put to 
death great numbers of the nobility 
belonging to the opposite faction. He 
was himself ultimately put to death 
by Sylla. C. 51. 

Bamnatns, a, um, part. : from 

Damno, are, avi, cltum, a., to con 
demn, doom, sentence : from 

Damnum, i, n., loss, hurt, damage, 
injury, disadvantage. 

Datus, a, um, part. (do). 

De, prep, with the abl., of, from ; by t 
after ; about, concerning ; because of, 
on account of, owing to; among 
De with the abl. is sometimes used in 
sf'-od of (he accusative after an active 
v~rb, but in a sense somewhat different ; 
presenting the object not as one thing 
but as resolved into parts ; and may be 
translated simply concerning, respect- 
ing, or the things, the circumstances, 
the particulars, the facts, &c. relating 
to ; as, indicare de conjuratione ; do- 
cere de ccede ; de casu alicujus cogno* 
scere, etc. This form of expression 
is equivalent to the Greek to. irepi or 
ret, followed by the genitive. For its 
force in composition, see $ 197, 7. 

Debeo, ere, ui, itum, a. (de fy habeo), 
to owe, be in debt, be indebted to, be 
obliged to. With the infinitive, it de- 
notes duty, it is proper, it is indispen- 
sable, one ought. § 271. 

Debztus, a, um,part. (debeo), owing, 
due, merited, deserved. 

Decldo, ere, cssi, essum, n. (de ty 
cedo), $242, & R 1. to depart, go 
away, withdraw, retire, retreat; to 
abate, die away, subside; to retire 




from,- depart from, qui i ; to give place, 

Decern, num. adj. ind., ten. 

December, bris, m. {decern), the month 
December, the tenth month from 
March, which was the first month of 
the Roman year. It is also used as 
an adjective, of December. 

Dtcerno, ire, crevi, cretum, a. {de $■ 
cerno), § 271, § 272, § 273, 2, § 262, R. 
4, to think, judge, conclude ; to delib- 
erate, determine, resolve ; to decide, 
pronounc?, settle ; to decree, vote, or- 
der, appoint, assign, grant ; to fight, 

Decet, decere, uit, imp., it becomes, 
is becoming or proper, beseems, be- 
hooves, is right, fit, suitable or meet, 
one ought. With a nominative-, Quce 
ab imperaiore decuerint, such things 
as it behooved a commander (to pro- 
vide). For its construction, see § 223, 
& $269, & R. 2, & $209, R. 3. (5), and 

Decimus, a, um, num. adj. {decern), 
the tenth. 

Decimus, i, m. {decern), a Roman 

Decldro, are, dvi, dtum, a. {de <$■ 
claro, to make clear), to declare, show 
clearly, evince, tell, manifest ; to de- 
clare, proclaim. 

Declivis, e, adj. {de $• clivus, an as- 
cent), bending downwards, steep, slop- 
ing, declining. 

Decore, adv. {decorus), becomingly, 
fitly, properly. 

Decoro, are, avi, dtum, a. {decus), to 
adorn, beautify, grace, embellish, de- 

Decorus, a, um, adj. {decus), come- 
ly, graceful, beautiful ; proper, becom- 
ing, fix seemly, decorous. 

Deo Hum, i, n, {decerno), a decree, 
act, ordinance, statute. Decretumft, 
with ut. J. 16. 

Decretus, a, um, part, {decerno), de- 
tenmned, resolved, appointed. Inter 

hweparata atque decreia, duiing these 
preparations and resolves. 

Decus, oris, n. {decet), an ornament j 
grace; credit, reputation, character, 
honor; what is becoming. Contra 
decus regium, contrary to, or in dero- 
gation of regal dignity. Sine decore, 
in sorry plight. 

Dedecoro, are, dvi, a., to dishonor 
disgrace, render infamous : from 

Dedecus, oris, n. {de fy decus), dis- 
grace, dishonor, shame, infamy; a 
disgraceful action. Per dedecus or 
per dedecora, dishonorably, disgrace- 
fully, in disgraceful ways. 
Dedi, see Do. 

Deditio, onis, f. {dedo), a yielding 
up, surrender, submission, capitula- 
tion. Facere deditionem, to surrend- 
er, capitulate. In deditionem accipere t 
to receive on surrender. 

Dedititius, a, um, adj. {deditio), one 
who has surrendered. Dedititius est 
he has surrendered. 

Deditus, a, um, part, fy adj., given, 
given up ; devoted, addicted, attached 
to : from 

Dedo, ere, dedidi, dedttum, a. {de in* 
tensive ty do), $ 223, to give, give up, 
submit, surrender, capitulate; to ap- 
ply or devote one's self to. 

Deduco, ere, uxi, uctum, a. {de $ 
duco, $ 197, 7), to bring or lead down; 
to convey, conduct, remove, with- 
draw, bring or lead forth, lead 
out; to accompany; to bring, lead) 

Deductus, a, um, part, {deduce ,) led, 
conducted, brought, removed. $ 242. 
Defendo, ere, di, sum, a {de <$ fen- 
do, obs.), abl. with ab. to keep or ward 
off, repel; to defend, keep, protect, 
guard, preserve; to maintain, assert, 

Defensio, bnis, f. {defendo), a de- 
fending, defence. 

Defenso, are, a. free, defendo), te 




Defensor, oris, m. {defendo), a de- 
fender, advocate, preserver. 

Defessus, a, um, adj. (de tyfessus), 
weary, tired, worn out, fatigued, faint, 
languid, exhausted. 

Deficio, ere, eci, ectum, n. $■ a. (de 
tyfacio), to fail, be wanting ; to lose 
strength or power, become feeble ; to 
perish, cease; to be discouraged or 
disheartened, give up, give over; to 
end; to forsake; with a and abl. to 
rebel, revolt. 

Dejluo, ere, uxi, n. {de fy fiuo, to 
flow), to flow down ; to fall off. Fig. 
to escape, vanish, pass away, cease, 
perish, go to waste or decay. 

Deformatus, a, um, part., deformed, 
disfigured, marred. Fig. changed, 
humbled, brought low, shorn of one's 
glory : from 

Deformo, are, avi, atum, a. (de fy 
formo, to form), to form, fashion ; to 
deform, disfigure, spoil. 

Degredior, i, gressus sum, dep. (de 
ty gradior, to step), § 242, to descend, 
go down. 

Degusto, are, avi, atum, a. (de $■ 
gusto, to taste), to taste, taste of. 

Dehinc, adv. (de $ hind), henceforth, 
hereafter; afterwards, after this or 
that, next, then, in the next place. 
See Deinde. 

Dehorlor, ari, atus sum, dep. (de fy 
hortof), to dissuade, discourage, ad- 
vise to the contrary, dissuade from. 
An infinitive following it is translated 
by the English gerundive, as, Scribere 
dchortatur me fortuna mea, — from 
writing. Dehortari ab aliquo, to 
discourage from espousing one's 
cause, or engaging in one's de- 

Dein, or Deinde, adv. (de ty in, or 
inde), then, after that, aflerwards, 
again, thence, from thence ; hereafter, ' 
in future ; in marking the divisions of \ 
a subject, next in order, in the next 
place Primum — deinde, and rarely \ 

primum — datnc, in the first place- 
in the second place. 

Deinceps, adv. (dein $■ capio), sue 
cessively, after that, next, ir the nt xv 

Delectus, a, um. part, fy adj. (deVga , 
chosen, selected, elected. Delecti, 
drum, m. pi., men chosen or selected ; 
a select band of soldiers. 

Delectus, us, m. (deligo), a choosing 
selecting, choice ; a levy of soldiers- 
Habere delectum, to make a levy, draf/ 

Deleo, ere, evi, etum, a., to blot out, 
efface, expunge, erase. Fig. to over* 
throw, destroy. 

Deletus, a, um, part, (deleo). 

Delicico, drum,f pi. (delicto, to en- 
tice), delights, pleasures, pastimes, de- 
licacies, luxuries. 

Delictum, i, n. (delinquo), a fault, 
crime, guilt, offence, sin. Delicta cor* 
rigere, to rectify abuses, correct evils. 

DkUgo, ere, egi, ectum, a. (de ty lego), 
to choose, pick out or select, in refe' 
rence to a particular use or purpose. 

Delinquo, ere, liquid lirtvm, a. ty n. 
(de § linquo, to leave), to fail, be want 
ing ; to fail in duty, offend, trespass 
transgress, do wrong, do or act amiss. 
Ea, qua delinquo, the faults which 1 
commit, my crimes or faults. 

Delubrum, i, n., a shrine, temple. 

Dementia, ce,f. (demens, mad), mad 
ness, folly. Per dementiam, through 
madness, madly. 

Demissus, a, um, part $■ adj., low 
let down, sunk. Fig. cast down, dis- 
heartened, dejected, sad, melancholy, 
downcast, discouraged ; low, humble, 
in humble life, in a private station 

Lvmitto, ere, isi, issum, a. (de § 
mitxo), to send down, cast, thrust oi 
let down, lower. Fig. to fix, fasten, 
impress. In pectus demittere, to im- 
press deeply on the mind. 

Demo, ere, dempsi, demptum, a [de 




4r emo), $ 224, R. 2, to take away, take 
off) subtract, withdraw, remove. 

Demum, adv., at length, at last) 
finally, only, alone, exclusively. Turn 
demum, then at length, not till then ; — 
truly, certainly, indeed, in truth, espe- 
cially. Ea demum jirma amicitia est, 
that indeed — . 

Deri&go, are, avi, atum, a. {de $• 
nego), to deny, not suffer ; not to give, 
refuse to give ; to refuse. 

Deni, ce, a. num. adj. § 119, III, {de- 
cern), ten by ten, ten, ten each. 

Denique, adv., to conclude, in fine, 
at last, finally, in short ; at length. 

Depello, ere, puli, pulsum, a. {de fy 
Dello), to drive, put or thrust down; 
t$ drive away, expel, remove, repel. 

Depbno, ere, posui, positum, a. {de fy 
pono), to lay or put down, lay, put ; to 
lay by, throw aside ; to cast away, lay 
aside, abandon; to leave, leave off, 
give up. 

Depravo, are, avi, atum, a. {de vfpra- 
vus), to deprave, spoil, corrupt, vi- 

Deprlcor, ari, atus sum, dep. {de fy 
precor, to" pray), to pray for earnestly, 
supplicate, beseech, beg ; to deprecate, 
avert by prayer, beg to be freed or 
saved from, pray that some evil may 
be averted ; to avert, remove, drive or 
turn away, avoid, escape ; to allege in 
deprecation or plead in excuse, offer 
as an apology. § 272. 

Depr'ehendo, ere, di, sum, a. {de fy 
prehendo, to take), to seize, catch, ar- 
rest, take unawares, overtake ; to take 
in the act, detect, surprise; to find, 
discover, perceive, discern. 

Deprehensus, a, um, part, {depre- 

Depressus, a, um, part., depressed, 
sunk: from 

Dcprimo, ere, pressi, pressum, a. {de 
fy premo), to press or weigh down, de- 
press, sink. 

scando, to climb), to go down, des- 
cend, descend from. Fig to pene- 
trate, sink into, pierce, make anim 

Descensus, us, m. {descendo), a de- 

Desero, ere, serui, sertum, a, {de ty 
sero), to abandon, leave forsake, de- 
sert. Tempus deserat, time would 
fail. Deserere labores, etc., to cease 
to perform, discontinue, leave off 

Desertus, a. um, part fy adj. {deserc , 
abandoned, deserted, tyc. ; desert, lone 
ly, uninhabited. 

Desidero, are, avi, atum, a., to de- 
sire, wish, long for; to regret, need, 

Desidia, ce, f. {deses, idle), sloth, 
sloth fulness, idleness, inactivity, 

Designatus, a, urn, part, fy adj. 
consul, prcetor, etc. designatus, consul, 
&c. elect :from 

Designo, are, avi, atum, a. {de ty 
signo), to mark, mark out ; to signify 
denote, mean; to choose, elect, ap- 

Desino, ere, sivi, situm, n. $■ a. {de 
fy sino), to cease, leave of£ give over 
desist, to end, terminate. 

Desisto, ere, siiti, stitum, n. {de $ 
sislo, to stand) ; § 242, R. 1. to cease, 
give over ; desist from, leave off 

Despectus, a, um, part, -.from 

Despicio, ere, exi, ectum, a. {de $ 
specio, to see), to look down upon 
Fig. to despise, contemn, look upon 
with contempt; to disdain. 

Desum, deesse, defui, irr. n. {de <$• 
sum), with dat. § 224, R. 1. to fail, be 
wanting or lacking. Deest mild, it is 
wanting to me, I lack. 

Deter reo, ere, ui, itum, a {de $• ler- 
red), § 242, &SR. 1. to deter, frighten, 
scare, discourage. 

Detineo, ere, ui, entum, a. {de $ 
teneo), to detain, keep, hold, hinder 

Detrecto, are, avi, atum, a. {de ty 

JJcsctndo, ere, di, sum, n. {de fy\tracto), to decline, refuse; to speak ill 




3i, disparage, diminish, lower, sink, i die noctuque, $ 253, day and night. In 
impair the reputation of. dies, daily, from day to day, every 

Detrimentum, i, n. {, to wear), ' day. Z>iew sLatuere, *o appoint or fix 

detriment, disadvantage, damage, loss, 

Deus, i, m. $53, a god, deity, divi- 

a day ;— time, length of time. 

Dijficilis, e. adj. (dis fy facitis), $ 
222, 3, hard, difficult Dijficilis aditu, 

nity. Per deos immortales, in questions hard to approach, of difficult access, 
and exhortations denotes earnestness, § 250, 1. 

really, pray tell, &c. Difjicultas, atis, f. (difficilis, $ 101, 

Devictus, a, um, part, conquered, 1 2), difficulty, trouble. 

overcome, made to yield, overruled 

Devinco, ere, vlci, victum, a. (de ty 
vinco), to conquer, vanquish, subdue, 
overcome, make to yield. 

Dexter, tera, terum, ty tra, trum, adj. 
$ 125, 4, right, on the right hand. 

Dextera ty Dextra, ce,f. (sc. manus), 
r.he right hand ; the right side. Dex- 
tra, sinistra, on the right and left. 

Dextimus, a, um, adj. sup. of dexter, 
$ 125, 4, farthest to the right, on the 
extreme right. 

Dico, ere, ixi, ictum, a., $ 272, $271, 
& R. 2, $ 265, to speak, say, tell. Dicere 
sententiam, to give one's opinion as a 
senator, to vote ; — to set forth, recount, 
narrate, relate, record, write, write of, 
celebrate, report; to appoint; to agree 
to, determine, fix upon ; to mention ; 
to speak in public, harangue, plead. 

Diclito. are, avi.atum,a.freq. (dico), 
$ 272, $ 276, III. to speak or tell often. 

Dificulter, adv. (difficilis), difficulty 
with difficulty. Hand difficulter, with- 
out difficulty, 

Diffidentia, ce, f, mistrust, distrust, 
want of confidence, diffidence -.from 

Diffido, ere, diffisus sum, n. pass. $ 
142, 1 & 2, (dis ty jido, to trust to), and 
$ 223, R. 2, to distrust, n^jstrust, lack 
confidence, despair, give up as hope- 
less, despair of, fear. 

Dignitas, atis,/., merit, desert; dig- 
nity, greatness, authority, rank, repu- 
tation, standing, honor, nobility, ex- 
cellence, eminence, worth ; office : 

Dignus, a, um, adj. $ 244, worthy, 
deseiving, either in a good or bad sense. 
Non dignus, unworthy; — convenient, 
meet, fit, suitable, proper, deserved. 
Digna timere, to fear condign or merit- 
ed punishment. 

Digredior, edi, gressus sum, dep. 
(dis fy gradior, to step), to go or step 

give out, say commonly ; to pretend, i aside, turn aside ; to depart, set of! 
Dictum, i, n. (dico), a word, saying, separate, part. 

expression; a command; a proverb; 
the response of an oracle ; an answer, 
reply ; a prediction, prophecy. 

Digressus, a, um, part, (digredior). 

Dilubor, i, lapsus sum, dep. (dis <§ 

labor), to slip or glide different ways ., 

Dictus, a, um, part (dico), said, ' to flee, run away, disperse, be scatter- 
spoken, narrated, related, recorded, ed; to decay, go to ruin, fade or melt 

mentioned, determined. 

Didici, see Disco. 

Diduco, ere, xi, ctum, a. (dis. fy duco, 
$ 196,(6.)), to lead or draw aside, sepa- 
rate, sever, part, divide. 

Diductus, a, um,part. (diduco). 

Dies, diei, m. fyf,inpl. m. only, $ 

away, waste, come to nothing, pass 


Dilaceratus, u, um.part .-from 
Dilacero, are, avi alum, a. (dis $ 

lacero), to tear or rend in pieces, de 

stroy, waste, make navoc of. 
Dilapsus, a, um, part (dilabor). 

00, a day. Dies noctesque $ 236, and! Diligenter, adv. {diligent, diligent 





diligently, carefully, attentively, indus- 

DUigentia, <z,f. (diligens), d ligence, 
carefulness, attention, industiy. 

Dimidius, a, um, adj. (dis ty medi- 
us), halved, half. • 

Dimitto, ere, misi x missum, a. (dis fy 
mitto), to send different ways or to 
different places, send off or away, dis- 
patch; to dismiss, discharge, let go, 
send away, discard ; to lay aside ,• to 
leave, omit, forego, pass over ; to re- 
mit, forgive. 

Dimoveo, ere, movi, motum, a. (dis 
<jr moved), to move, stir ; to put aside, 
remove, separate. Fig. to alienate. 

Dirimo, ere, emi, emptum, a. {dis ty 
emo), to paj?t, divide, separate ; to in- 
terrupt, put an end to, put a stop to, 
break off; to render null, frustrate. 

Diripio, ere, ripui, reptum, a. (dis fy 
rapio), to tear asunder or in pieces ; 
to plunder, spoil, pillage, rob, seize, 
carry off. ) 

Diruo, ere, ui, utum, a. (dis fy ruo, 
to overthrow), to pull down, over- 
throw, destroy, demolish. 

Dis see Deus. 

Discedo, ere, cessi, cessum, n. (dis <£• 
cedo), to part, divide, open ; to depart, 
go away; to go, betake one's self. 
Discedere, abire, etc. are used to mark 
the result of a contention, to come off; 
as, discedere aqua, manu, see Manus. 
Discedere viclus, to be vanquished or 
worsted. In alicujus sententiam dis- 
cedere, to go over to his opinion, to 
vote with him on a division of the 
senate, to approve of or assent to his 
opinion. Ab armis discedere, to lay 
down one's arms. Profugus disce- 
dere, to flee. 

Discepto, are, am, alum, a. (dis fy 
capto) with de and all. to contend, 
dispute debate, discuss, confer, rea- 
son; to judge, decide, determine. 

Discerno, ere, crevi, cretum, a. (dis 
if cerno) to distinguish, discern; to 

separate, divide ; to determine, judge ; 

DiscipUna, ce, /. (disco), discipline- 
instruction, learning, education; sci 
ence,. skill; an art, profession, mill 
tary discipline ; use, custom, habit 

Disco, ere, didwi, a. ty n., § 271, to" 
learn, acquire a knowledge of; tc 
study ; to understand, know. . 

Discordia, ce, f. (discors, discord 
ant), discord, dissension, disagree* 
ment, variance, debate, strife, broil. 

Discordiosus, a, um, adj. (discor- 
dia), prone to discord, quarrelsome. 

Discrimen, mis, n. (discerno), a di 
vision, separation ; a difference, dis 

Disjectus, a, um, part. <$* adj., dis* 
persed, routed, scattered : from 

Disjwio, ere, jeci, jectam, a. (dis $ 
jacio, to cast), to cast asunder, to 
overthrow, disperse, scatter, rout, dis 
comfit, put to flight. 

Disjungo, ere, xi, ctum, a. (dis $ 
jungo, to join), to disunite, disjoin, 
separate, divide. 

Dispat, arts, adj (dis fy par), une- 
qual, dissimilar, unlike, different. 

Dispergo, ere, si, sum, a. (dis ty spar 
go, to scatter), to scatter on all sides, 
disperse. Fig. to spread abroad, dis- 
seminate, scatter. 

Dispersus, a, um, part, (dispergo). 

Dispertio, ire, wi, itum, a. (dis tij 
partio), to divide, distribute. 

Dispono, ere, posui, positum, a. (dis 
<jr pond), to place here and there, to 
distribute; to place or set in-order, 
dispose, arrange ; to station. 

Dispositus, a, um, part, (dispono). ' 

Dissensio, onis,f, a disagreement, 
dissension, difference, variance • from 

Dissentio, ire, si, sum, n. (dis fy sen' 
do), to be of a contrary opinion, dis- 
sent, disagree. Fig. to differ, be dif- 
ferent or dissimilar. 

Disscro, ere, serai, sertum, n. (dis $ 
sera, to join together), with de and the 




ahl. rarely with ace. and sometimes 
with both ace. fy ahl to discourse, talk, 
converse, debate, reason, argue, dis- 
pute, speak, treat or speak of, discuss ; 
to declare, relate, § 265. 

Dissimilis, e, adj. (dis § similis), 
$ 250, unlike, dissimilar, different. 

Dissimiliter, adv. (dissimilis), differ- 
ently, in a different manner. 

Dissimulator, oris, m., a dissembler ; 
one who conceals the truth, one who 
pretends that that is not which is, 
skillful in dissimulation: from 

Dissimulo, are, am, alum, a. (dis ty 
simulo), to dissemble, cloak, disguise, 
conceal, counterfeit, feign. 

Dissolvo, ere, solvi, solutum, a. (dis 
$• solvo), to dissolve, loose, untie, un- 
loose, disunite; to dissipate; to re- 
move, terminate, end, put an end to, 
destroy. Dissolvi senectute, to die of 
old age. 

Distrdho, ere, axi, actum, a. (dis fy 
traho), to draw or pull asunder, divide, 
separate ; to perplex, distract. 

Dislribuo, ere, ui, utum, a. (dis fy 
tribuo), to divide, distribute. 

Ditio, bnis,f, rule, power, domin- 
ion, empire, authority. 

J)iu, adv. comp. diutius, sup. diutis- 
sirne, (properly the abl. of dius, obs. a 
day), in the day-time, by day ; long, 
for a long time. The comparative, 
diutius, is sometimes used for the 
positive, diu. 

Dius Fidius, i. e. Jovisfilius, the son 
of Jupiter, see Fidius. Dius, in this 
combination, is by some supposed to 
be a Greek genitive, by others the no- 
minative for Deus. 

Diuturnitas, alis,f, length of time, 
long continuance, long duration: 

Diuturnus, a, urn, adj. (diu), of long 
duration or continuance, long, last- 
ing long continued, protracted. 

Divello, Sre, velli, fy vulsi, vulsum, 
a, (dis § vello, to pluck), to pull asun- 

der or in pieces, separate, disjoin ; to 
tear away, separate by violence. 

Diverse, adv., in different parts, di- 
versely; different ways. Fauci pau- 
lo diversius conciderant, — in places 
slightly different,— a little removed: 

Diversus, a, um, part, fy adj. (diver' 
to, to turn aside), turned another way 
turned different ways, in different di- 
rections, from different quarters, at 
different places, separate. Omnes jam 
anlea diversi audistis, — have already 
heard separately, or some in one 
place, some in another; — opposite, 
contrary ; different, unlike, of a differ- 
ent character, having different views 
or tastes, inconsistent, diverse, vari- 
ous. Diversus agitabatur, was vari- 
ously agitated, was agitated by oppo- 
site feelings. Reges diversi, pars in- 
genium, alii corpus exercebant, — pur- 
suing opposite courses. 

Dives, ilis, adj., rich, wealthy, opu- 

Divido, ere, visi, visum, a., to divide, 
part, separate; to distribute, portion 
out, allot. 

Divlnus, a, um, adj. (divus, divine), 
divine, heavenly. 

Divisio, bnis,f. (divido), a dividing, 
division, separation ; a distribution. 

Divisus, a, um, part, (divido). 

Divitia, arum,f. pi. (dives), riches, 

Divulgo, are, avi, atum, a. (dis $ 
vulgo, to publish). $ 265, to make pub- 
lic, publish, divulge, spread abroad. 

Do, dare, dedi, datum, a., § 223 to 
give, bestow, grant, afford, offer, pre- 
sent, furnish, confer, impart, make. 
occasion. Darefidem, to give a pro- 
mise, promise. Darefidem publicanu 
to pledge the public faith, to give as- 
surance of impunity. Dare jusjuran- 
dum, to take an oath, to swear. Dart 
ope ram, to endeavor, labor, strive, 
take care, be at pains. Date nego- 




Hum, to give in charge* to charge, 
commission, direct. Dare pvenas, to 
give satisfaction, hence, to suffer pun- 
ishment, be punished. Dare se, to 
yield, submit, give up to, resign. Dare 
hostes^ictos, to conquer the enemy, § 
274, R. £, fin. Dare senatum legatis y to 
give an audience of the senate — , to 
admit the ambassadors to plead their 
cause before the senate. Prcccipitem 
dare, to throw, plunge or carry head- 
long, to precipitate. Darelitteras, to 
deliver — . Dare dono aliquid, to give 
anything as a present, to present, § 
227. Dare provinciam, to commit, 
allot, assign — . 

Doceo, ere, ui,\tum, a., $ 231, & R. 
3, $ 272, $ 271, $ 265, to show, inform, 
tell, declare ; to teach, instruct. Doc- 
tus sum, I have been taught, hence, 1 

* Doctl, adv. (doctus), learnedly, skill- 

Doctor, oris, m. (doceo), a teacher, 
• instructor, master. 

Doctus, a, um, part. § adj. (doceo), 
$250, $271, R. 1, taught, instructed; 
learned, skilled, well versed. 

Documentum, i, n. (doceo), a docu- 
ment, example, pattern, lesson ; a 
proof, instance, specimen. 

Dolens, tis, part. $• adj., grieving, 
sorrowing, deploring, lamenting, occa- 
sioning vexation or chagrin, painful, 
afflictive, offensive, $ 222, 3 : from. 

Doleo, ere, ui, n. $■ a., § 232, (2.) to 
grieve, sorrow, be sad or sorry, be in 
pain, be grieved or afflicted ; to mourn, 
take to heart, grieve or be sorry for, 
deplore, lament. 

Dolor, oris, m. (doleo), pain, grief, 
distress, sorrow, anguish, a painful 
sense or feeling, indignation, chagrin, 
vexation, resentment, anger, mortifi- 
cation. Dolor injuries, indignation or 
resentment on account of — . 

Dolus, i ni., a device, crafty pur- 
pose, artifice, stratagem, trick; guile. 

deceit, treachery, cunning, fraud, art* 
fice, craftiness; subtlety, dexterity 
adroitness, address, aeutene§s. Dolo 
an vere, in pretence or in reality. 

Dominatio, bids, J., dominion, rule, 
authority, government, power, scve 
reignty, tyranny, despotism, dc luna- 
tion ; from 

Dominor, ari, atus sum, dep., to be 
lord and master, rule, bear rule, reign, 
govern, domineer. 

Domznus, i, m. (domus), a master of ' 
a house, master of slaves, proprietor, 
possessor, owner, lord, ruler, master, 

Domltus, a, um, part. $• adj., tamed, 
subdued ; tame : from 

Domo, are, ui, ztum, a., to subdue, 
conquer, overcome, vanquish, break 
or tame wild animals; to obtain the 
mastery over, gain the ascendency, 
surmount ; to render easy or practica- 

Domus, us, § i, f, § 89, a private 
house, a house, home, habitation, 
dwelling, place of abode. Domi, at 
home. § 221, R. 3, in one's own house, 
in one's own country. Domi militias- 
que or belli, in peace" and in war 
Domi— j 'oris, at home— abroad. D( 
mum, after a verb of mofion, home; 
se domum proripere, to hasten home, 
$ 237, R. 4. Domo, fj om home ; domo 
egressus, leaving home, $ 255. R. 1. 
Extorrem patria, domo, an exile from 
my country and my home. 

Donatus, a, um, part., presented, 
honored, rewarded, loaded with pre- 
sents: from 

Dono, are, avi, alum, a. (donum), to 
give liberally, bestow freely, present; 
with an accusative of the person, to 
honor rewasd, distinguish by re- 

Donum, i, n. (do\ a gift, i'ree gift 
present, offering, bribe. Mihiarin 
dona, military rewards, honorary re- 
wards bestowed publicly upon mertp 




rious soldiers. Dignum dono, worth 1 263, 2, & 4. Dum pariret, provided 
the giving. he could — so he could but obtain 

Dormio. ire, ivi, Itum, n., to sleep, Duo, cc, o, num. adj., two, > 118, 1. 

be asleep, slumber. 

Dubie, adv. (dubius), doubtfully, du- 
biously. Hand dubie, without doubt, 
undoubtedly, unquestionably. 

Duodecim, num. adj. ind, {duo fy de- 
cem), twelve. 

Duritia, m, f, (dwus, hard;, hard- 
ness, callousness, roughness, hardi 

Dubiiatw, onis, f., a doubting rness, austerity, self-denial, power of 

doubt, uncertainty,, hesitation, sus- 
pense, irresolution, indecision. Per 
dubitationem, in indecision : from 

Dubito, are, avi, alum, n., § 2.71, conductor, general. 
$ 265, to doubt, be in doubt, be un- 
certain, hesitate, scruple, waver, de- 
lay, be backward, be reluctant. 

Duhium, i, n., doubt, uncertainty. 
In ditbio, in doubt, in danger: 

D: 'bius, a, um, adj. (duo), § 265, 

Duum, see Duo, & $ 118, 1, R. 1. 
Dux, duels, m. ty /., a leader, guide, 


E or Ex, prep, with the abl. § 195, 
R. 2, from, out of. Denoting the ma* 
terials of which g,ny thing is made, o£ 
out of. Denoting time, from, since, 
doubtful, dubious, uncertain, danger- after.— Of; on account of, in conse- 
ous; hesitating, wavering; dark, iquence of; partitively, of; among;— 
threatening, gloomy. Dubim res, according to, in accordance or con- 
troubles, difficulties, penis, perplexi- .formity with; in, on. Ex altera parte, 
ties, adverse or untoward circumstan- on the other side. Pendereex aliquo, 

to depend upon — . E or ex with the 
ablative is often used to denote a re- 
mote cause. With its noun it is often 
used instead of an adverb ; as, Ex im- 
proviso, unexpectedly. Denoting a 
change of condition, from, in place of, 
instead of, from being, after: Ex sum- 
ma Icetitia, tristitia invasit. Ex vo- 
luntate, according to one's pleasure, 
wish, desire, as one pleases. Ex copia 
rerum, literally, from the store of 
things, plans, or measures, i. e. from 
which a choice could be made, in pre- 
sent circumstances. Ex sententia, ac- 
coidtng to one's wishes. Ex senten* 
da ambobus, acceptable to bcth. In 
196, 6, & § 197, 9. 

ces : also, subjects of doubt or perplex- 
ity. Hostes dubii, — wavering, on the 
point of giving way. 

Ducenti, cr., a, num, adj. (duo fy cen- 
tum), two hundred. 

Duco, ere, xi, ctum, a., to draw, lead, 
conduct, take along; to protract; to 
lead, command, as a general; to at 
tract; to take, assume, acquire; to es- 
teem, hold, think, consider, account, 
reckon, regard, place, put, $ 214, $ 227, 
$ 230, $ 272; to ascribe, impute, attri- 
bute, construe. When joined with 
trahere and rapere which denote the 
let of acquiring by violence, ducere is 
supposed to mean, to obtain by cun- 
ning and deceit, to enrich one's self composition, see 
by fraud Ea > see Is - 

Ducto, are, avi, alum, a.freq. (duco), Ea, adv, (is), sc. parte, or via, that 
to lead frequently, lead, conduct, com- ( way, through that place, in that way 
mand as a general. • | Eadem, adv. (properly abl. fern, oj 

Dum conj. $ adv., while, whilst, idem, sc. via), the same way. 
whilst that, during the time tha* or in j Ecce, int., lo! see! behold! 
which, as lonp as; until; prov .led, $ Edico, ere, xi, ctum, a. $ n.(e& 





dice* $ 265, to declare publicly, speak 
out, relate, tell, publish, order. 

Edictum, i, n. (edico), an edict, pro- 
clamation, -order, charge, injunction, 
general order. 

Editus, a, urn,, part, fy adj., publish- 
ed ; raised, elevated ; high, lofty. Edi- 
tus in immensum, of vast height : from 

Edo, Ire, edidi, editum, a., to utter 
or put forth, speak ; to declare, show, 
tell, relate, set forth, exhibit ; to pub- 
lish, put out, spread abroad, make 
known ; to raise, elevate. 

Edoceo, ere, ui, turn, a. (e ty doceo, 
$ 197, 9), § 231, & R. 3, $ 265, § 271, to 
teach, instruct carefully; to direct, 
show, inform, make known. 

Edoclus, a, um, part, (edoceo), § 
234, 1. 

Educo, 'ire, xi, ctum, a. (e fy duco), 
to draw or lead forth, draw out, draw. 

Effectus, a, um, part, (efficio), made, 
done, finished, completed. 

Effemtno, are, avi, atum, a. (ex ~<$r 
femina, a female), to make feminine ; 
to enervate, render soft or effeminate. 

Effero, ferre, extuli, elatum, irr. a. 
<ex ty fero), to bring forth, carry forth 
or out ; to produce, yield ; to publish ; 
to say, speak ; to raise, exalt, advance, 
promote. Se efferre, to boast one's 
self, pride one's self, be elated, puffed 
up. Pecunia aut honore efferre, to 
distinguish by pecuniary rewards or 

Effetus, a, um, adj. (ex #■ fetus, hav- 
ing brought forth), having brought 
forth young ; past bearing ; worn out, 
exhausted, decayed, weak, feeble. 

Efficio, ere, feci, fectum, a. (ex fyfa- 
cio), $ 273, 1, to bring to pass, do, 
effect, accomplish, complete, finish, to 
make, perform, execute ; to render ; to 
cause, occasion. 

Effringo, ere, fregi, fractum, a. (ex 
$ frango), to break, break open, break 
in pieces 

Effvgio, tre, ugx, ugitum n., <£ a. 

(ex fyfugio), to fly, fly away, escape, 
flee: § 229, to avoid, shun, evade, 
escape from. 

Effundo, Ire, fudi, fusum, a. (ex $ 
/undo), § 242, to spill, pour out, shed * 
to spread, scatter, disperse ; to pour or 
rush forth in crowds. 

Effuse, adv., in a scattered manner 
without restraint, loosely, scatteringly 
irregularly -.from 

Effusus, a,um,part. fy adj. (effundo), 
poured out; let loose, scattered, dis- 
persed, in disorder, spread abroad, 
poured forth. Effusi consedere, — irre- 
gularly, in a disorderly manner. 

Egens, tis, part. <$• adj. (egeo), need- 
ing, wanting, demanding, requiring; 
needy, in want, poor, destitute of. 
Egentissimus quisque, the most needy : 

Egeo, ere, ui, n. § 250, 2, (2.) & % 
220, 3, to need, want, be in want of, 
stand in need of, require, be destitute 
of, lack, be lacking in. 

Egestas, atis, f (egeo), want, po- 
verty, indigence, beggary ; destitution. 

Ego, mei, pro. § 132, & § 133, m. fy 
f. I ; pi. nos, we. Mecum, with myself, 
in my own mind. 

Egomet, intensive pro. m. $f, § 133, 
R. 2, 1 myself. Nosmet, we ourselves. 

Egredior, edi, gressus sum, dep. (e 
ty gradior, to step), § 242, & R. 1, & 
R. 3, last clause, $ 276, II. to go out, 
depart, depart from, set forth from ; to 
ascend, mount, climb; to pass over, 
go beyond. Scalis egressi, having as- 
cended by means of ladders. 

Egregius, a, um, adj. (e fy grex), ex- 
cellent, remarkable, eminent, surpass- 
ing, egregious, notable, noble, singu- 
lar, rare, extraordinary. 

Egressus, us, m. (egrediar), a gctng 

Egressus, a, um, part, (egredior). 

Eheu,int. $ 238, 2. & $ 240 ah! 

Ejectus, a, um, part. : fiom 




Ejicw. $re,jeci,jectum, a. (e Sqjacio), 
$ 242, & R. 1, to cast or throw out, 
eject, expel; to banish, drive out. 

Elegai ter, adv. (elegans, elegant), 
elegantly, choicely, nicely, gracefully. 

Elephantus, i, m. fy /., an elephant. 
Eloquentia, cc, f, (eloquens, elo- 
quent), eloquence, 

Ementior, iri, Itus sum, dep. (e fy 
mentior), to lie; to pretend falsely, 
feign, falsify, state or report falsely . 

Eme'reo, ere, ui, itum, a., and Eme- 
reor, en, itus sum, dep. (e fy mereo), to 
merit, deserve ; to-serve out. 

Emeritus, a, um, part. pass, fy act. 
fy adj. (emereo fy emereor), merited, de- 
served. Homines emeritis stipendiis, 
$211, R. 6, men who have completed 
their term of military service. 

Eminens, tis, part. fy adj., rising up, 
Btanding out, eminent, high, lofty, pro- 
jecting .from 

Emrneo, ere, ui, n. (e fy mineo, to 
hang over), to rise or grow up, be 
raised above, stand out, project. 

Emmus, adv. (e fy manus), from a 
distance, at a distance, afar off 

Emissus, a, um, part. : from 

Emitto, ere, mlsi, missum, a. (e fy 
mitto,) to send forth or out, let go ; to 
sling, hurl, throw, discharge. 

Emo, ere, emi, emptum, a., to buy, 

Emorior, i, mortuus sum, dep. (e fy 
morior), to die, die outright, utterly 
perish. Emori per virtutem, to die 

Emptor, oris, m. (emo), a buyer, pur- 

En, int., lo ! see ! behold I 

Enim, conj. $ 279, 3, (c.) for, indeed, 
but, now. At em'm, but, indeed. Enim 
tero, or enimvero, indeed, truly. 

Enisus, a, um,part. (enitor). 

Enitesco, ire, nitui, n. inc. (eniteo, to 
shine), *o shine forth, become famous, 
become distinguished. 

Enitor, i, ntsus sum, dep. (e fy nitor), 

with a subj. or inf., § 273, 1, to makd 
an effort, strive, struggle, endeavor 
try, exert one's self. Enisum est 
pass, impers., an effort was made 
they exerted themselves. 

Enumero, are, am, alum, a. (e fy nu- 
mero, to number), § 265, to enumerate 
recount, reckon up, recite. 

Enuncio, are, tivi, alum a. (e fy nun- 
cio), to pronounce, proclaim, declare, 
express, divulge, disclose, reveal. 

Eo, ire, ivi, itum, irr. n., § 182, §210, 
to go, travel, march, proceed. Yenum 
ire, see Venus. Perditum ire, to be 
going to destroy, to be bent upon de- 
stroying, $ 276, II. Eunt ereptum 
\prcemia, $ 276, II. R 2. Contra in- 
jurias armatus ire, to go ir- arms — , 
to take up arms — . Ire ovdibus in 
sententiam, to agree, or go o^ertoany 
one's opinion. In the Roman senate, 
when two or three of the senators had 
expressed their opinions, ike rest were 
accustomed to go over to the seats of 
those of whose opinions they approved. 
Obviam itum es:>, see Obviam, 

Ed, adv. (is), Eo is used either for 
the old dative of is, or for the ablative, 
(a), thither, to that place, to this 
When followed by ut, quo, or a geni 
tive, so far, to such a pitch or degree 
to that degree, to such a pass, § 2H 
R. 4, JN 3. (b) For ibi or in eo loco, 
there, in that place. With compara- 
tives, by so much, so much, the. 
Also, either with or without the par- 
ticles, quo, quod, quia, &c. on that ac- 
count, for that reason, for that, there- 
fore ; for this or that purpose. 
Eo, see Is. 

Eodem, adv (idem) to the same 
place, thither, to the same end or ob- 
ject, to the same purpose, 
Epistvla, ce,f, a letter, epistle. 
Epulce, arum,f. pi., food, victuals, 
a feast, banquet. 

Eques, ilis, m. fy f. (equus), a norse- 
man, trooper; a knight. Equites 




Knights, a title of rank amongst the 
Romans. The knights constituted an 
order of citizens between the patricians 
and plebeians. Also, cavalry, horse, 

Equester, tris, tre, adj. {eques), per- 
taining to a horseman, equestrian. 
Equestre nroelium, a battle of cavalry ; 
— beiungmg to the Equites or knights. 
Equester ordo, the order of knights. 

Equidem, conj. {ex or e intensive, <$• 
quidem), indeed, truly, in truth, for my 
part. This word in most authors is 
usually joined with verbs of the first 
person singular. 

Equitdtus, us, m., riding ; the cav- 
alry, a body of horsemen, troop of 
horse : from 

Equito, are, dvi, atum, n. {eques), to 
ride on horseback. 

Equus, i, m., a horse, steed. Equo 
circumire, to ride round. 

Erectus, a, urn, adj. fy part, (erigo), 

Eruditus, a, wnv part, ty adj. (eru- 
dio), taught, instructed^learned, skil- 
ful, versed, skilled. 

Erumpo, ere, ujri, upturn, a. fy n (e 
fy rumpo, to break), § 242, to break or 
burst forth, sally forth. 

Escendo, %re, di, sum, n. (e fy scan- 
do, to climb), to mount, ascend. 

Et, conj., and, even : et — et, both — 
and, not only — but also. The clause 
introduced by et is sometimes explana- 
tory of the preceding one. Et like ac 
or atque has sometimes the force of et 
quidem : see Atque, and is sometimes 
used instead of sed. See A c. Et is 
sometimes omitted, at the close of an 
enumeration, before alius, cetera, reli- 
quus, omnes, etc. 

Etenim, conj. (et ty enim), for, truly, 
because that. 

Etiam, conj. fy adv., also, likewise, 

sides, even ; yet, still, as yet. Eti- 
am atque etiam, again and again, over 
erect, elevated. Fig. confident, en-: and over again, repeatedly. Etiam 
couraged, attentive, roused, excited, nunc, even now, still, yet. Etiam turn, 


Ereptus, a, um, part, (eripio). 

Ergo, illative, conj., therefore, then. 

Erigo, ere, exi, ectum, a. (e $• rego), 
to raise, erect, set upright ; to lift or 
set up, — build up, elevate; to cheer 
up, encourage ; to rouse, excite. 

Eripio, ere, ipui, eptum, a. (e § ra~ 
pio), $ 224, R. 2, & $ 242, R. 1, to take 
away by force; take away, extort, 
wrest from ; to free, liberate, rescue, 
withdraw, extricate, save, deliver from. 
Ire ereptum, to be bent upon taking 
away, strive to take away. 

Erratum, i, n., a mistake, error ; a 
fault> cffence : from 

Erro, are, dvi, atum, n., to wander 

even then, down even to that time, 
already. Etiam si, even if, although, 
though. Etiamtum, adv. {etiam $• 
turn), still at that time, still. This 
particle denotes that something former 
ly existed which has now ceased to exist 

Etruria, ce,fi, Etruria, now Tusca- 
ny, a country of Italy lying on the 
right of the Tiber. C. 27. 

Eundo, gerund, {eo, ire). 

Eurdpa, (B, f, Europe, one of the 
three great divisions of the eastern 
continent. It is said to have been 
named from Europa the daughter of 
Agenor king of Phoenicia. J. 17. 

Evddo, ere, si, sum, n. fy a. {e fy va- 
do), § 242, & R. 1. to go out, get away. 

up and down, wander about, stray, go escape from ; to make one's way 
astray Fig. to err, mistake, go wrong, penetrate, pass; to ascend, mount, 
be mistaken. | climb ; to run away, escape Fig. to 

Erudio, ire, wi $• ii, Hum, a. {e fy I end, turn out, lerminate become, 
rudis), to teach, instruct, inform, di- . prove. Evadere hue to end in this, 
reot ; to bring up, educate. I come to this. 




EvVnio, ire, em, entum, n. (e $ ve* 
mo), $ i23, § 2G0, R. 3, to come out, .. _, .„.., „.„.„, „, 
come, pioceed; to happen, fall out, $ 242, to move), to raise, excite, rouei* 

Excio, ire, ivi, Itum, and Excieo 
) ere, ivi, I'um, a. (ex ty cio or cied. 

occur, turn out ; to fall by lot, fall to 
the lot of. 

Event us, us, m. (evenio), an event, 
'accident, issue, effect, result, conse- 
quence, end. 

Evocdtus, a, um, part., called out, 
summoned, invited. Evocati, drum, 
m. pi., i7i military language, were vete- 
ran soldiers, who after completing their 
term of service were induced to enlist 
again, and to whom a more honorable 
station was assigned, ra-enlisted vete- 
rans : from 

Evoco, are, dvi, dtum, a. \e <£* voco), 
$212, R. 1, to call out, invite, sum- 
mon ; to reenlist. 

Ex, see E. 

Exactus, a, um, part. § adj. (exigo), 
driven away ; past, finished, spent. 

Exccdificatus, a, um, part., built: 

Excsdifieo, are, avi, dtum, a. (ex $• 
(Bdifico), to build up, build, finish. 

Excpj/uafus, a, um, part. 
equally, made equal : from 

to call out-, incite, induce, .ead, dis- 

Exctpio, ere, epi, eptum, a. (ex fy ca- 
pio), to receive, take up ; to except 

Excito, are, avi, dtum, a.freq. (ex 
cio), to call out, rouse, to move, stir 
up, excite, incite, spur on, stimulate. 

Excitus, and Excitus, a, um, part. 
(excio and excieo). 

Exddmo, are, avi, dtum, a. (ex fy 
clamo, to cry aloud), $272, to cry or 
call out, exclaim ; to call or say with 
a loud voice. 

Excrucio, are, avi, dtum, a. (ex $ 
crucio, to torment), to torture. Fig 
to afflict, torment, distress, disquiet, 
harass, fret, vex, disturb. 

Exciibo, are, ui, it am, n. (ex ty cubo, 
to lie), to sleep out of doors ; to watch, 
keep watch, mount guard, stand den- 
try. , 

Exemplum, i, n. (extmo, to take out), 
a copy, transcript; an example, in- 
shared ; stance, precedent. 

I Exerceo, ere, ui, ilum, a. (ex § ar- 

Excequo, are, dvi, dtum, a. (ex fy ceo, to keep off), to practice, train, 
cp.quo, to level), to make equal or even, • exercise, employ, use, make use 

equalize, equal; to make to tally with 
or agree. Facta dictis sunt exaiquan- 
da, deeds must be truly represented 
by words, must be faithfully narrated. 
Exagitdfus, a, um, part. : from 

of, occupy, indulge, gratify; to con- 
duct, carry on, prosecute. Exer- 
cere inimicitias cum aliquo, to be on 
terms of enmity with — . 

Exercildtus, a, um, part. § adj., ex- 

Exagito, are, dvi dtum,, a. (ex <$• agi- ercised, versed, trained, practiced, ha- 
to), to harass, vex, agitate, disturb; to,bitua+ed: from 

-o use, stir up, irritate, move, excite; j ExercVo, are, dvi, dtum, a.freq. (ex 
to inveigh against, censure, reproach ; ercco), to exercise, 
to debate, agitate, d.scuss, bruit, noise Fxercitus, us, m\ (exerceo), an army 

ab: oad. 

Excedo, ere, essi, essnj/i, n. (ex <f- 
ceiio), $ 2 !2, & R. 1, to depart, go foith, 
retire, w'thdaw. 

high), h'gh. 

Exer<ttus. a, um, part, (exerceo), ex 
excised; wearied, liied; conducted 
carried on. 

Exw'o, ere, egi, actum, a. (er fy igo) 

adj. (exccVo . to be ' to lead out, to send fo ! tn or out, tc 

lofty. In rxcelso a'atem dnve out; to pass, lead, spend; to 

agere, to live or pass one's life in an finish, complete, perform. 

elevated station. ,' Exisfimo,dre>avi,dlum,a. (exfycB* 




timo), $ 272, to judge, think, esteem, 
account, reckon, suppose, imagine ; to 
decide, determine ; to estimate, consi- 
der, weigh, § 265. 

Exitium, i, n. (exeo, to go out), ruin, 
mischief; destruction; issue, end, 

Exitus, us m. (exeo), a going out, 
exit ; an event, issue, end, close, ter- 
mination, result. 

Exopto, are, avi, atum, a. (ex fy 
opf"), to wish or desire greatly, covet, 
desire ; to choose. 

Exorior, iri, ortus sum, dep. § 177, 
(ex <$■ orior), to rise, arise, spring up. 

Exornatus, a, um, part, fy adj., 
adorned, furnished, embellished -.from 

Exorno, are, avi, atum, a. (ex fy 
orno, to fit out), § 249, I, to adorn, 
embellish, deck out, dress ; to furnish, 
supply, equip; to arrange, prepare, 
provide, dispose, make preparations. 

Exortus, a, um, part, (exorior). 

Expedio, ire, ivi fy ii, itum, a. t <fy n. 
(ex $• pes), to free, discharge, liberate ; 
to disentangle, free from difficulties, 
disengage, unloose, extricate ; to des- 
patch, finish, put an end to, accom- 
plish, bring about, bring to a happy 
conclusion ; to get ready, put in readi- 
ness, prepare ; to explain, relate, tell, 
set forth. 

Expeditio, onis, f. (expedio), a mili- 
tary expedition. 

Expeditus, a, um, part fy adj. (expe- 
dio), freed, liberated, disengaged; 
light armed, unencumbered; free from 
baggage, prepared, equipped, ready. 

Expello, ere, puli, pulsum, a. (ex fy 
pello), $ 242, to drive out or away, ex- 

Expergiscor, i, experrectus sum, dep. 
(evpergo, to awaken), to awake, rouse 
one's self, rouse up. 

Experimentum, i, n., an experiment, 
trial, proof; experience : from 

Experior Iri, expertus sum, dep., to 
try, make trial of, use, attempt, prove, 

experience; to find. Extrema omnia 
experiri, to try all desperate measures, 
to go to all extremes. 

Experrectus, part, (expergiscor), 

Expers, tis, adj. (ex fy pars), $ 213 
R. 5, (2.) not concerned in, free from, 
without, destitute of, void of. 

Expertus, a, am, part, (experior). 

Expilo, are, avi, atum, a. (ex $■ pilo 
to pillage), to rob, plunder, pillage. 

Explano, are, avi, atum, a. (ex $ 
piano, to make plain), to make plain 
or smooth. Fig. to explain, interpret, 
shew, relate, tell. 

Expleo, ere, Ivi, etum, a. (ex fy pleo, 
obs.) § 249, 1., to fill, fill up; to satisfy, 
satiate, gratify; to complete, accom- 
plish, supply. Muneribus explere, to 
load with gifts. 

Exploratus, a, um, part, fy adj., cer- 
tainly known, ascertained, explored, 
sure : from 

Explbro, are, avi, atum, a. (ex ty 
ploro, to cry), $ 265, to search dili- 
gently, search, scrutinize, explore, ex- 
amine, spy out, seek out, ascertain, 

Expbno, tre, osui, ositum, a. (ex $ 
pond), to put out, set forth, expose ; to 
explain, tell, relate, declare; to dis- 

Expugno, are, avi, atum, a. (ex fy 
pugno), to conquer, vanquish, subdue, 
overcome. Expugnare or expugnare 
armis, to storm, carry or take by 
storm ; to assault. 

Expulsus, a, um, part, (expello). 

Expurgo, are, avi, atum, a. (ex $ 
purgo, to cleansed to purge, cleanse, 
purify. Fig. to clear, justify, excul 
pate, excuse. 

Exquiro, ere, quiswi, quisltum, a 
(ex $ quatro), to search out, examine 
ask, explore, inquire into, seek out. 
Exquirere sententias, to take the \ otes 
or opinions. 9< 

Exquisltus, a, um, part, {exquiro). 

Exsanguis, e, adj. (ex <jr sanguis) 




without blood, bloodless, pale, lifeU ss, 
teeble, weak, exhausted. 

Exsecratio, onis, /., imprecation, 
execration, curse ; an oath : from 

Exsecror, ari, atus sum, dep. (ex fy 
sacro, to make sacred), to curse, exe- 
crate, detest. 

Exsequor, i, cutus sum, dep. $ex $• 
sequor), to follow, pursue; to copy, 
imitate; to prosecute, continue; to 
execute, accomplish, do, perform. 

Exsilium, i, n. (ex fy solum, the soil), 
banishment from one's native soil, 

Exspectalio, onis, /., an expecting, 
expectation, desire: from 

Exspecto, are, avi, atum, a. fy n. (ex 
fy specto), to look for, wait for, expect ; 
to long for, hope or wish for, de- 

Exspolio, arc, avi, atum, a. (ex $■ 
spolio), to spoil, rob, strip, plunder, 

Exstinctor, oris, m. (exstinguo), an 
extinguisher, destroyer. 

Exstinctus, a, um, part, fy adj., ex- 
tinguished, cut off, extinct, destroyed ; 
decayed, sunk into obscurity : from 

Exstinguo, ere, nxi, nctum, a. (ex fy 
stinguo, to extinguish), to put out, ex- 
tinguish, quench ; to cut off, kill, de- 
stroy, remove. 

Exstruo, ere, uxi, uctum, a. (ex <$• 
struo, to build), to build up, raise, rear, 
neap or pile up, construct. Exstruere 
mare, to build up a sea, i. e. to fill and 
build upon the sea, fill the sea with 

Exsul, ulis, m. $ f. (ex fy solum, the 
soil) one banished from his country, 
an exile. It is followed by the ablative 
of the place, from which one is banish- 
ed, depending on ex in composi- 

Exsulto, are, avi, atum, n. freq. (ex- 
silio, to leap out), to leap, frisk, bound, 
leap with joy. Fig. to rejoice great- 
ly, exult. 

ExsupSro, are, avi, atum, n. $• a 
(ex fy supero), to surpass, excel, ex 
ceed, go beyond, overcome. 

Exsurgo, ere, surrexi, surrectum, n 
(ex $• surgo, to rise), to rise, rise up 
rouse one's self; to recover strength* 
take courage. 

Extenuatus, a, um, part. : from 

Extenuo, are, avi, atum, a. ex $• 
tenuo, to make thin), to make small 
or slender, to attenuate, thin Ex 
tenuare aciem, to diminish the depth 
of the line by extending it in length 
to draw out, extend. 

Exter or Exterus, a, um, adj. $ 125 
4, (ex), of another country, foreign, 
comp. exterior, sup. extremus, which 

Extollo, ere, a. (ex § tollo), to lift or 
hold up, raise up, elevate ; to raise to 
high honors or offices ; to praise, mag 
nify, exaggerate. Extollere se, to 
raise up one's self, assume import 
ance,/ feel one's importance. Extol- 
lere verbis, laudibus or laudando, to 
praise, extol. 

Exlorqueo, ere, orsi, ortum, a. (ex $■ 
torqueo, to turn), to extort, wrest, take 
away by force. 

Extorris, c, adj., exiled, banished. 
It is construed with the ablative like 
Exsul, which see. 

Extra, prep, with the ace, without, 
out of. 

Extrlmum, i, n., the end, close, ex- 
tremity. Esse, or situm esse in extre- 
mo, to be reduced to the last extremi- 
ty. ' Eo in extremo, in so critical a 
situation : from 

Extremus, a, um, adj., sup. of 
Exter ; extreme, last, latest final, 
farthest, very or most remote, utmost, 
greatest, outermost. Extreme dement' 
Ha, the height of madness. Primos 
et extremos locare, to station in front 
and rear. Extremum agmen, the rear 
rank, the rear, § 205, R. 17. 

Exuo, Ire, ui, utum, a., $ 251 to 



strip off put off. Fig. to deprive of, 
dispossess, strip. 

JExuro, £re, u»si, ustum, a. (ex <fy uro, 
to burn), to burn. 

Exustus, a, um, part, (exuro), burnt, 
searched, parched, burnt up. 


Fabius, i, m. Q. Fabius Maximus 
Verrucosus Cunctator, a descendant 
from the illustrious family (gens) of 
the Fabii, was appointed dictator in 
the war against Hannibal, and by 
wisely protracting the war, at length 
freed Italy from her formidable inva- 

Fabius, i, m., see Sanga. 

Facetice, drum, f pi. (facetus, face- 
tious), facetiousness, pleasantry, wit, 

Fades, ei,f. (facio), the face, coun- 
tenance, visage ; the form, figure, ap- 
pearance, sight, aspect, mien, look. 

Facile, adv., easily, readily, without 
difficulty; willingly, contentedly; cer- 
tainly, indisputably, evidently: Haud 
facile, not easily, not readily, rarely, 
seldom : from 

Facllis, e, adj., § 125, 2, (facio), § 
222, § 276, III. easy, ready, without 
difficulty. Amicitiafacilis, easily con- 
ciliating friendship, § 250. 

Facilitas, utis, f. (facilis), easiness, 
facility, readiness. Fig. gentleness, 
courteousness, courtesy, kindness, 
good humor, complaisance, sociabili- 
ty, conversableness. 

Facinordsus, a, um, adj., wicked, 
villainous, atrocious : from 
"' Facinus, oris, n., an action, deed, 
exploit, affair or enterprise (either 
aood or bad) ; a bold or audacious act 
Ingcnii egregia facinora, the great 
achievements — , choice products — . 
Rei militaris facinora, military ex- 
ploits. Belli facinora, warlike mea- 
sures; — wickedness, villainy, guilt, 
srime. Catervcs facinorum, instead 

of catervcc f&cinorosorum kominum 
$ 324, 2. 

Facio, ere, feci, factum, a. fy n.. f to 
make, do, form ; absolute, to act, per- 
form deeds or exploits; — to elect, 
choose, create, constitute, excite, 
causcrender; to commit, perform, exe- 
cute; to pretend, feign; to value, es- 
teem, care for, § 214. Facer e versus, to 
compose — ; with the accusative it often 
forms a periphrasis, as, facere inju 
riam, to injure: deditionem, to surren 
der ; verba, to speak, converse. Bene 
facere, see Bene. Parum facere, to 
value little. Gloriam meam laborem 
illorum facere, to turn or convert 
their toil to my glory. Dilicti gra- 
tiam facere, to pardon, forgive, excuse 
| — . Facere optionem, to give a choice 
I give liberty of choice : modum, to set 
bounds : insidias, to lay snares : nihil *■ 
reliqui, to leave nothing -.fidem verbis, 
to give assurance to, cause to be be- 
lieved — : periculum alicui, to cause 
danger to: qucEstionem, to institute 
a prosecution. Imperative fan, § 162, 
4. Fac cogites, reflect, consider, § 267 
R. 3. 

Factio, bnis,f. (facio), a making, do- 
ing ; a faction, party, side ; union or 
combination, for the purpose of gain- 
ing or retaining undue power. 

Factiosus, a, um; adj. (factio\ fac- 
tious, seditious, addicted to faction, 
devoted to party, influenced by party 

Factum, t, n„ a deed, action, enter- 
prise, exploit, act, occurrence, pro- 
ceeding, conduct, achievement, fact, 
circumstance. Optimum factum est, it 
is the best way, it is best : from 

Factus, a, um, part, (fio), made, 
done, elected. Bene factum, a thing 
done well, a well performed act, a 
noble or illustrious deed. Facto opus 
es^ there is need of action, one must 
act. Quid facto opus esf, what needs 
to be done. Uti facto opus sit, ito 




*gunl, as should need to be done, as 
circumstances should require — . 

Facundia, ce,f, eloquence :from 

Facundus, a, um, adj. (fari, to say), 

Fcosula, drum, f. pi., a town of Etru- 
ria, now Fiezoli. C. 24, 30, &c. 

Faisulanus, a, um, adj., of or belong- 
ing to Faesulae, Faesulan. Subs. A. 
Faesulan, an inhabitant of Faesulae. 
C. 59, 60. 

Fallacia, <B,f. (fallax, deceitful,) de- 
ceit, trick, artifice, craft. 

Fallo, ere, fefelli, falsum, a. $• n., to 
deceive, delude, mislead; to violate 
one's promise; to act treacherously, 
disappoint, betray. Nisi me animus 
fallit, unless I am mistaken ; — to be 
concealed, escape the notice of, elude. 
Nee me fallit, I am not ignorant, I 
well know. Fallor, I am deceived or 

Falsb, adv., falsely, without reason, 
unjustly -.from 

Falsus, a, um, part. § adj. (fallo), 
deceived, mistaken, misled, deluded; 
deceitful, treacherous, faithless, hypo- 
critical, insincere, false; pretended, 
feigned, untrue; unfounded, ground- 
less. Habere falsum, to deceive, dis- 
appoint. Pro falsis ducere, to con 
sider as untrue. 

Fama, ai, f, fame, report, rumor ; 
fame, reputation, character, renown ; 
Fama cognitus, known by reputation ; 
—fama or mala fama, ill fame, oblo- 
quy, censure, calumny, infamy, scan- 
dal ;— opinion, belief. 

Fames, is,f, hunger, fasting. 

Familia, a,f, (famulus, a servant), 
the slaves belonging to one master ; 
a family; a company, band. Filius 
familias, and mater familias, see Fi- 
lms and Mater : for the genitive fa- 
miliar see $ 43, 2. 

Familiaris, e, adj. (familia), of or 
belonging to the same retinue of 
sla\es, or to a family , intimate, friend- 


ly, familiar. Res familiar es, and opes 
familiar es, family estate, private pro- 
perty, property. Familiaris, is, m., a 
friend, acquaintance. 

Familiafitas, ads, f (familiaris), 
familiarity, acquaintance, familiar 
friendship, intimacy. It is found in 
the plural, C. 14, when an intimacy 
with several persons is spoken of. 

Familiafiter, adv. (familiaris), fa- 
miliarly, intimately, on terms of inti- 

Famosus, a, um, adj. (fama), famous, 
much talked of, celebrated, notorious; 

Fanum, i, n., consecrated ground, a 
temple, fane. 

Fas, n. ind. % 94, divine law, justice, 
equity, right. Jusfasque, human and 
divine law. 

Fas cis, is, m., a bundle of wood 
twigs, &c, a faggot; the fasces, a 
bundle of rods, containing an axe, 
carried toy the lictors before certain 
Roman magistrates, especially before 
the consuls. Fasces corripere. to 
seize upon the fasces, and by metonyme, 
to seize upon the consular power, to 
make one's self consul by force. 

Fateor, eri,fassus sum, dep., to con- 
fess, own, grant, acknowledge; to 
show, manifest, discover. 

Fatigo, are, dvi, atum, a., to tire, 
weary, fatigue ; to vex, trouble, harass 
to importune, press with solicitation, 
urge importunately, $ 273, 2 ; to rouse, 
incite, stimulate, push on ; to weaken, 
impair, corrupt. 

Fatum, i, n. (for, to say), a pro 
phecy, oracle, prediction; fate, des 
tiny. Qui fatum for et, who was des- 

Fautor, oris, m. (faveo), a favorer, 
promoter, partisan. 

Faux, cis,f § 94, the larynx, gullet, 
throat, jaws ; a narrow passage, pasfe 
or defile. Faucibus urgel, is close 
upon (us), has (us) in his jaws. 




Faveo, ere,fuvi, fautum, n., $ 223, 
R, 2, to favor, countenance, befriend. 

Favor, oris, m. (faveo), favor, good 
will, kindress, popularity. 

Februanus, a, um, adj. (februus, 
purifying), of or pertaining to the 
month February. 

Feliciter, adv., happily, fortunately ; 
luckily, prosperously, successfully : 

Felix, ids, adj. (feo, obs. to create): 
happy, fortunate, felicitous ; rich, opu- 
lent; prosperous, successful; fruitful, 

Fenerator, oris, m. (fenero, to lend 
money on interest), a money lender, 
one who lends money on interest, a 

Fera, <s,f (ferus), a wild beast. 

Fere, adv., almost, nearly, well nigh, 
about ; for the most part. 

Ferentarii, drum, m. pi. (fero), light 
armed troops. , 

Ferinus, a, um, adj. (fera)}jofor be- 
longing to a wild animal. 

Ferio, ire, a., to strike, smite, beat, 
cut, wound, to encounter hand to 
hand. Ferire arielibus, to batter, 

Ferme, adv. {fere), almost, nearly, 
about; for the most part, generally, 

Fero, ferre, tuli, latum, a. ty n., to 
carry, bear, bring, carry away ; to pro- 
duce; to carry off, plunder; to cause, 
occasion ; to exhibit, show ; to gain, 
attain; to suffer, endure, sustain; to 
say, tell, relate, report, represent. 
Fertur, is said, $ 271 ; — to lead, con- 
duct, tend; to move, incite, incline, 
dispose ; to extol, exalt ; to propose, 
report, represent. Ferre opem alicui, 
to give assistance, to assist — . Utifors 
tulit, as chance has brought about, as 
it happens. Fert animus, — inclines, is 
disposed. Neque aliud alioferri cer- 
neres, you would not see (lit.) one 
thing carried one way, another an- 
other, i. e. perpetual commotion j 

Fern studio, to be moved or carried 
away by ardor of feeling. 

Ferocia, ce,f. (ferox), ferocity, fierce* 

Ferociter, adv., fiercely, savagely, ft* 
rociously, insolently, violently, harsh 

Ferox, ocis, adj. (fero), insolent 
fierce, headstrong, violent ; bold, in- 
trepid, brave, warlike, gallant ; cruel, 
savage, ferocious, untamed, unsub- 
dued. Multus atque ferox in&lare,-* 
incessantly and furiously. 

Ferrum, i, n., iron. Fig. a sword. 

Fertilis, e, adj. § 213. R. 5, (2.) 
(fero), fertile, fruitful, productive; 
abundant, copious, rich. 

Ferus, a, um, adj., wild, rude, uncul- 
tivated, uncivilized ; fierce, cruel, bar- 
barous, savage. 

Fessus, a, um, adj. (fatiscor, to 
grow tired), wearied, tired, fatigued; 
weary, exhausted, worn out, enfee- 

Festino, are, avi, atum, n. fy a. (festt- 
nus, quick), $ 271, to hasten, make 
haste, bestir one's self, be in a hurry ; 
to hasten, accelerate, hurry, do speedi- 
ly, hasten to accomplish ; to hurry to 
and fro, be agitated. 
, Festus a, um, adj., festival, festive ; 
joyful. Festus dies, a holiday, fes- 

Fictus, a, um, part, fy adj. (fingo), 
made, formed, contrived; false, feign- 
ed, fictitious, imaginary, fabulous. 
Ficta loqui, to dissemble, speak in- 

Fidelis, e, adj. (fides), faithful, sin- 
cere, trusty, sure. 

Fideliter, adv. (fidelis), faithfully, 
sincerely, honestly. 

Fides, li,f. (jido, to trust to), faith, 
truth, honesty, hono*\ veracity, faith 
fulness, fidelity, devoted attachment, 
friendship ; a promise, assurance word, 
obligation, engagement ; a promise of 
pardon; public faith, security, pr*t 




.ration, help aid, assistance ; credit ; 
faith, beief, confidence, trust ; credi- 
bility, certainty, truth. Resjidesque, 
property and credit. Fidei causa, for 
credit's sake, to maintain appearan- 
ces, also, for the purpose of inspiring 
confidence. Pro deum atque hominum 
fidem! in earnest asseverations, wit- 
ness gods and men ! Per regni fidem, 
by royal faith, by the honor of a king. 
Data et acceptafide, having exchanged 
promises of fidelity. Fide nuntii, con- 
fidence in — . Punica fides, Cartha- 
ginian faith, i. e. bad faith, perfidy. 
Fide publico, dicere, to speak under a 
public pledge of impunity. 

Fidius* i, m., the same as filius, a 
son. It is found only in the combi- 
nation Diusfidius, or Medius fidius ; 
me Diusfidius, sc. juvet, so help me 
the son of Jupiter, i. e. Hercules, or, 
by Hercules. Others take fidius to be 
properly an adjective signifying faith- 
ful, and Diusfidius to be, the god of 

Fiducia, ce, f. (fido, to trust to), 
trust, confidence, reliance. 

Fidus, a, um, adj. {fido, to trust to), 
$ 222, faithful, trusty, to be relied on ; 
safe, secure. 

Figulus, i, m. (C. Marcius Figulus 
Thermus), was consul with L. Csesar, 
A. U. C. 69CL C. 17. 

Figura, ce,f. (jingo), a figure, form, 
shape ; image, likeness. 

Filia, cB,f., a daughter : from 

Filius, i, m., a son. Filius familias, 
a son who is under his father's autho- 

Fingo, Ire, finxi, fictum, a., to form, 
fashion, make ; to suppose, feign, pre- 
tend*, to imagine, conceive; to de- 
vise, contrive. Fingere verba, to con- 
trive a fictitious narrative, set up false 

Ft rus, i$> m. <$■/., the end, conclu- 
sion : a boundary, limit. Fines, lim- j 
its, Dounds ; a country, territory. Fac- \ 

ere finem, to make an end, to end 
terminate. Finem statuere, to fix a 
limit, set boundaries. 

Finitimus, a, um adj., (finis), neigh 
boring, bordering upon, adjoining. 
Finitimi, drum, m., neighbors, neigh- 
boring people. 

Fio, fieri, /actus sum, irr. pass, of 
facio, $ 180, $ 210, to be made or done, 
to become, happen, come to pass , to 
be conducted or carried on; to be 
elected, to be. Fit, imp. it happens, 
$ 262, R. 3. For other significations, see 

Firmo, are, avi, atum, a., to make 
firm, strengthen, establish, confirm, 
secure, fortify, guard : from 

Firmus, a, um, adj., firm, steady, 
constant, stable, sure, resolute, intre- 
pid, determined, solid, strong, secure, 
robust, durable, lasting, substantial, to 
be depended upon, faithful, certain. 

Flaccus, i, m. (L. Valerius), a Ro- 
man prcetor, who adhered to the cause 
of the senate during the conspiracy 
of Catiline. A. U. C. 691. C. 45,46. 

Flaccus, i, m. (M. Fulvius), a friend 
of C. Gracchus. J. 16., 31. 42. 

Flagitiosus, a, um, adj., infamous, 
flagitious, wicked, profligate, disso- 
lute, disgraceful, dishonorable : from 

Flagitium, i, n. (flagtto, to dun), a 
disgraceful or shameful crime, profli- 
gacy, dissoluteness, lewdness ; shame, 
disgrace, dishonor, infamy, reproach. 
Catervdb flagitiorum, instead of fiagi- 
tiosorum hominum, the abstract for the 
concrete, § 324, 2. 

Flagro, are, dvi, atum, n. (fio, to 
blow), to burn, be on fire. Fig. to be 
inflamed, enkindled, excited. 

Flaminius, i, m., (C), a confederate 
of CatUine of whom nothing is known. 
C. 36. 

Flamma, cs,f, a flame, blaze. Fig 
ardor, desire. 

Flecto, ere, xi, xum, a., to bend, bow 
turn- Fig. to move, touch, persuade* 




prevaikupon, appease, to change, alter, 
Flexus, a, um, part, (jlecto). 
Florens, tis, part, fy adj., flourishing, 
blooming. Fig. prosperous : from 

Floreo, ere, ui, n. (flos, a flower, 
S 187, 1, 1), to flourish, bloom, blossom. 
Fluctus, us, m. (fiuo, to ilow), a 

Flumen, t?ri$, n. (jluo), a stream, 

Fluxus, a, um, adj. (jluo), flowing, 
running. Fig. fleeting, transient, un- 
steady, inconstant, not to be depend- 
ed upon. Fluxa jide uti, to be trea- 
cherous ; — pliant, weak, feeble. 

Focus, i, m. (foveo), a hearth. Fig. 
a house, home, fireside. 

Foede, adv., basely, cruelly, disgrace- 
fully : from 

Fcedus, a, um, adj., ugly, deformed, 
unseemly, unsightly, ghastly, foul, 
loathsome, filthy ; Fig. base, shame- 
less, disgraceful, vile, mean, dishon- 
orable ,* cruel, barbarous. 

Fcedus, eris, n., a league, covenant, 
treaty, alliance. 

Fons, tis, m., a fountain, spring, 
well, fount. 

Forem, es, et, etc. def. (§ 154, R. 3), 
$227, I might be, &c: inf. fore, the 
same as futurus esse ; with a subject 
accusative, would or should be. Imp. 
with ut and the subjunctive. § 262, R. 
3. Nunquam ego ratus sum fore, uti. 
* never thought it . would dome to 
pass — Perdendce reipublicce fore, 
see Sum. 

Foris, adv., without, out of doors, 
abroad, away from home, in foreign 
parts or countries. 

Forma, w,f, a form, shape, figure, 
person , beauty, comeliness, 

Formido, Vnis,f, fear, terror, dread ; 
that which produces fear, a terror, in- 
timidation; an object of apprehen- 
sion. Facere or addere formidinem, 
to excite fear inspire fear. 

Formidolosus, a, um, adj. (formido 
timorous, afraid ; # 222, 3, causing fear> 
fearful, terrible, formidable, fright 
Fornix, wis, m., an arch or vault 
Fors, tis,f, chance, luck, hap, for 
tune. Forte, abl., by chance, by for- 
tune, casually, accidentally, peradven 
ture. After si, nisi, ne, etc., perhaps, 

Forsttan, adv. {fors, sit, an), per- 
haps, perchance, peradventure. 

Fortis, e, adj., brave, valiant, gal- 
lant, courageous, bold, firm, resolute, 
intrepid, fearless. For tia facta, glori- 
ous deeds, gallant achievements. 

Fortitudo, mis,f (fortis), fortitude, 
bravery, courage, resolution, magna- 
nimity, intrepidity, boldness, fearless- 

Fortuna, a, f. (fors), fortune, 
chance, hazard, hap, luck; the god- 
dess Fortune ; good fortune ; bad for- 
tune, misfortune; state or condition 
in life, rank, fortune, situation, lot, 
circumstances; the favor, smiles or 
interposition of fortune. Maxima for- 
tuna, the highest rank -.—fortunco, pi, 
property, possessions, riches, wealth, 
an estate, fortune ; also, lot, fortune, 
fate, condition, circumstances. 

Fortundtus, a, um, adj. (fortuno, to 
prosper), happy, fortunate, lucky, pros- 
perous, blest. 

Forum, i, n., a market place, mar- 
ket, mart; the Forum, a place in 
Rome where assemblies of the people 
were held, justice was administered 
and other public business transacted. 
Oppidum, forum rerum venalium, a 
market-town, mart. 

Fossa, cc,f (fodio, to dig), a ditch; 
a trench, moat. 

Fragilis, e, adj., brittle, weak, frail 
fragile. Fig. frail, perishable : from 

Frango, ere, fregi, fracpim, a t to 
break, break in pieces. 
Frater, tris, m„ a brother. 




Fraternus, a, um, adj. (/rater), of a 
brother, fraternal. 

Fraus,fraudis,f. t fraud, deceit, guile, 
treachery, dishonesty ; punishment, 
loss, damage, detriment, harm, injury. 
Sine fraude, without hurt or harm, 
with impunity ;— a fault, crime. 
F?egi, see Frango. 
Frequens, tis, adj., frequent, con- 
stant ; numerous, many, in great num- 
bers; crowded, full, populous, in full 
assembly. Frequentes incedere, to 
march in a body. Frequens Numidia, 
the populous parts of Numidia. 

Frequentatus, a, um, part. $■ adj, 
(frequento), frequented, much used, 
resorted to, visited. 

Frequentia, <z,f. (frequens), a crowd, 
throng, press, concourse, multitude, 

Frequento, are, avi, atum, a. (fre- 
quens), to frequent, go often to, attend 
upon, resort much to, haunt ; to go in 
great numbers ; to fill with inhabitants, 
crowd, fill, $ 249, 1. 

Fretum, i, n., a strait, narrow part 
of the sea. Fretum nostri maris et 
oceani, i. e. the straits of Gibraltar. 

Fretus, a, um, adj. § 244, trusting to, 
relying or depending on. 
Frigus, oris, n„ cold. 
Frons, tis, /., the front of the head, 
the forehead, brow ; the front of any 
thing, Frons aciei, the front or 

Fructus, us, m. (fruor), the fruits of 
the earth, income, profits ; profit, ad- 
vantage, benefit, use. 

Frumentor, ari, atus sum, dep., to 
collect corn, purvey, forage : from 

Frumentum, i, n„ corn or grain of 
all kinds, wheat, barley : from 

Fruor, i, ttus or ctus sum, dep $ 
245 T, to enjoy, reap the fruits of. 

Frustra, adv., to no purpose, in 
vain. Frustra esse, to be frustrated, 
disappointed ; to be in vain, to fdi, to 
he unsuccessful. See Sum. Frvstra 

discedere, to depart without accom 
plishing one's purpose. 

Frustratus, a, um, part, frustrated, 
disappointed. Fauci in pluribus 
minus frustrati, a few among many 
being less disappointed (in their aim,) 
i. e. missing less; (i. e. than did the 
enemy) : from 

Frustro, are, avi, Mum, a. and Frus- 
tror, dri, atus sum, dep., (frustra), to 
deceive, disappoint, frustrate. Spes 
mefrustratur, I am disappointed in my 

Frux, frugis, f. $ 94, the fruit or 
produce of the earth, corn, pulse, fruit 
Fudi, see Fundo. 

Fuga, ce, /., flight; exile, banish 
ment. Fig. dismay, consternation 
Facerefugam, to flee. 

Fugdtus,a, um,part.(fugo) f routed, 
discomfited, put to flight. 

Fugiens, tis, part. $ adj., flying, try- 
ing to escape, fugitive : from 

Fugio, ere, fugi, n. ty a., to flee or 
fly, run away, escape; to avoid, 

Fugitivus, a, um, adj. (fugio), fugi- 
tive. Fugitivus servus, a runaway 

Fugo, are, avi, atum, a., to put to 
flight, rout. 
Fui, etc., see Sum. 
Fulvia, cb, f, a woman of noble 
family but profligate character, by 
whom the conspiracy of Catiline was 
first brought to light. C. 23. 

Fulvius, i, m. (A), the son of a Ro- 
man senator, put to death by his father 
for adhering to the party of Catiline. 
C. 39. 

Fulvius, i, m, (M.) see Nobilior. 
See also Flaccus. 

Funditor, oris, m. (funda a sling), 
a slinger. 

Fundo, Vre, fudi, fusum, a., to pour, 
to scatter abroad, discomfit, rout, dis- 
perse; to pour out, shed, to over- 


throw, lay prostrate. 



Fur, funs, m. fyf., a thief, pilferer, 
plunderer. Ftir mrarii, a peculator. 

Furibundus, a, urn, adj. (furo, to be 
mad), raging much, furious, mad, out- 

Furius, i, m. (P.), an associate of 
Catiline, and one of the colonists es- 
tablished by L. Sylla at Fasuloe. C. 50. 

Furor, oris, m. (Juro), fury, mad- 
ness, rage. 

Furtim, adv. (fur), by stealth, se- 
cretly, furtively. 

Fusus, a, um,part. (/undo), scatter- 
ed, routed ; defeated, worsted. 

Futurus, a, um, part, (sum), about to 
be, future. 

Gabinius, t, m„ a Roman name. 
JP. Gabinius Capito, a Roman knight, 
who was put to death as an accom- 
plice of Catiline. C. 17, 40, 43, 

Gcstulus, a, um, adj., Getulian, of 
or belonging to Getulia, a large coun- 
try of Africa south of Numidia. Gce~ 
tuli, drum, m. pi., Getulians. J. 18, 
19, 80, 88, &c. 

Gallia, a,f, Gaul Gallia citerior, 
hither Gaul, otherwise called Cisalpine 
Gaul, that part of Italy lying between 
the Alps and the Rubicon. Gallia 
ulterior, farther Gaul, also called 
Transalpine Gaul, a large country of 
Europe nearly commensurate with the 
modern kingdom of France. J. 114. 
C. 42, 56—58. 

GalUcus, a, um, adj. (Gallia), of or 
pertaining to Gaul, Gallic. C. 52. 

Gallus, i, m., an inhabitant of Gaul, 
a Gaul. J. 114. C. 47, 52. 

Ganea, cb, f, a place appropriated 
to revelry and debauchery, a brothel, 
bagnio ; a sumptuous feast, luxurious 
banquet, debauchery, riot, revelling, 
drunkenness, gluttony. 

Ganeo, bnis, m. (ganea), a frequent- 

er of brothels, rioter, reveller, glutton* 

Gauda, ce, m., a Numidian, the son 
of Manastabal, and grandson of Ma 
sinissa. J. 65. 

Gaudeo, ere, gavlsus sum, n. pass 
§ 142, 2, & $ 247, 1, (2.) to rejoice, be 
glad ; to delight in. 

Gaudium, i, n. (gaudeo), joy, glad- 
ness, pleasure. Corporis gaudia, sen 
sual pleasures. Gaudium denotes an 
emotion less violent than laetitia. 

Gemitus, us, m. (gemo, to groan), a 
groan, sigh. 

Generosus, a, um. adj. (genus), no- 
ble, born of a noble race ; generous, 
brave, excellent, noble. 

Gens, tis, f, a clan among the Ro- 
mans, containing many families de- 
scended from a common ancestor. 
From the gens each individual of the 
Romans derived his name (nomen); 
from the family (familia), his cogno~ 
men, as M. Porcius Cato, C. Julius 
Cccsar, from the Porcian and Julian 
clans: also, those who have a com- 
mon origin and language, a race, 
stock, people, nation, tribe. It is 
often synonymous with natio, but 
strictly includes it, being of wider sig- 
nification. Ubi gentium, see Ubi. 

Genus, Zris, n., a race, descent, kind, 
family, stock, lineage, kindred, breed 
a race, tribe, nation, people ; a kind 
sort, quality, class. Maternum genus, 
the maternal side. Genus humanum 
or hominum, the human race, man* 
kind ; a race of men. 

Gero, 2re gessi, gestum, a., to bear 
carry, have ; to show, exhibit. Gererc 
se, to act, carry or conduct one's self, 
behave ; — to do, execute, perform, des- 
patch, carry on. Dum hcec geruntur 
while these things are going on : — to 
administer, manage, conduct, sustain, 
regulate, rule, govern; to practice, 
pursue, exercise, entertain, to treat. 
Gerere bellum, to wage or carry on 




war. Gerere consulatum, to bear or 
execute the office of consul. Animo 
gerere. to bear in mind, think, feel, 
Aliteratque animo gerebat, at variance 
with his real sentiments. Rem gerere, 
to light a battle, to conduct an attack. 
Res geritur, the affair is carried on, 
the battle is fought. Gerere animum 
super fortunam, to cherish desires 
above one's rank. 

Gestus, a, um, part, (gero), done, 
performed. Res gestce, things done, 
actions, deeds, exploits, warlike 
achievements, illustrious deeds, feats, 

Gignentia, ium, n. pL, plants, herbs, 
shrubs, trees, vegetables : from 

Gigno, ere, genui, gemtum, a., to 
generate, beget, produce, bring forth. 
So, ex sese gignere, to beget, to have 
offspring of one's own, in distinction 
from adopted children. Gigni, to be 
produced, be born, to grow, spring. 
With all. without a prep. J. 48, like 
genitus, § 246. 

Gladiatorius, a, um, adj. {gladiator, 
a gladiator), of a gladiator, pertaining 
to gladiators, gladiatorial. Familia 
gladiatoria, a company or school of 

Gladius, i, m., a sword. 

Glans, dis,f., mast, an acorn, chest- 
nut ; a leaden ball or bullet, such as 
was discharged from the slings or 
other military engines. 

Globus, i, m„ a globe, ball, sphere ; 
a troop, squadron, crowd, body. Glo- 
bus nobilitatis, a body of nobility. 

Gloria, ce,f, glory, renown, fame, 
splendor. Gloria belli, military glory. 

Glorior, ari, atus sum, dep. {gloria), 
to glory, boast, brag, vaunt, pride 
cue's self. 

Gloridsus, a, um, adj. {gloria), glo- 
rious, renowned, illustrious. 

Gracchus, i, m„ Tiberius and Caius 
Gracchus were the sons of Tib. Sem- 
pronius Gracchus and Cornelia, the 

daughter of Scipio Africanus the el 
der. They were educated with gieat 
care by their mother, and became 
distinguished orators, but in conse- 
quence of espousing the cause of the 
people in a factious manner, and pass^ 
ing laws odious to the nobility, they 
were put to death. J. 16, 31, 42. 

Gradus, us, m., a step, stair. Pleno - 
gradu, at full speed, rapidly. 

Grcecia, <z,f, Greece. C. 2, 51. 

Grcecus, a, um, a^j., of Greece, 
Greek, Grecian. Grmci, m. pi. the 
Greeks, the Grecians. C. 53. 

Grandis, e, adj., large, big, great 
Grandis pecunia, a large sum of mo- 

Grassor, ari, atus sum, dep. freq. 
{gradior, to step), to go on, advance, 
proceed, press forward. Ad gloriam 
grassari, to advance, to pursue, aim 
at — . Cupidine atque ira grassari, to 
proceed or act with vehemence under 
the influence of—. 

Gratia, a,f {gratus), grace, favor t 
benevolence, good-will, good graces, 
friendship ; popularity, favor with oth- 
ers; influence, intrigue, interest, au- 
thority, power ; a kindness, favor, ob- 
ligation ; a requital, return, gratitude, 
thanks. Agere gratias, to give thanks. . 
Facere graliam, to grant pardon, for- 
give. Gratia, with a genitive, often 
of a gerund 4215, III, R. 1. (1,) or 
with an adj. pronoun, for the sake of, 
on account of, in reference to, for the 
purpose of. Ea gratia, for this or 
that reason, on this or that account, 
Colloquendi gratia, % 275, III, (1.) Gra 
tiam debere, to owe thanks, be under 
obligations to. Gratiam reddere, to re- 
quite, recompense — ; In gratiam ha- 
bere, to consider as a favor. 

Gratificor, ari, atus, sum, dep. {grar 
tus fy facto), to gratify, oblige; to 
yield, sacrifice, give up, § 223. 

Giatulio, adv. {gratultus, gratuit- 
ous), $ 223, R. 2, without a recora- 




ptwise gratuitously; wantonly, with- 
out cause. 

Gratulor, ari, atus sum, dep., to 
congratulate, wish one joy : from 

Gratus, a, um, adj., grateful, pleas- 
ing, acceptable, agreeable. 

Gravis, e, adj., heavy, weighty. Fig. 
important ; violent, vehement, great ; 
severe, sore, bitter, oppressive ; griev- 
ous, sad, calamitous. Morte gravior 
vita, worse than — . 

Graviter, adv. {gravis), heavily, 
strongly, forcibly, vehemently, great- 
ly, exceedingly, violently, much, se- 
verely, grievously. 
'Gregarius, a, um, adj., of a flock. 
Gregarius miles, a common soldier,! 
private : from \ 

Grex, gregis, m., a flock, herd, 
drove ; an assembly, company. Grege 
facto, having formed a band, in a 

Gula, cc, /., the gullet, windpipe; 
the neck ; gluttony, appetite. 

Ghtlussa, (b, to., a brother of Micip- 
sa king of Numidia. J. 5, 35. 


Habeo, ere, ui, Hum, a. fy n., to have, 
hold, entertain, enjoy, possess, retain; 
to make ; to assemble ; to obtain, get, 
occupy ; to keep, detain ; to bear, to- 
lerate, endure, support, sustain; to 
treat; to pass, spend; to account, 
judge, esteem, think, reckon, hold, 
estimate, consider, § 272 ; to use, wear ; 
to give, bestow ; to occupy, inhabit ; 
to deliver, pronounce, utter, speak. 
In promptu habere, to manifest, dis- 
play; with certain participles habeo 
forms a periphrasis, § 274, R. 4, as, 
compertum habeo, I have ascertained, 
I know — Habere animn or in animo, 
to hav< in mind, to intend ; to think 
of, regard. Post principia alitfuem 
habere, to place, station — . Se habere, 
to be. Dicere id quod res habet that 
which the thing has, i. e. that which 

is true or certain. Habere occulttnru 
to keep secret. Habere inttntum, to 
keep intent upon. Jugurtham eodem 
cultu, quo liberos suos, domi habuit, 
brought up — . In incerto habere, to 
be uncertain. Parum habere, to ac- 
count or think it little, reckon it not 
enough. Aliquem manifesLum habere, 
to bring one out to the light, to make 
the evidence of one's guilt clear. In 
spe habere, see Spes. Rempublicam ha- 
bere, to administer — . Habere silen- 
tium, to keep, preserve or maintain 
silence. Habere ludibrio, to make a 
| mock of, befool, § 227, R. 2. Qucbs- 
tionem habere, to make or carry on — . 
j Avaritia pecunice studium habet, — im- 
! plies, comprehends. Habere vitam, to 
live, pass life. Habere in amicis, to 
reckon among one's friends, to treat 
as a friend. Animus habet cuncla, the 
mind holds all things in subjection. 
Haberi, to be had or held ; to be kept, 
preserved or retained, hence, to con- 
tinue, to be ; also, to be held, reckon- 
ed, accounted, considered, thought 
Virtus clara ceterna — que habetur, — is, 
continues; $210. Egestas facile ha- 
betur sine damno, — is preserved or con- 
tinues easily unharmed ; i. e. is very 
safe from loss. Audacia pro muro 
habetur, — serves for — , is instead of— 
Sicuti pleraque mortalium habenfur 
as most human affairs are, as for the 
most part happens in human affairs. 

Habitus, a, um, part, (habeo), had, 
held, reckoned, accounted, treated, 
kept, controlled, restrained, governed. 

Habitus, us, m. (habeo), habit, con- 
dition, state , dress ; disposition, cha- 
racter, manners, habits. 

Hadrumetum, i, n., a city of the 
Roman province in Africa, founded 
by the Phenicians. J. 18. 

Hcnreo, ere, hensi, hensum, n. to be 
fixed, adhere, stick ; to remain fixed 
stick fast. Alicui in animo hcerere, to 
stick fast in one's mind, § 272. 



Hcestto, are, avi, atum, n.freq Qice- 
reo), to hesitate, be at a loss, be per- 

Hamilcar, aris, m., a factious noble- 
man of ine town oi Leptis. J. 77. 

Hannibal, alis, m., a Carthaginian 
genera., celebrated for his hatred to 
the Romans. J. 5. 

Haruspex, wis, m., one who fore- 
told future events by inspecting the 
entrails of victims, a soothsayer, di- 

Hasla, ce /., a spear, lance, pike, 
javelin. The hasta pura, or headless 
spear, was sometimes given to soldiers 
as a reward of valor. 
Hand, adv. § 191, R. 3, not. 
Haudqudquam, adv. (hand fy qua- 
quam, sc. ratione), by no means, not 
at all. 
Haveto, see Ave. 

Hebes, etis, adj., blunt, dull, obtuse, 
heavy, stupid. Hebes exercitus, new, 
raw, undisciplined — . 

Hebesco, ere, n inc. (hebeo, to bp 
blunt), to grow blunt, dim or langi;;< 
to languish, lose its luatre, be ob- 

Hercle, adv., by Hercules, truly: 

Hercules, is, m., a Theban hero, the 
son of Jupiter and Alcmena ; also a 
Phoenician and Libyan hero, the son 
of Jupiter and Asterie. J. 18, 89. 

Hereditas, dtis,f„ inheritance, heir- 
ship ; an inheritance : from 

Heres, edis, m. fy f, an heir or heir- 
ess. Heredem instituere or scribere, 
to name or appoint as heir. Heres 
secundus, second heir, one who suc- 
ceeded to the inheritance on failure 
of the first heir. 

Iliberna, drum, n. pi. (hibernus, 
wintry), winter quarters. Agere hiber- 
na, to hold or make — . 

Hie, hac, hoc, adj. pro., § 134, this, 
this man; he, she; that, the same., 
such. Hoc est, that is, is used to con- 

nect two expressions which are iius de 
dared to be of similar import 

H\c adv., here, in this place. 

Hicce, hcccce, Jiocce. adj. pro., this, $ 
134, R. 4. 

Hiemalis, e, adj. Querns), cf winter, 

Hiemo, are, avi, atum, n. (hiems), to 
winter : pass the winter. 

Hiempsal, alis, m., the youngest son 
of Micipsa, king of Numidia. Also a 
son of Gulussa and the successor of 
Jugurtha, and father of Juba. J. 5, 9, 
12, 15, 17, 24, 28. 

Hiems, emis, /., winter; stormy 

Hippo, onis, m., a seaport town of 
the Roman province in Africa. J. 19. 

Hispania, &, f, Spain ; Hispania, 
arum, the two divisions of Spain, viz. 
Citerior, or the division nearest to 
Italy, and Ulterior, or that most re- 
mote. J. 7, 10, 18, 19. C. 18. 

Hispdnus, a, um, adj. (Hispania), 
pertaining to Spain, Spanish. Hispa- 
n., oi am, m., the people of Spain, the 
Spaniards. J. 18. C. 19. 

Histrio, onis, m., a stage-player, a 
play-actor, buffoon, mimic. 

Hoc, see Hie. Ad hoc, besides this, 
besides, add to this, moreover. 

Homo, tnis, m. <$r f, a man or 
woman, a person ; homines, pi., men, 
persons, people, folks. Novus homo, 
a new noble, one who was the foun- 
der of his own honors, the first of his 
family that obtained the office of con- 
sul, praetor, censor, or curule edile, 
and consequently, the right of placing 
a waxen image ot himself in tho 
atrium of his house, which right con- 
stituted nobility. Homo militaris, an 
experienced warrior, a brave soldier. 

Honeste, adv., (honestus), decently, 
virtuously, honorably, becomingly 
creditably. Parum honeste pudici' 
tiam habere, to have too little regard 




Honeslo are, avi, atum, a., to make 
nonorable, adorn, dignify grace. 
Honestatus honore, elevated to office, 
$ 249, I. : from 

Honestus, a, urn, adj. (honor), honor- 
able, noble, dignified, respectable; 
discreet, virtuous; right, fit, correct. 
Omnium honestarum rerum egens, des- 
titute of every thing befitting (my 
rank). Honestcc divitice, respectable, 
moderate — . Amidtia honesta, com- 
mendable, inviolable, true, faithful. 
Honestum., i, n., what is honorable, 
fit, decent, proper or becoming, honor, 
virtue. Supra bonum atque honestum, 
beyond what is proper or becoming. 

Honor ty Honos, oris, m., honor, 
respect, reverence; a public office, 
magistracy, preferment, post, dignity. 
Honoris causa, out of respect, in token 
of respect. Est or ducitur honori, — 
as an honor, honorable. Honores, 
honors, marks of distinction. Impe- 
ria et honores, military and civil offi- 
ces. / 

Honaro, are, avi, atum, a. (honor), to 
honor, respect ; to dignify, exalt. Glo- 
rias aliquem honorare, to confer glory 
upon, § 249, 1. 

Hora, ce, f, an hour, the twelfth 
part of a day or night ; a space of time, 
period ; a season of the year. 

Horribilis, e, adj. (horreo, to trem- 
ble), to be dreaded, dreadful, horrible, 
frightful, terrible. 

Horlamentum, i, n. (hortor), an en- 
couragement, incitement, stimulus. 

Hortatio, onis, f, an encourage- 
ment, exhortation : from 

Hortor, ari, atus sum-, dep., $ 273, 
2, $ 262, R. 4, to exhort, encourage, 
excite, cheer; to incite, utir up, stimu- 
late, spur on; to prompt, suggest. 
Pauca hoHari, to exhort briefly. 

B jspes, ttis, m fy f., one who is en- 
tertained in one's house, a guest, 
stranger, sojourner, visitor ; also, one 
who entertains, a he et, entertainer 

Hostia, GB,f, a victim, animal sacri 
flced, a sacrifice. 

Hostilis, e, adj. ( hostis), of or per 
taining to an enemy, hostile Hostilis 
metus, fear of the enemy Hostile, n„ 
a hostile act or deed. Hostilia face" 
re, to commit hostilities, or acts oi 

Hostililer, adv., in a hostile manner. 

Hostts, is, m. &f, § 222, K. 2, (c.) 
an enemy, a public enemy. It is used 
both actively and passively ; he who 
is an enemy to us or to whom we are 

Hue, adv. (hie $ 191, R. 1.), hither, 
to this place, here; to this, to this 
thing. Hue illuc, hither and thither, 
this way and that. 

Huccine, adv. (hue, ce, intensive, $ 
134, R. 4, & ne interrogative), hither? 
to this? Huccine beneficia tua eva- 
sere? have your favors ended in this ? 

Hujusce, see Hie. 

Hujuscemodi, fy Hujusmodi, (hie ty 
modus, $ 134, R. 5), of this kind or 
sort, of the following kind, such, of 
the same character. 

Humdnus, a, um, adj. (homo), hu- 
man, of or belonging to a man ; hu- 
mane, kind ; polished. Humanm res, 
human affairs. 

Humllis, e, adj., low, near the earth 
Fig. humble, poor, mean. 

HumiUtas, dtis, f. (humilis), low- 
ness, shortness. Fig. baseness, mean- 
ness, poverty. 

Humus, i,f, the ground, earth, soil. 
Humi, gen., on the ground, in the 
ground, § 221, R. 3. Humo, from the 
ground, $ 255, R. 1. 


lbi, adv. (is), there, in that place, 
then, at that time ; also for in illo or 
in illis, in that, in these, in or among 
them, therein ; — then, thereupon. 




Ibidem, adv. (ibi fy dem), in the same 
Id, see Is. 

Idcirco, adv. (id fy circa), on that 
account, therefore, for that reason. 

Idem, eadem, idem, pron. (is <$r 
demum, $ 134, R. 6), the same, the 
same person or tiling. Idem qui, et, 
ac, etc., the same as, — also, at once, 
yet, $ 207, R. 27. Idem Me, that same, 
the same. Isdem for iisdem. 

Idoneus, a, um, adj., § 222, fit, meet, 
proper, suitable, convenient; good, 
worthy, deserving, either in a good 
or bad sense ; sufficient, trust-worthy, 
safe ; in a fit condition, ready for, pre- 
pared for. Non idoneus, unsuitable, 
not deserving. 
Ieram, etc., see Eo. 
Igitur, illative, conj., § 198, 6, there- 
fore, then, accordingly, of course, con- 
sequently ; after a parenthesis, then, as 
I was saying, I say ; at length, finally, 
at last, in conclusion. 

Igndrus, a, um, adj., § 213, $ 272, 
$ 265, (in § gnarus, skillful), ignorant, 
unskillful, not knowing, unacquainted 
with, inexperienced in, uninformed, 
unaware, unapprised ; unknown, $ 222. 
Ignavia, ce, f, inactivity, sluggish- 
ness, sloth, idleness, cowardice. Per 
ignaviam, in sloth, slothfully -.from 

Igndvus, a, um, adj. (in $■ gnavus, 
active), inactive, slothful, remiss, slug- 
gish ; cowardly, dastardly, irresolute ; 

Ignis, is, m., fire ; a watch-fire. Ig- 
nemfacere, to kindle a fire. 

Ignobilis, e, adj., (in fy nobilis), un- 
known, mean, ignoble ; of mean ex- 
traction, of low birth, base-born. 

Ignobilitds, dtis, f, meanness of 
birth, low birth, humble extraction. 

Ignominia, ce, f, (in $• nomen), ig- 
nominy, disgrace, reproach, dishonor, 

IgnorCttus, a, um, part., not known, 
unknown, undiscovered : from 

Ignbro, are, dvi, atum, a. $• n. (igrta- 
rus), to be ignorant of, not to know 
to be unacquainted with. 

Ignosco, ere, dvi, dtam. a. $• n. (in 
$ nosco), § 223, R. 2, to pardon, ex- 
cuse, overlook, forgive, be indulgent. 
It commonly takes the dative either of 
the person or thing, sometimes the accu 
sative of the thing. 

Ignotus, a, um,part. ty adj. {ignosco) 
§ 222, not known, unknown. 

Ilex, ids, f, the ilex or great scar- 
let oak, holm-oak, evergreen oak. 

Ille, ilia, illud, gen. illius, adj. pro. 
§ 13 i he, she, that, that man, &c, 
this, this man, &c. In Sallust ille in 
oratio obliqua usually takes the place 
of hie and tu in oratio directa. In 
Ccesar is is more commonly used for 
the same purpose. — For the distinction, 
in the use ofWle and hie, see § 207, R, 
23. Ille at the beginning of a sen- 
tence often relates to the noun next pre- 
ceding, when the latter is in an oblique 
cast^ and ille in the nominative : some- 
times also when an adversative par- 
tide or a relative precedes ille. 

IUecebra, a>,f, an enticement, allure- - 
ment, attraction, charm, inducement. 

Illectus, a, um, part. : from 
IlUcio, Ire, exi, ectum, a. (in $■ lacio 
to allure), to draw in, allure, entice, 
decoy, attract, invite, induce. 

Illico, adv. (in fy locus), there, in 
that place ; straightway, instantly, im- 
mediately, presently. 

HIuc, adv. (illic, $ 134, R. 3 & $ 191, 
I, R. 1), to that place, thither. Hue 
et illuc, see Hue. 

Illustris, e, adj. (in § lustro, to illu- 
minate), clear, bright, luminous ; mani- 
fest, clear, evident, plain. 

Imago, mis, f, an image, figure, 
likeness, picture. Imagines, pi., is of 
ten used in reference to nobility, the 
images of one's ancestors, the posse- 
sion of which was evidence of inherited 




nobility, see Homo novas. Homo mul- 
tarum imaginum, one descended from 
a long line of noble ancestors. Ima- 
gines -non habeo, I am not of a noble 

Imbecillus, a, um, adj., weak, feeble, 
imbecile. Imbecilla (Etas, tender years, 

Imbellis, e, adj. .(in fy bellum), not 
suited to war, unwarlike, effeminate, 
weak; cowardly, dastardly, faint- 

Imbuo, Ire, ui, utum, a., to wet, mois- 
ten, steep, soak, imbue ; to initiate, in- 

Imbutus, a, um, part, (imbuo), wet, 
6teeped, imbued, tainted, infected ; in- 
itiated, instructed, trained, inured, ex- 

Imttor, ari, dtus sum, dep., to imi- 
tate, seek to resemble, copy after. 
. Immdnis, e, adj. (in $ magnus), 
huge, vast, boundless, excessive, en- 
ormous; hurtful, cruel, fierce, sa- 
vage. / 

Immaturus, a, am, adj (in $• ma- 
turusj, unripe, unseasonable, imma- 
ture, not fully grown, before the time, 

Immemor, oris, adj. (in § memor), 
unmindful, forgetful, heedless, regard- 
less, neglectful. 

Immensus, a, um, adj. (in $■ mensus, 
measured), immense, vast, huge, im- 
measurable. In immensum, to a vast 
extent* or distance, immensely. In 
immensum editus, see Editus. 

Imminuo, ere, ui, utum, a. (in $• min- 
uo), to lessen, diminish, shorten ; to 
impair, weaken, debilitate ; to violate, 
i?ifringe. Pacem imminuere, to dis- 
turb, hinder, prevent — . 

Imminutus.a, um,part. (imminuo). 
Immissus, a. um, part., sent in, in- 
troduced ; suborned : from 

Immilto, tre tsi, issum, a. (in fy 
mitlo), to send or let in, cast, throw 
to suborn 

Immo, adv., nay, yes, yea. Imiw 
verb, yes indeed, nay rather. 

Immoderdtus, a, um, adj. (in $ mi> 
deratus), immoderate, excessive, in 
temperate, irregular, unregulated, ex- 
travagant, indiscriminate, undistin- 
guishing ; vast, boundless, immense. 

Immortdlis, e, adj. (in fy mortality. 
immortal, everlasting, undying: never 
to be forgotten. 

Immunis, e, adj. (in fy munus), free 
or exempt from a public office, burden 

charge ; free of exempt from taxes, 

Immutdtus, a, um,part. -.from 

Immuto, are, dvi, dtum, a. (in fy 
muto), to change, alter. 

Impar, aris, adj. (in fypar), uneven, 
unequal, inferior, § 250. 

Impardtus, a, um, adj. (in fy para- 
tus), not ready, unprepared, unawares, 
off his guard. Imparata respublica, 
the unprepared condition of the state. 

Impedimentum, i, n., hindrance, im- 
pediment, obstacle ; the baggage be- 
longing to an army -.from 

Impedio, Ire, wi, itum, a. (in ty pes), 
to entangle, hamper, embarrass ; with 
prep, a or subj. with ne, to hinder, re- 
tard, prevent, stop, debar, obstruct, 
impede, keep back, check. Impedio 
ne, see Ne. 

Jmpedltus, a, um, part, (impedio.) 

Impello, ere, puli, pulsum, a. (in fy 
pello), to push, press or drive forward 
urge on, impel ; to lead, lead on, incite, 
induce, constrain, compel, move : with 
ad and the ace. or with uti to denote a 
purpose, $ 273, 2. 

Impendeo; ere, n. (in <£ pendeo), $ 
224, to overhang, hang over, impend, 

Impensc, adv. (impensus, expended) 
at great charge or cost. Fig. greatly 
exceedingly, earnestly, eagerly, zeal- 
ously, much. Impensius modo legatos 
mittere, — with very great earnestness 
Imph-ans, tis, part, (impero), orator 




tag governing, ruling, command- quered people to furnish military 
ing. ! stores, troops, &c. § 223, (1) (b.) to 

Imperator, oris, m. (impero, § 102, order one to furnish or supply, to de- 
li:, a commander, leader, general; the mand, require of. Imperatur mihi, 
commander in chief of an army, a I am ordered. 

name given by the army or senate to a 
victorious general, and retained by 
him until he had triumphed : a ruler, 
governor, director. Imperator ad ur- 
bem, see Urbs. 

Imperdtum, i, n., an order, com- 
mand. Facere imperata, t<J do what 

Impetro, are, dvi, atum, a. § n. (in 
$■ patro), to obtain, get, accomplish ,* 
to procure by request or entreaty ; to 
obtain one's request, gain one's suit. 

Impetus, us, m. (impeto, to assail), 
an attack, assault, onset. 

Impietas, dtis, f. (impius), impiety, 

is ordered, to obey orders. Faciam undutifulness, undutiful behavior to- 

imperata, or qu& imperarentur, is a 
form of submission by one who ac- 
knowledges himself vanquished. 

Imperitia, ce, f. (imperitus), igno- 
rance, unskilfulness, inexperience 

Imperito, are, dvi, atum, a. ty n. 
frcq. (impero), § 223, R. 2, to com- 
mand, rule, govern. 

Imperitus, a, um, adj. (in fy peritus, 
skilful), unskilful, 

Imperium, i, n., a command, order; 
authority, power, control, sway, direc- 
tion, discipline, government, rule ; em- 
pire, dominion, office, station, com- 
mand, supreme power ; military power 
or authority (in distinction from ma- 
gistrates, civil magistracy). Civil ma- 
gistrates, whether of the city or of a 
province, were said to be in imperio. 
Military officers, to whom was given 
the power of making war, were said 
to be cum imperio. — Also, an empire, 
a realm. Contra imperium, contrary 
to orders. Natus imperio, born to 
command. Legitimum imperium, a 
government founded on laws, a regu- 
lar government : from 

Impero, are, dvi, atum, n. fy a., $ 
223, R. 2, § 265, § 262, R. 4, $ 273, 2, 
to command, enjoin, order, direct, 
appoint, give directions ; to rule, go- 
vern With an accusative of a thing 
and dative of a person, it is employed 
to denote the orders given to a ©on- 

wards the gods, one s parents, coun* 
try, &c. 

Impiger, gra, grum, adj. (in fy piger, 
inactive), diligent*^ active, promot 
quick, ready, strenuous. 

Impigre, adv. cimpiger), quickly, 
readily, promptly, actively. 

Impius, a, um, adj. (in $• pius, pi 
ous), wanting in duty to parents or 
ignorant, inexpe- \ other relatives, to rulers, one's coun- 
try, or the gods; impious, irreligious, 
wicked; ^undutiful, unkind, disloyal^ 
barbarous, savage, cruel. 

Impleo, ere, evi, etum, a. (in fy pleo, 
obs.), to fill. 

Impltco, are, dvi, atum, or ui, ttum,. 
a. (in fy plico, to fold), to in wrap, in- 
fold, envelop, involve, entangle, in- 
twine ; to perplex, throw into disorder 

Implbro, are, dvi atum, a. (in fy plo- 
ro, to cry out), to beg for, cry out for, 
beseech earnestly, implore, invoke, 

Impbno, ere, posui, positum, a. (in <£• 
pono), § 224, to place, put, set or lay 
upon or in ; to set or place over ; to ' 
impose, give, assign, confer, bestow; 
to throw upon, charge to, impute, lay 
upon, cast upon. Invidiam imponere, 
to cast the odium, lay the blame ; — 
presidium, to place, or station — . In 
stead of the dative after this verb, or 
the accusative or ablative with in $ 224) 
Sallust sometimes uses an adverb of 
plan a* hue, e6, quo &c J. 47, 66 





75: and sometimes uses the verb abso' 
lutely. J. 100. 

Imporlwiitas, atis, f, importunity, 
eagerness, unreasonableness ; bold- 
ness, audacity, insolence : from 

Importunus, a, urn, adj., $ 222, dan- 
gerous, perilous; unseasonable, in- 
convenient, unadapted, unfavorable, 
unsuitable, inopportune ; troublesome, 
painful, grievous, vexatious. 

Importuosus, a, um, adj. (in fy por- 
tuosus), without harbors. 

Impositus, a, um, part, (impono), 
laid or put upon, imposed, cast upon, 
set over, put in charge ; placed, sta- 

Imprimis, or Inprimis, adv. {in <$■ 
primus, the same as in primis), above 
all, chiefly, especially, in the first 
place, first of all. 

Improbus, a, um, adj. (in fy probus,) 
wicked, dishonest, knavish, depraved, 
bad, unprincipled ; vile, infamous ; au- 
dacious, impudent. 

Improvlsus, a, um, adj. (in fy provi- 
8us), unforeseen, unlooked for, un- 
thought of, unexpected. De impro- 
viso, or ex improviso, unexpectedly, 
suddenly, on a sudden. 

Imprudentia, cn,f. (imprudens, not 
knowing), want of knowledge, igno- 
rance, error, inadvertence, mistake, 

Impudens, tis, adj. (in § pudens, mo- 
dest), shameless, impudent, barefaced. 

Impudentia, <r,f (impudens), shame- 
lessness, impudence, effrontery. 

Impudlcus, a, um, adj. (in fy pudl- 
cus, modest), unchaste, immodest, 

Impugn* , are, avi, atum, a. (in ty 
pugnc), to attack, assail, thwart, op- 
pose, impugn. 

Impulsus, us, m. (impello), an im- 
pulse Fig. impulse, instigation, in- 
citement, persuasion. 

Impulsus, a, um, part, (impello), dri- 
ven impelled; moved, influenced. 

Impune, adv. (impunis, without pun 
ishment), without punishment, loss or 
damage, with impunity, safely; with 
out restraint, freely ; quietly, tamely 
without resentment. 

Impunttas, atis,f. (impunis), impu- 
nity, security or exemption from pun- 
ishment; remission of punishment 

Impumlus, a, um, adj. (in fy punitus, 
punished), unpunished. 

Impurus, a, um, adj. (in fy purus 
pure), foul, filthy, impure. Fig. base, 
flagitious, debauched, wicked, vile, 
contemptible, abandoned. 

In, prep, with ace. fy abl., § 235, (2). 
With the ace. into, to, unto, towards, 
till, until, for, as, against, according 
to, through, on account of, in regard 
to, respecting. In poteslatem habere, 
to have in one's power : the same as 
in potesiate habere, with the superad 
ded idea in the former case of getting 
into one's power. The accusative 
therefore in such cases depends not on 
the verb expressed, but on a verb of 
motion understood, as in this case upon 
accipere, or the like. With the abl. in, 
upon, among, amidst, within, at, near, 
in the number of, over, notwithstand- 
ing, in the case of, for ; concerning, 
respecting, in regard to. In with tern 
pus, tempestas, eetas or dies signifies 
not simply a particular time, but also 
the condition of things then existing ; 
as, Quippe in tali die, becausa the day 
was such. It may sometimes be trans- 
lated by when or since, with the addi' 
tion of the substantive verb, the abla- 
tive being translated as its subject ; as 
Novorumfidem in tanta perfidia vele 
rum experiri periculosum duceret, — 
since such had been the perfidy ot 
his former friends. In composition 
see $196, 7, & $197,10. In— versus 
see Versus. 

Inanis, e, adj., empty, void. Fig. vain 
frivolous ostentatious, boastful, proud 




hicedo, Ire, cessi, cessum, n. (in $• 
jedo), to walk, go, proceed ; to come, 
arrive ; to approach, advance, march ; 
to walk with an air of consequence 
or dignity, strut, go hi state ; to be, 
appear; $224, to come on, come upon ; 
qui bus-— belli timor insolitus incesserat, 
— the fear ot war had rarely occur- 
red, had been unusual, — to arise, be- 
come prevalent, occur, take place. 

Incendium, i, n„ a fire, conflagra- 
tion. Fig. a vehement emotion or 
passion ; danger, calamity, ruin. In- 
cendium meum, the. flame which sur- 
rounds me, the fire raised about me : 

Incendo, ere, ndi, nsum, a. (in fy 
candeo, to glow), to kindle, set fire to, 
burn, consume. Fig. to inflame, stir 
up, instigate, incite, encourage, ani- 
mate, excite ; to vex, incense, irritate, 

Incensus, a, um, part, (incendo), 
burnt, consumed, inflamed. 

Inceptum, i, n. (incipio), a begin- 
ning, attempt; enterprise, undertak- 
ing, design, purpose. 

Inceplus, a, um, part, (incipio), be- 
gun, commenced, entered upon, en- 
gaged in, attempted, proje'cted. 

Incertus, a, um, adj. (in ty certus), 
$ 265, uncertain, doubtful, dubious ; 
not manifest, clear or certain; at a 
loss, undecided. In incerlo esse or 
habere, or incertum habere, to be un- 
certain, know not. Equi Numidceque 
incerli, quidnam esset, they were not 
manifest, what they were ; instead of 
incertum erat, quidnam essent, it was 
doubtful, &c. Maurus incerto vultu, 
— with anxious looks, disturbed coun- 
tenance. Vagari incerfis sedibus, — 
u ithout a fixed residence. Incertum, 
i n, an uncertainty, an uncertain thing. 

Incessi, see Incedo and Inctsso. 

Incesso, ere, ccsslvi or cessi, a. freq. 
incedo), to attack, assail, assault, 
seize, take possession of; to appear. 

Incessus, us, m. (incedo), a gait, 
pace, walking. 

Inczdo, ere, cidi, n. (in <£• cado), to 
fall into or upon ; to chance, happen 
It is used especially concerning evils 
and misfortunes. In amicitiam ■ ej us 
inciderat, had been so unfortunate as to 
form a friendship with him, $233, 

Incipio, ere, cepi, ceptum, a. ty n. (in 
ty capio), to commence, begin ; to at- 
tempt, undertake. 

Incito, are, dvi, atum, a. freq. (incieo, 
to incite), to incite, hasten or put for- 
waid; to stir up, excite, provoke; to 
encourage, stimulate, incite. 

Incognttus, a, um, adj. (in fy cogni- 
Uls), unknown. Causa incognita, with- 
out trial, without a hearing. 

Incola, cc, m. tyf, an inhabitant; a 
resident foreigner : from 

Incolo, ere, colui, cultum, a. fy n. (in 
<$■ colo), to inhabit, abide, dwell or re- 
side in a place. 

Incolumis, e. adj. (in fy columis. 
safe), safe, "sound, whole, entire, un- 
changed, in its original condition, 
uninjured, unhurt, unharmed, unsub- 

Incommodum, i, n. (in <jr commo- 
dum), inconvenience, disadvantage, 
detriment, loss, damage. 

Inconsulle, adv. (inconsultus, incon- 
siderate), inconsiderately, imprudent- 
ly, rashly, injudiciously, foolishly, in- 

Incorruptus, a, um, adj. (in fy cor- 
ruptus), incorrupt, incorruptible, im- 
perishable, pure, uncorrupted, un- 
bribed, uninjured. 

IncredibVis, e, adj. (in fy credihilis), 
$ 276, III. $ 265. incredible, improba- 
ble, wonderful, strange IncredibiU 
memoratu, wonderful to fell or relate 
$276,111. R. 3. 

Incrlpo, are, dvi, atum, fy ui, ttum, 
a. (in fy crepo, to sound), to sound, re- 
sound. Fig. to chide, blame, rebuke, 




reprove, upbraid, censure, assail, re- 
proach; to urge on, stimulate. 

Incruentus, a, um, adj. (in § emeri- 
tus), bloodless, without bloodshed or 
slaughter. Exercitu incrucnto, vyith- 
out loss. 

Inculte, adv., plainly, rudely Agere 
inculte, to live rudely : from 

Incultus, us, m. (in fy cultus), ne- 
glect, want of cultivation ; filth. 

Incultus, a, um, adj. (in fy cultus, 
cultivated), uncultivated, uninhabited, 
desert. Fig. rude, uncouth, unpolish- 
ed, without cultivation or refinement. 

Incurro, ere, curri fy cucurri, cur- 
sum, a. fy n. (in fy curro, to run), § 
233, & (2.) to run into, upon or against ; 
to rush, rush upon, attack. 

Incurvus, a, um, adj. (in fy curvus, 
crooked), crooked, bending, curved. 

Inde, adv. § 191, R. 1, thence, from 
thence, from that, therefrom, from 
that place; from that time, then, next, 
afterwards, thenceforth. 

Indemndtus, a, um, adj. (in fy dam- 
natus), uncondenmed, urTtried, un- 
heard, without a trial. 

Index, Icis, m. $ f (indico), a disco- 
verer, discloser, informer, witness. 

Indicium, i, n. (index), a discovery, 
evidence, proof, information, disclo 
sure, testimony. Indicium prqfiteri, 
to make a disclosure, turn informer or 
state's evidence. Indicium pateface- 
re, a pleonastic expression, instead of 
indicium facere. 

Indico, are, dvi, dtum, a. (in fy dico, 
to give), $ 265, to show, discover, dis-j 
close, inform, give evidence or infor- ! 
niation, reveal, tell. \ 

IrAiseJis, tis, part, wanting, indi- 
gent, needy, defective, deficient: from 

Indigeo, ere, ui, n. (in, $ 197, 10. <$■ 
cgeo), to want, need, stand in need of, 
require, $ 250, R. 1. & 220, 3. | 

Indignor, dri, dtus sum, dep. § 272, 
to scorn, disdain, be displeased with, 
incensed, indignant : from I 

Indignus, a, um, adj. (in fy di?nus) 
unworthy, undeserving; unbecoming 
shameful, unsuitable, unfit, inappro- 
priate, improper. In connection with 
words denoting crime or suffering, in- 
nocent, not deserving punishment 
worthy. deserving better things. 

Inditus, a, um, part. : from 

Indo, ere, dtdi, ditum. a. (in <$'do), to 
put, put into, set upon ; to give, apply. 

Indoct'us, a, um, adj. (in fy doctus), 
untaught, unlearned, ignorant, unedu- 
cated, without learning. 

Inducice or InduLioe, arum,f pi. (in- 
duo, to put on), a truce or cessation 
from hostilities, suspension of arms, 
armistice. Inducias agiiare, see Agi- 
to. Per inducias, during an armis- 

Induco, ere, xi, ctum, a. (in fy duco) t 
to lead or bring in, lead into, intro- 
duce. Fig. to induce, persuade. In 
animum inducere, to make it a princi 
pie, to propose, resolve, $271. 

Inductus, a, um, part, (indued). 

Industria, ce, f, $ 101, 1, industry 
diligence, activity : from 

Itidualrius, a, um, adj., industrious, 
prompt, active, assiduous, d.ligent. 

Inedia, ce,'f (in $ edo, to eat), want 
of food, hunger, fasting. 

Ineo, ire, Ivi, itum, irr. n. ty a. (in fy 
eo), to go into, enter; to commence, 
begin, enter upon. 

Inermis, e, fy Inermus, a, um, adj. 
(in fy arma), without arms, unarmed, 

Iners. lis, adj. (in fy ars), without 
art or skill; slothful, indolent inactive, 
lazy, spiritless, without eneigy, cow 

Inertia, w,f (iners. § 10 1 i., unakill 
fulness, sloth, idleness, laziness, iioc 
tivity, sluggishness, indolence. 

Infecius, a, um, adj. 'in ty factus). 
not done, undone, not made, unic 
comphshed, unperfoimed; $222, im- 
practicable. Infecto negotio, or infec- 




tis rebus, without accomplishing one's 

Infectus, a, um, part, (injicio), § 249, 
T. dyed, stained, colored. 

Infecundus, a, um, adj. (in fy fecun- 
dus, fruitful), with abl. # 213, & 250, un- 
fruitful, ban en, unproductive. 

Infelix, ids, adj. (in fy felix), un- 
happy, miserable, wretched, unfortu- 
nate ; barren, unfruitful. 

Infensus, a, um, adj., angry, dis- 
pleased, enraged, hostile. 

Inflro, ferre, intuli, illutum, irr. a. 
(in fy fero), to bring or ca«ry into, m- 
, troduce ; to bring upon. Inferre hel- 
ium, to wage war, carry on war, make 
war upon. Inferre signa, to carry the 
standards against (the enemy), ad- 
vance or march against the enemy, 
to advance. 

In/eras, a, um, adj., below, beneath, 
underneath ; Inferi, drum, m., the in- 
fernal regions, the wosld of spirits; the 
infernal gods, the shades, the dead, 
who were supposed to live in a lower 
world, spread out beneath the surface 
of the earth. Comp. Inferior, lower, 
inferior. Sup. Inflmus, lowest; last; 
meanest, poorest, basest, humblest, 

Infestus, a, um, adj., act, § 222, hos- 
tile, unfriendly, inimical, at enmity 
with, bitter, implacable ; pass., hateful, 
odious; exposed to, infested with. 
It is followed by the dative. Infesta 
signa, hostile standards, standards di- 
rected against the enemy. 

Inficio, ere, feci, fectum, a. (in fy 
facio), to stain, dye, color, tinge. 

Infidus, a, um, adj. (in $• jidus), $ 
222, Unfaithful, faithless, false, treach- 
erous, perfidiou%. 

Infimus, see Inferus. 

Injinltus, a, um, adj. (in fy finitus, 
limited), infinite, endless, immense, 

Infrmitas, atis,f, weakness, feeble- 
Mess, infirmity, frailty : from 

18 * 

Infirmus, a, um adj. (in fy ft,rmu&). 
weak, feeble, infirm; faint-hearted 
I>)jirmissimum genus, the feeblest 
class, sc the women and ph.ldren. 

Infra, prep, with ace. fy adv., below, 
under, beneath. 

Ingenium, i, n. (in fy geno, to beget), 
nature, genius, quality ; natural dispo- 
sition, character, feelings, tempera- 
ment, heart, temper, manner, way; 
natural capacity, genius, understand- 
ing, talents, parts, abilities, ingenu- 
ity, mind, intellect, intellectual pow- 
e:s or faculties; counsel, advice. In- 
tendere ingenium or animum, to apply 
the mind, employ the understanding, 
exercise the judgment. 

Ingens, tis, adj., great, large, huge, 
vast; prodigious, immense, enormous, 
powerful, mighty, great, important. 

Ingenuus, a, um, adj., (ingSno, to 
implant by nature), native, natural; 
free-born, born of parents who had 
never been slaves, liberal, honorable, 

Ingero, ere, gessi, gestum, a. (in fy 
gero), to carry or put into ; to throw, 
cast, hurl or heap upon. 

Ingratus, a, um, adj. (in $• gratus), 
unpleasant, disagreeable, offensive ; 
ungrateful, unthankful. 

Ingredior, i, gressus sum, dep. (in 
fy gradior, to step), $ 233, to enter, go 
into ; to walk, go, advance, proceed ; 
to enter upon, set out ; to commence, 
begin. Eadem ingrediens. commenc- 
ing the same course, pursuing the 
same measures. 

Inhonestus, a, um, adj. (in fy hones- 
tus), dishonorable, disgraceful, shame- 
ful, base, inglorious. 

Inimicitia, ce. f, enmity, hostility : 

Inimicus, a, um, adj. (in fy amicus), 
inimical, hostile, unfiiendly. Intmt- 
cus, i, m., an enemy, a private «nemy, 
in distinction from hostis, a public 




Ihiqultas, atis, f, inequality, un- 
5venness, steepness, disadvantageous 
nature ; difficulty, disadvantage ; injus- 
tice, oppression, unfairness -.from 

Iniquus, a, um, adj., (in ty cequus), 
unequal, uneven; hard, difficult; dis- 
advantageous, unfavorable ; unjust, un- 
fair partial, unreasonable. 

Inilium, i, n. ,(ineo), a commence- 
ment beginning, origin. Initio, abl., 
in the beginning, at first, in the first 
place, originally. Initium agendi fa- 
cere, to commence action. 

Injuria, <z,f, (injurius, unjust), in- 
jury, wrong, injustice ; damage, detri- 
ment, hurt, harm. Facer e injur iam, 
to inflict injury. 

Injussu, abl. § 94, (in ty jussu), with- 
out orders, without leave. 

Injuste, adv., unjustly, wrongfully, 
injuriously : from \ 

Injustus, a, um, adj. (in fy Justus), 
unjust, wrongful, unreasonable; op- 

Innocens, tis, adj. (in fy nocens), in- 
nocent, faultless, harmless, guiltless, 
blameless; disinterested, upright, free 
from rapacity or avarice 

Innocentia, cc, f. (innocens), inno- 
cence, purity, integrity, probity; dis- 
interestedness, feeedom from rapacity 
or avarice. 

Innoxius, a, um, adj. (in % noxius), 
act, harmless, innocent, inoffensive, 
blameless, innoxious ; pass., safe, un- 

Inopia, cc,f, want, indigence, need, 
poverty, scarcity, lack: from 

Inops, opis, adj, (in § ops), poor, 
needy, indigent, necessitous, destitute, 
helpless, powerless. 

Inprlmis, see Imprimis. 

Tnquam or inquio, inquis, inquit, 
&c. dej. verb, § 183, 5, I say. 

lnquilinus, i, m. (incolo), one who 
lodges in a hired house ; a renter, ten- 
ant; a stranger, denizen. Also adj. 
immigrant, naturalized. 

Insatiabflis, e, adj (in <$• satio, to sa- 
tiate), insatiable. 

Insequor, i, cutus sum, dep. (in $ 
sequor), to follow, pursue,, follow close 
after, press upon, urge. 

Insidice, drum, f. pi {insideo), an 
ambush, ambuscade; lying in wait, 
snares, treachery, a plot, conspiracy. 
Insidias al'icui tendere or facere, to lay 
snares for, form plots against, pre- 
pare an ambuscade for. 

Insidians,tis, part, (insidior), lying in 
wait, lying in ambush. 

Insididtor, oris, m., a Her in waiti 
lier in ambush : from 

Insidior, dri, dtus sum, dep. (in- 
sidicR), § 224, to lie in wait, lie in am- 
bush, lay snares for, plot against. 

Insigne, is, n. (insignis, distinguish- 
ed), a badge, mark of distinction, sign, 
ensign. Insignia, pi., badges or in- 
signia of office ; e. g. the axes and 
rods, ivory seat, the prcctexta or robe 
of office, &c. 

Insolens, tis, adj. (in fy soleo), unac- 
customed to, ignorant of; insolent, 
arrogant, haughty, presumptuous. 

Insolentia, co, f. (insolens), unusual 
ness, uncommonness, unusual nature 
or character, novelty, strangeness, 
strange behaviour, want of acquaint- 
ance with: excess, extravagance; 
pride, haughtiness, insolence, arro- 
gance, vanity. Per insolentiam, ex- 
travagantly, excessively, beyond mea* 

Insolesco, ere, n. inc. (in fy soleo), to 
grow haughty or insolent. 

Insolitus, a, um, adj., (in fy solitus) 
§213, R. 1, (2), § 222, unaccustomed 
to, unacquainted with ; strange, ex- 
traordinary, unusual, unwonted. 

Insomnia, cn,f. (insomnis, wanting 
sleep), want of sleep, watching, wak- 

Insons, tis, adj., (in fy swis), iimo 
cent, guiltless, unoffending, 

Instans tis part, (insto). 




Initttuo, %re, ui, utum, a. (in ty 
statuo), to plant, place, appoint, insti- 
tute; to construct, build, make, form; 
10 pronounce, declare, make, appoint : 
to establish, introduce, ordain, deter- 
mine, § 271, to begin, commence; to 
teach, instruct, bring or train up, edu- 
cate direct ; to decree ; to order, regu- 
late ; with ut or ne and the subj. or with 

lnstitutum, i,n. (instituo), a purpose, 
object, subject, plan, design, principle ; 
a custom, practice, institution, fash- 
ion, manners. 

Tnsto, are, sftti, n. (in fy sto, to stand), 
$ 224, to stand in, over, or upon ; to 
be near or at hand, draw nigh, im- 
pend, approach, threaten ; to push or 
press upon, urge, harass, assail, be 
earnest or pressing, pursue, pursue 
with reproaches, inveigh against. 

Instructus, a, um, part, (instruo), set 

Integer, gra, grum, adj., whole, en 
tire, undiminished; strong, vigorous 
new, fiesh, unimpaired; pure, spor 
less, uns JLed ; unhurt, uninjured 
untouched, undetermined, open; up 
right, honest, virtuous. De inkgio, 
afresh, anew. 

Integrilas, atis.f. (integer), sound- 
ness; integrity, uprightness, probity 

IntelUgo, ere, exi, ectum, a. (inter <f 
Lego), § 272, & § 265, to understand 
comprehend, know, perceive, see. 

Intempestus, a, um, adj. (in ty tern 
pestus, seasonable), unseasonable. In- 
tempesta note, midnight, the dead ol 

Intendo, ere, di, turn fy sum, a. (in $• 
tendd), to bend, stretch ; to increase, 
augment. Litendere ojficia, to go be- 
yond or exceed one's duty, to do more 
than is required: — to direct, turn, ap- 

in order, arranged, marshalled; $249, ply. Intendere or intendere animum. 

R. 1. furnished, equipped, accoutred, 
provided, prepared, in battle array. 

Ins tr amentum, i, n., furniture, an 
utensil, implement, instrument; bag- 
gage, apparatus; means, assistance, 
aid. Instrumenta rriilitia:, munitions 
of war : from 

Instruo, Ire, uxi, uctum, a. (in $• 
struo, to build), to construct, build ; to 
set in order, dispose, arrange; to 
draw up in battle array, marshal ; to 
prepare, furnish, provide, equip, fit out, 

Insuesco, Ire, evi, Hum, a. fy n. (in 
$• suesco, $271, to become accustom- 
ed), to be accustomed, be in the habit 

Insum, esse,fui, irr. n. (in fy sum), 
$ 224, fy abl with in, to be in. 

Insupir, adv. (in fy super), upon, 
above; from above; besides, more- 

to turn one's self, turn one's mind c 
thoughts, direct one's attention or en- 
ergies, set one's heart upon; § 271, to 
intend ; to strive, exert one's self; to 
aim, point. Intendere or iter inten- 
dere, to bend, turn or direct one's 
course. Intendere ire, to design to go. 
Intendere aliquid, to propose, aim at, 
wishi intend. Intendere arma, alque 
tela, to hold forth, present — . 

Intentus, a, um, part, ty adj. (inten- 
do), stretched, bent; intent upon, fix- 
ed, attentive, eager, intent, occupied 
with, bent on; vehement, forcible,* 
watchful, careful, cautious, on the 
alert. It is followed by the dative or 
by the ablative, either with or without 
in, and sometimes by the accusative 
with ad or in. 

Inter, prep, (in), with the ace § 235 
R. 2, between, betwixt, among 
amongst, amid, amidst; in, at, dur 

Intactus, a, um, adj. 'in ty tactus, \ ing, within ; above, before. Inter se 
touched), untouched, unhurt, unat- j mutually, to or with one another or 
tempted. Belluminiactum r — not begun. | each other, together, between them. 




jointly. Procul or hnge inter se, far 
from each other, far apart. Diversi 
inter se, opposite to one another. 

Irderdum, adv. (inter fy dum), some- 
times, now and then, occasionally. 

Interemptus, a, um, part, (interimo). 
slain, killed, destroyed. 

Intereo Ire, ii, ttum, irr. n. (inter $ 
eo), to perish, be jdestroyed, be slain, 

Interfectus, a, um, part. : from 

Inter ficio, ere, feci, fectum, a. (inter 
fy facio), to kill, slay, murder, put to 
death, destroy. 

Interim, adv. (inter), in the mean 
lime, meanwhile, in the meanwhile, 
in the interim. 

Interimo, Ire, emi, emptum, (inter <$r 
Soto), to take away ; to kill, slay, mur- 
der, destroy. 

Interiturus, a, um, part, (intereo). 

Internuntius, i, m. (inter ty nuntius), 
a messenger that goes between two 
parties, an internuncio, interposer, 
go-between, common or mutual friend 
or adviser. 

Interpello, are, dvi, atum, a. (inter 
fy pello, obs.), to interrupt ; to hinder, 
disturb, prevent, stop, obstruct ; to pre- 
vent as tribune by a veto. 

Interpbno, ere, posui, posttum, a. 
(inter fy pono), to interpose, put in be- 
tween. Interponere fidem, to pledge 
one's credit, to engage one's word or 
honor, pledge his faith or word of 

Interposttus, a, um, part, (interpono), 
interposed, pledged. 

Interpres, etis, m. ty f., a mediator, 
umpire, arbitrator, agent ; an explain- 
er, translator, interpreter, dragoman. 

Interpretdtus, a, um, part, pass., in- 
terpreted, explained, translated, $ 162, 
17 : from. 

Interpreter, dri, dtus sum, dep. (in- 
tcrpres), to interpret, expound, explain. 

Interrogates, a, um, part. : from 

Interrogo are, dvi, atum, a. (inter fy 

rogo), $ 265, to ask, question, inqnira 
interrogate ; to examine, accuse, 
! charge, prosecute, impeach, try. 

Intervallum, i, n. (inter ty vatlus, a 
palisade), a space, interval, distance. 

Intervenio, Ire, veni, ventum, n. (in- 
ter § venio), to come upon or between; 
to interfere, intervene; to interrupt, 
come or stand in the way, be opposed. 

Intestabilis, e, adj. (in ty testabilis 
that may testify), not permitted to 
give evidence in a court of law, exe- 
crable, detestable, odious, infamous. 

Inteslinus, a, um, adj. (intus, with- 
in}, internal, inward, intestine, civil, 

Intolerandus, a, um, adj. (in fy tole- 
randus), not to be borne or endured, 
intolerable, insufferable. 

Intra, prep, with the ace, within, in. 
Also adv., within. 

Intro, are, dvi, atum, a., to go into, 
enter, penetrate ; to come over, pass 

Introduco, ere, xi, ctum, a. (intro, 
within, ty duco), to bring or lead in, 
conduct within, introduce. 

Introeo, Ire, ii, irr. n. (intro fy eo), 
$ 276, II. to enter, go into. 

Intueor, eri, ttus sum, dep. (in ty 
tueor), $ 233, to look at, gaze upon 

hiultus, a, um, adj. (in <$* ultus), un 
revenged ; unpunished, with impunity 

Invddo, Ire, si, sum, n. fy a. (in $ 
vado), § 233, (3,) to go into, enter, fall 
upon, invade, attack, assail, rush 
against or upon ; to seize, seize upon, 
lay hold of, take possession ; absolute, 
to prevail, spread, extend. 

InvSnio, Ire, veni, ventum, «. ^in 6f 
venio), to find, find out, meet with, 
discover, ascertain; to contrive, de- 
vise, invent; to acquire, gain, get, pro- 
cure ; to detect, bring to light. 

Inventus, a, um, part, (invenio). 

Inversus, a, um, part., turned upside 
down, inverted : from 




Inverto, Ire, ti, sum, a. (in $• verto), 
to turn upside down, invert. 

Invictas, a, urn,, adj. (in fy victus), 
unconquered, unsubdued, invincible, 

Invideo, ere, vldi, visum, n. <$• a. (in 
§ video), § 223, R. 2, to envy, grudge, 
deny, refuse. Fortuna virtuti inviaet, 
— denies success — . 

Invidia, cn,f, envy, jealousy, hatred, 
ill-will, spite, malice, odium, blame, 
dislike, dissatisfaction, popular odium, 
unpopularity. Invidiam alicui esse, to 
serve as a reproach, to cause one to 
be odious. In invidia esse, to be 
odious -.from 

Invldus a, um, adj. (invideo), en- 
vious, invidious, malignant, spiteful. 

Invioldtus, a, um, a !j. {in #■ vi la 
tus, injured), inviolate, unhuit, unin- 
jured, irreproachable, unimpeachable, 
pure, immaculate, unpolluted, unbro- 

Invtsus, a, um, adj. (in $ visus), not 
seen, unseen. Also, from invideo, § 
222, odious, hateful, tuted, offensive, 
disliked, detested. 

Invito, are, avi, alum, a., to invite, 
ask, bid. 

Invltus, a, um, adj., unwilling, re- 
luctant, against one's will. 

Ipse, a, um, gen. ipsius, § 135, & 
$283, I, Exc.i. adj. pro., himself, her- 
self, itself; or, he himself, &c. ; also, 
ne, she, it; with ego or tu, expressed 
or understood, myself, thyself. Is ipse, 
he himself, even he. Of its use when 
joined with s ibs.'anfive pronouns used 
-ejlexivelif, as, /.arum tuta per se ipsa 
probitas, see § -07, H. 28. Ipse some- 
times signifies, in himself, &c, person- 
ally, as, Duo imperatores, — ipsi pares ; 
also, in itself, of itself; as, Natura ser- 
pentium ipsa perniciosa, siti accendi- 

Ira, at,f.. anger, displeasure, wrath, 
passion, ire, rage, resentment. j 

.^acundia, as, f. (iracundus irasci-; 

ble), hastiness of temper, irascibility 
anger, wiath, passion. 

Irascor, i, dep. (ira), tc be angry 
displeased, influenced by anger or re 

Iratns, a, um, adj. (ira), angry, dis- 
pleased, enraged. 

Ire, pres. inf. of Eo. 

Irritamentum, i, n (irrlto, to irri- 
tate), an incitement, incentive, induce- 
ment, encouiagement, provocation. 

Irrumpo, ere, rupi, ruptum, n. (in $ 
rumpo, to break), $ 233, & Rem. 2, to 
break in or into, enter or rush in by 
force, burst in or into. 

Is, ea, id, gen, ejus, adj. pro. § 134, 
he, she, it? tms or tnat man ' &c " tne 
same ; such, so great, such a .one, that 
kind of person or thing. Id loci or 
Loco rum, see Locus. Eo, abl. n., wth 
compara'ives, so much, by so much, 
the. Id quod, the thing which, which 
indeed, what, as, § 206, (13.) (b.) h 
with et, atque, etc. and that indeed, 
aud ihat too. In the oratio obliqua, is 
sometimes lakes the place of tu in the 
oiafio dnecta. See Ille in Diet 

Isdem thesaineas iisde m. See Idem. 

Isse, perf. inf. of Eo. 

Isle, is a, istud, gen. islius, dem,pro. 
§ 134, & § 283, I, Exc. 4, this, that. ho. 
she, it, § 207, R. 25. 

Ila, adv, (is), so, even so, so truly, 
so certainly, thus, in this manner, in 
such a manner ; so much, to such a 
degree, such, so constituted; there- 
fore, consequently, accordingly. It ii 
sometimes used redundantly . or ly way 
of apposition, before a clause, in a 
manner similar to id, § 206 r < 13)* 

Italia, ct,f, Italy. J. 5, 2" 23 
16, &c. 

Italieus, a, um, adj. (Ital'u \ Italian 
Lalici, drum, m., Italians, ll 3 inhabi 
tants of all parts of Italy, &, r pt Gal 
lia Cisalpina, and Latiuin. \ 47, G7 

Itdque, illative conj. $ 198 ), (ita & 
que), therefore, then ; and so * a<d thus 




lte, etc., see Bo. 

Item, adv., also, likewise, in like 
manner. Item often denotes the re- 
petition of a preceding predicate; as, 
Ipse armatm, intentusque, item milites 
cogebat, sc. utarmati intentique essent, 
— to be armed — . 

Iter itineris, n., a going along; a 
journey, way, march, rout, road, path, 
course, progress, method, plan. Ex 
itinere, in itinere, and itinere, on the 
way, on the journey or march. Iter 
facer e, to go, march, travel. Iter 
pergera, to continue, pursue, prose- 
cute — . Magnis itineribus, by forced 
marches, with all speed. Iter trans. 
ver8um, a cross road, a transverse 
course or direction, a march across 
the country. Itinere transverso, at 
right angles. 

Iterum, adv., again, a second time, 

Itum, see Bo. 

Iturus, a, am, part. (eo). 

Jacio, ere, jeci, jactum, a., to throw, 
cast, fling, hurl; to throw or cast up, 
raise, erect, place. Fig. to throw out 
a remark, say, remark casually, ob- 
serve, I 272. 

JacWor, dri, dtus, sum, dep., to 
throw a javelin, throw, dart, cast, fling, 
hurl, shoot : from 

Jaciilum, i, n. (jacio), javelin, dart. 

Jam, adv., now, immediately, pre- 
sently, instantly, directly ; even ; be- 
fore; then; already. Jam antea,jam 
ante* or antea jam, long before, long 
ago, some time ago, already, previous- 
ly. Jam inde, all along. Jam ivde a 
principio, from the very beginning, 
as far back as the beginning. Jam 
jam, just now, instantly, now truly, 
now indeed. Jam pn'dem, long, lonrj; 
ago, long since, for a long time. Jam 
pn'mum, now, in the first place, now, 
first of all. Jam turn., even then, al- 

Jampridem, adv., see Jam* 
Janua,<RJ„ a gate, door, entranca 
Januarius, a, um, adj. {Janus), of on 
pertaining to the month of January 
JanuaricB Calendar, the first of Janu- 

Jocus, i, m. in pi. joci m, fy joca, n. 
§92, 2, a joke, jest; wit, raillery; hu- 
mor, pleasantry. Mover e jocum, to 
joke, jest, excite mirth, cause meni 
Jovis, see Jupiter. 
Jubeo, ere, jussi, jussum, a., § 272, 
$ 273, 2, (d.) to order, bid, com- 
mand, charge, direct, enjoin; to 
choose, elect, appoint ; with the accu- 
sative of the thing, and the dative of 
the person, to vote, decree, assign; — 
to ratify, approve. Rogationem jubere, 
to vote for a bill, to enact a law. 
Pass, impers, ut jussum erat, as had 
been commanded. 

Jucundus, a, um, adj. (juvo), § 222, 
pleasant, agreeable, delightful, grate- 
ful, pleasing, joyful. 

Judicium, i, n. {judex, a judge), 
judgment ; a trial, sentence, decision ; 
judicial power; a court of justice; a 
suit or action at law, a law-suit, legal 
process, legal remedy or redress; 
judgment, opinion, belief.. Mutare 
judicium animi, to alter one's pur- 
pose or design. Judicium summum, 
supreme or unlimited jurisdiction. 

Judlco, are, avi, atum, a. (jus <Sf 
dico), $ 210, R. 3, (3,) (c.) & § 230, R. 1. 
to judge, give judgment, pass sen- 
tence, determine, decide; to declare, 

Jugis, e, adj., perpetual, continual, 
never failing, perennial. Jugis aqua* 
a fountain, spring. 

Jugulo, are, avi, atum, a. {jugulum^ 
the throat), to cut the throat, butcher 
kill, slay, murder. 

Jugum, i, n., a yoke. In military 
language, a yoke, a frame consisting 
of two spears placed erect, and a 




third laid transversely upon them, un- 
der which vanquished enemies were 
sometimes made to pass in a crouch- 
ing posture, as a mark of disgrace. 

Jugurtha, a, m., a son of Manasta- 
bal, and adopted son of Micipsa king 
of JNumidia. After murdering Ad- 
herbal and Hiempsal, sons of Micipsa, 
he became sole king of Numidia, and 
for a long time waged war with vari- 
ous success against the Romans. He 
was finally taken captive by Marius, 
and after gracing the triumph of the 
conqueror, perished in the same pri- 
son in which the associates of Cati- 
line were subsequently put to death. 
A. U. C. 649. J. 5, &c. 

Jugurthlnus, a, um, adj. (Jugurtha), 
of or relating to Jugurtha, Jugurthine. 
J. 19, 56. 

Julius, i, m. (C), a confederate of 
Catiline. C. 27. 

Jumentum, i, n. (Jungo, to join), a 
beast of burden, pack-horse. 

Junius, a, um, adj., of or pertaining 
to the month of June. Calendar Ju- 
nicB, the Calends of June. 

Junius, i, m., a Roman name, see 

Jupiter, Jovis, m., % 85, Jupiter or 
Jove, a son of Saturn, and chief of 
the Greek and Roman gods. J. 107. 

Jurgium, i, n. (jurgo, to quarrel), a 
dispute, quarrel, altercation, strife, 
contention, slander, scandal, defa-l 
matory speeches. | 

Juro, are, avi, atum, n. fy a., to 
swear, take an oath, make oath: from 

Jus, juris, n., right, law, reason, 
justice, that which is conformable to 
law ; the laws ; a court of justice ; a 
sentence, judgment; state, condition; 
power, authority ; leave, license. Jure, 
justly reasonably, of course, also, by 
law, according to law. Jus bonum- 
que, what is just and useful, rectitude 
and public interest. Jus fasque, hu- 
man and divine laws. Jus libertatis. 

the rights of freedom, or the privi 
leges of free citizens. Jus nullum 
the total absence of justice. 

Jusjurandum, i, n., $ 91, (jus fy ju 
randum, an oath), an oath. 

Jussu, abl., § 94, (jubeo), by com 
mand. Sine jussu, without command 

Jussum, i, n. (jubeo), an order, com 
mand, charge. Jussa ejicere, to exe 
cute — . 

Jussus, a, um part, (jubeo). 

Justitia, <s,f., justice, impartiality, 
clemency, mercy, uprightness, probi- 
ty : from 

Justus, a, um, adj. (jus), just, up- 
right, virtuous; mild, clement; just, 
equitable ; suitable, merited, due, rea- 
sonable, proper ; lawful ; justa, drum, 
n., funeral rites, obsequies. 

Juvaturus, a, um, part, (juvo), § 165. 

Juvenilis, utis,f, (juvenis, a youth) 
youth, younger days, the age of youth 
a period of life, which appears strictly 
to have extended only from thirty U 
forty-five, but which is often made U 
embrace also the preceding period of 
fifteen years, properly called adoles 
centia. It is also used in a vagut. 
manner for the period immediately fol 
lowing childhood. The youth, young 
persons, young men. Juventus nobil* 
ium, the young nobles or nobility. 

Juvo, are, juvi, jutum, a., to help, 
aid, assist, succor, profit, benefit; to 
please, delight, amuse; imp., it de- 
lights. Diis juvantibus, with the bles- 
sing of heaven. 

Juxta, adv., nigh, near, by, hard by ; 
equally, alike. Juxta ac, just as- 
equally as. Juxta ac si, just as it 
just as though, $ 263. 2. Juxta mecum 
equally with me, as well as I. 

L., an abbreviation of the pr&no 
men Lucius. 

Labor, i, lapsus sum, dep., to 'all 




gentiy, glide down, descend. Fig. to 
mistake, err, falter, go wrong, miss. 

Labor § Labus, oris, m., labor, toil, 
fatigue, activity, industry. Fig. dis- 
tress, hardship, trouble, misfortune, 
difficulty. The form labos occurs 
tn or t frequently in Sallust than labor. 

Laboro, are, avi, atum, n. ty a. (labor), 
to labor, be oppressed with toil or fa- 
tigue; to be in want, trouble, difficul- 
ty or distress ; to be hard pressed ; to 
maintain one's ground with difficulty ; 
$273, 1, to strive, struggle, labor for, 
do one's utmost to effect, try to ob- 
tain, strive to accomplish; to work, 
labor, toil, exert one's self. 

Lac, lactis, n., milk. 

Lacedccmon, orris, f, Lacedemon, 
otherwise called Sparta, a celebrated 
city of Peloponnesus, the capital of 

Lacedccmonius, a, um, adj. (Lacedcc- 
mon), Lacedemonian, Spartan. La- 
cedcemonii, drum, m., the Lacedemo- 
nians or Spartans. C. 2, 53. 

Lacero, are, avi, atum, a. (lacer, 
maimed), to maim, mangle ; to rend, 
tear, lacerate ; to waste, squander, con- 
sume, dissipate; to revile, defame, rail 
at, asperse, censure; to torment, af- 

Lacessitus, a, um, part., provoked, 
roused, irritated, exasperated: from 

Lacesso, €re, ivi, Hum, a., to pro- 
voke, challenge, irritate, exasperate, 
excite ; to rouse, stimulate, assail. 

Lacryma, cr,f, a tear. 

Lacrymo, § Lacrimo, are, avi, atum, 
n. (lacryma), to weep, shed tears. 

Laica, &, 77?.. (M. Porcius), a Roman 
senator, confederate with Catiline. 
C. 17, 27. 

Lcedo, tre, si, sum, a., to hurt, harm, 
injure, offend, annoy; to asperse, slan- 
der, defame, reproach, rail at, censure, 
Inveigh against, assail. 

Loctandus, a, um, part. pass, (lator) 
to be rejoiced at. 

Lcctitia, en, f. (latus), joy, gladness, 
mirth, joyfulness, exultation. See 

Lector, art, atus sum, dep. $ 273, 5, 
to rejoice, be glad or joyful ; $ 232, (3 j 
to rejoice at or on account of; to be 
delighted with, take delight in : from 

Lcr.tus, a, um, adj. % 213, R. 5, (4.) 
glad, joyful, cheerful, joyous ; ready, 
willing ; pleasing, acceptable ; favora- 
ble; fruitful. Lcetus aliqua re, to be 
pleased or satisfied with. Lceti pacem 
agitabamus, we enjoyed the delights 
of peace. Agere lcetus, to be joyful. 

Lavas, a, um, adj., left, on the left 
side. Lceva, a, f, sc. manus, the left 
hand, the left side. Ad Icevam, on- or 
towards the left. 

Lancea, cc, f, a lance, spear, jave- 
lin, pike, dart. 

Langueo, ere, ui, n., to languish, be 
sick, feeble or faint, fade, droop, be- 
come weak or languid, grow dull or 
heavy, remiss, inactive or listless; to 
be wanting in spirit or energy. 

Languidus, a, um, adj. (langueo), 
faint, languid, weak, feeble, listless/ 
inactive, remiss, dull, sick. 

Lapideus, a, um, adj., of stone, 
stony : from 

Lapis, idis, m., a stone. 

Lapsus, a, um, part, (labor). 

Laqueus, i, m., a noose, halter, cord, 
snare, Laqueo gulam frangere, to 

Lar, laris, m., a household god, a 
god who presided over the house and 
family, and to whom the hearth was 
conseciated, a guaidian god who pre- 
sided over all inhabited places. Fig. 
lar or lar familiaris, a house, home. 

Lares, ium,f. pi., a town of Africa 
J. 90. 

Largior, Iri, ttus sum, dep. (largus 
abundant), to give m abundance, be 
stow largely, lavish; to give, grant, 
give away; to make presents, give 
largesses, bribe. 




Larglter, adv. (largus), largely, 

plentifully, freely, lavishly. 

Largitio, onis, f. (largior), a giving 
freely, bountifulness, liberality; lar- 
gesses; bribery, corruption, a bribe; 
profusion, prodigality. 

Largttor, oris, m. (largior), a profuse 
spender, liberal giver ; a briber. 

Lascivia, ce, f (lasclvus, wanton), 
petulance, licentiousness ; wanton- 
ness playfulness, relaxation, gayety, 
sportiveness, love of amusement ; las- 

Lassitudo, \nis, f, weariness, fa- 
tigue, lassitude : from 

Lassus, a, um, adj., weary, tired, 

Late, adv. (latus, wide), widely, ex- 
tensively, far and wide. Late ire, to 
march widely extended. 

Latlne, adv., after the manner of 
the Latins; in the Latin tongue, in 
Latm : from 

Latinus, a, um, adj. {Latium, a 
country of Italy), of or belonging to 
Latium, Latin. Nomen Lalinum, La- 
tins, inhabitants of Latium. J. 39, 
42, 43. 

Latitudo, tnis, f. (latus), breadth, 
width, large extent; a broad tract. 
Declivis latitudo, a gradually descend- 
ing tract of great extent, a broad de- 

Latro, onis, m., a life-guard ; a mer- 
cenary ; a marauder bandit, highway- 
man, robber. 

Latrocinium, i, n. (latrocinor, to 
rob), robbery, highway-robbery, pira- 
cy ; fraud, artifice. stratapfra, violence; 
an attack of banditti, a contest with 
Latus, a, um, part. (fero). 
Latus, eris, n., the side, flank, ribs. 
Ab latere, from the side ; also, in the 
flank ; near, at one's side, at one's el- 
bow. Ex or a laterilus, on the sides 
or flanks. 

Laiido, <Sre, 5vi, atum, a., to praise, 

commend, extol, so, laudando extol 

lere ; to esteem, prize, value : from 

Laus,dis,f, praise, commendation; 
glory, honor ; fame, renown. 

Laxe, adv., loosely, slackly, widely, 
openly. Sperans Romanos laxiusfu- 
turos, — would be more free from re- 
straint, disorderly. For this use of the 
adverb in the predicate, see Sum: from 

Laxus, a, um, adj., loose, large, 
open, spacious, wide, slack, lax. 
Laxius imperium, less severe, less 
strict, more indulgent. 

Lectus, i, m„ a bed or couch. 

Lectus, a, um, part, fy adj. (lego), 
chosen, selected, choice. 

Legatio, onis, f. (lego, are), an em- 
bassy, lieutenancy, legation, the office 
of an ambassador or lieutenant ; per- 
sons sent on an embassy, ambassa 

Legatus, i, m. (lego, are), an ambas- 
sador, envoy, legate, commissioner ; a 
lieutenant, deputy, lieutenant-general; 
the governor of a conquered province. 

Legio, bnis,f (lego, Ire), a legion, a 
body of Roman soldiers consisting of 
ten cohorts. The number of soldiers 
in a legion was different at different 
periods of the Roman state, having 
originally consisted of three thousand 
foot and three hundred horse, which 
number was gradually enlarged to 
four, five, or six thousand exclusive 
of cavalry. In every legion there were 
three classes of soldiers called the 
hastati, principes and triarii or pilani. 
Each class contained ten companies 
(ordines), and the same number of cen- 
turions. The centurion who led the 
first company of the principes, as well 
as the company itself, was called pri- 
mus princeps, the second secundus, 
fyc. In like manner among the has- 
tati and the pilani, the first centurion 
was called primus hastatus and pri- 
mus pilus or centurio primi pili: At 
the triarii constituted the class highest 





in rank, the centurio primi pili held 
the first rank among the centurions of 
a legion. It is sometimes used in a 
general sense for an army and even 
for the army of a foreign nation. C. 

Legionarius, a, um, adj. (legio), of a 
legion, legionary. Cohors legionaria 
or ex legionibus is used in distinction 
from cohors auxiliaria. 

Legittmus, a, um, adj. (lex), accord- 
ing to law, appointed or regulated by 
law, legal, lawful, right, just, legiti- 
mate. Legitimi dies, the legal time, 
the days prescribed by law. Candi- 
dates for office were required to offer 
themselves seventeen days before the 
day of election. 

Lego, are, dvi, dtum, a., $ 264, 5, to 
send as an ambassador, depute, de- 
spatch ; to appoint as lieutenant. Le- 
gare sibi aliquem, to choose for one's 
deputy or lieutenant. 

Lego, ere, legi, ledum, a., to collect, 
gather, cull, pick up; to run over, 
read, peruse ; to choose, select, elect. 

Lenio, Ire, ivi, Hum, a. (lenis, soft), 
to soften, mitigate, calm, alleviate, 
assuage, allay, appease, propitiate, pa- 
cify, lessen, diminish, soothe, extenu- 
ate, prevail upon, persuade. Lenire 
inopiam frumenti, to compensate, 
make amends for, cause to be less 

Leniter, adv. (lenis), gently, softly, 
sweetly, mildly, placidly, calmly ; re- 
missly, inactively. Lenius agere, to 
act (i. e. to prosecute the attack) with 
less vigor. 

Lentulus, i, m. (P. Cornelius Lentu- 
lus Sura), a Roman senator who took 
a prominent part in the conspiracy 
of Catiline. He was at that time a 
praetor, and had once been consul. 
rft; married the sister of L. Caesar. 
C. 17, 32, 39, 43, &c. See also Spin- 

Leo Urns, m., ai lion. 

Lsptdus, i, m. (M. JEmilius), a Ro 
man consul, A U. C. 688. C. 18. 

Lepor, fy Lepos, oris, m„ mirth, wit 
humor, facetiousness, grace, elegance 

Leptis, is, /., $ 79, 1. Leptis, the 
name of two towns in Africa, oner' 
near Hadrymetum, sometimes called 
Leptis minor, the other between the 
Syrtes, called also Leptis major and 
Neapolis. J. 19, 77. 

Leptitdni, drum, m. pi., the inhabi 
tants of Leptis. J. 77, 79. 

Levis, e, adj., light, of little weight ; 
small, little, slight; trifling, trivial, 
inconsiderable, of small moment; 
easy, mild, gentle. 

Levtter, adv. (levis), lightly, slightly, 
softly ; comp. levius, less. Levius stre- 
pere, to ring less, make less noise. 

Juevo, are, avi, dtum, a. (levis), $ 251, 
to lift up, raise ; to make lighter, light- 
en, ease, relieve. 

Lex, legis, f, law ; a law, statute 
ordinance. Leges etjura, the consti- 
tution and laws. 

Libens, tis, adj. (libet), willing, pleas- 
ed, glad; merry, cheerful, joyful. Lv 
bens accipere, — gladly, with pleasure, 
$205, R. 15, (a). 

Liber, bri, m., the inner bark of a 
tree ; a book. 

Liber, era, Irum, adj. (libet), free, in 
a state of liberty ; open, bold, frank, 
unrestrained, uncontrolled, uninflu 
enced, unshackled; void of, exempt 

Liber dlis, e adj. {liber"', §213, libe- . 
ral, befitting a freeman or gentleman 
genteel, wejl bred, ingenuous ; boun- 
tiful, generous, munificent, liberal, 

Liberalttas, dtis,f (liberahs), ingen- 
uousness, civility; bounty, liberality, 
munificence, generosity. 

LiberaUter, adv. [liberalis), iigenu 
ously, liberally, honorably , pro 
fusely, bountifully, liberally, mun/ 




LAbtre, adv. (liber), ingenuously, libe- 
rally, honorably, freely; largely, copi- 
ously. Liberius processi, — too freely. 

Liberi, drum, m. pi. (liber), children 
(freeborn, not slaves). 

Libero, are, dvi, atum, a. (liber,, to 
Bet at liberty, free, make free ; to de- 
liver release, extricate. 

Libertas, atis,f (liber), liberty, free- 
dom, the state and condition of a free- 
man : independence, fearlessness. Jus 
libertatis, see Jus. 

Libertus, i, m. (libero), a freed man, 
slave made free. This appellation is 
used when reference is made to the for- 
mer master; as, liberti Lentuli, the 
freed-men of Lentulus ; otherwise the 
freed-man is called libertinus; but 
libertus appears to be sometimes used 
for libertinus, C. 59. 

Libet, libuit or libitum est, § 169, 
imp., § 223, & $ 269, R. 2. it pleases, 
it is agreeable. Uti libet, sc. tibi or 
vobis, as you please. Libet miki con- 
fiteri, I am willing to confess, free to 

Jjibidinose, adv. (libidinosus, wan- 
ton), according to one's pleasure or 
caprice, wantonly, arbitrarily, capri- 

Libido, mis,f. (libet), $ 275, III, R. 
1, will, inclination, feelings, fancy, 
humor, caprice ; extravagance of de- 
sire, wantonness; desire, propensity, 
inclination, passion, lust, cupidity, sen- 
suality, inordinate or ungoverned ap- 
petite. In a good sense, pleasure, sat- 
isfaction, delight. Habere libidinem, 
to take pleasure, to delight. Libido 
dominandi, the lust of dominion. Li- 
bido animi, the same as libido, inclina- 
tion, passion. Ex libidine, as one 
pleases, arbitrarily, according to one's 
pleasure, humor or caprice, in pursu- 
ance of one's wishes. 

Libys, yos, adj., Libyan. Also, 
mbs. m., a Libyan, an inhabitant of 
Libva, a country in the western part 

of Africa between Gaetulia and the 
Atlantic ; pi. Libyes, Libyans. J. 18, 

Licenter, adv. (licens, free), too free* 
ly, without due restraint ; freely, with 
freedom. Sperans Romanos licentim 
futuros, — more remiss in their disci 

Licentia, cc,f. (licens), $ 275, III. R. 
1, (1.) licence, liberty, permission, in- 
dulgence, leave, power, ability, free- 
dom from restraint, opportunity; li- 
centiousness, insubordination. Pol' 
luta licentia, shameful corruption. 

Licet, licuit fy licitum est, imp. § 169, 
$ 223, $ 269, R. 2, $ 262, R. 4, $ 273, it 
is lawful, it is permitted or allowed, 
one may. Licet mihi, illi, etc., I may 
or can, he may, &c. : — it is possible. 

Licinius, i, m. (M.), see Crassus. 

Lictor, oris, m., a lictor, an officer 
who attended on the principal Roman 
magistrates, going before them, bear- 
ing the fasces. They preceded the 
magistrates in single file ; hence the 
one who led the file was called pri- 
mus lictor, the one in the rear, and 
next to the magistrate, was called prox- 

Ligneus, a, um, adj. (lignum, wood), 
of wood, wooden, ligneous. 

Ligur, fy Ligus, uris, m. tyfi, of 
Liguria, a country of Italy, a Liguri- 
an. The Ligurians were subdued by 
the Romans under L. JEmilius Scaii- 
rus, A. U. C. 571, and became allies 
of the Romans. J. 38, 77, 93, &c. 

TJmetanus, i, m. (C. Mamilius), a 
tribune of the people, A. U. C. 644. 
J 40. 

Limosus, a, um, adj., miry, muddy. 

Limus, i m., mud, slime. 

Lingua, <z,f., the tongue. Fig. lan- 
guage, words, speech, conversation, 
discourse ; a tongue, language 

Littera, <z,f., a letter of the alpha- 
bet Fig. litterce, a writing, compo 




sition hook; a letter, or letters, epis- 
tle, or epistles; literature, letters, 

Lixa, cc, to., a suttler, victualler in 
a camp. 

Locatus, a, um, part. : from 

Loco, are, avi, d.tum, a. (locus), to 
place, set, lay, dispose, arrange, sta- 
tion ; deposit, store, put. Locare pri- 
mos et extremos, — in ..front and rear. 

Locuples, etis, adj. (locus fy pleo, 
obs., to fill), rich, wealthy, opulent; 
well stored, well furnished. 

Locus, i, m., pi. loci, to. ty loca, n. 
$ 92, 2, a place, room, situation, re- 
gion, part, station, post, position ; na- 
tural situation. Fig a place, room, 
cause, opportunity, time; reason, 
ground, pretext ; condition, state, fa- 
mily, rank, station, dignity. Omni- 
bus locis, in all places, every where, 
$ 254, R. 3. Loco cedsre, to give way, 
abandon one's post, retire. Pelli loco, 
to be driven from one's post. Urbes 
munitcB loco, — strong by situation or 
nature. Pro loco, according to the 
situation, or the nature of the ground. 
Id loci, that place, § 212, R. 3. Td lo- 
corum, that time. Postea loci, or, as 
some think it should be written, post 
ea loci, corresponding in form with 
id loci, after that, afterward, $ 212, R. 
4, N. 4. Peccato si locus esset, if error 
were admissible, if a mistake were 
allowable, or of little consequence. 
Locus difficilis, in military language, 
a place of difficult approach. Cogna- 
torum loco ducere, to reckon in the 
place of— put instead of— esteem as — . 

Locutus, a, um, part, (loquor) 

Longe, adv. (longus), far off, at a 
distance, far ; very, very much, much, 
exceedingly : of time, long, far. Lon- 
gius, farther ; too far, $ 256, R. 9, («). 

Longinus, i, to. (L. Cassius), a Ro- 
man senator confederate with Cati- 
line. C. 17, 44, 49. 

Longus, a, um, adj., long, either in 

spate or time: lasting, durable, oi long 

Loquor, i, cuius sum, dep., to speak 
say, tell, declare, discourse, talk, utter 
The ace. is sometimes omitted, $229 
R. 4, 2. 

Lucius, i, to., a Roman prcenomen 

Luctuosus, a, um, adj., mournful 
sorrowful, lamentable, sad, doleful, 
calamitous : from 

Luctus, us, to. (lugeo, to mourn,) la 
mentation, mourning, sorrow, afflic 
tion, grief. 

Luculentus, a, um, adj. (lux), bright, 
clear. Luculenta oratio, elegant, splen 

Lucullus, i, to. (P.), a tribune of the 
people in the Jugurthine war. J 

Ludibrium, i, n. (Judo, to play), a 
mock, mockery, laughing stock, jest, 
sport, derision. Habere ludibrio, to 
mock, make a mock of, make sport 
with, make game of, to impose upon, 
trick, befool. Esse ludibrio alicui, to 
serve as a laughing stock, to be the 
sport of. 

Ludifico, are, avi, atum, a. ty n., or 
Ludificor, ari, atus sum, dep. (ludus 
§ facio), to mock, deceive, make a 
fool of, trifle with, baffle. 

Ludus, i, to., play, sport, diversion, 
pastime, amusement. 

Lumen, tnis, n., (luceo, to shine), 
light ; a light, day-light. Fig. an or- 
nament, honor. 

Lux, luci8,f, light, day-light. 

Luxuria, ce, f. (luxus), luxury, ex- 
cess, riot, profusion, extravagancy 

Luxuriose, adv., luxuriously, sump 
tuously : from 

Luxuridsus, a, um, adj. (luxuria), 
luxurious, excessive, wasteful, prodi 
gal, extravagant, voluptuous; rank 

„ Luxus, us, to., luxury, excess, not 
Per luxum, ii luxury, luxuriously. 





M., an abbreviation of .he prarno- 
men Marcus. 

Macedonia, ce,f, Macedonia or Ma- 
cedon, a large country between Thes- 
ealy and Thrace. J. 35. 

Macedomcus, a, um, adj., pertaining 
to Macedonia, Macedonian. C. 51. 

Machma, as, /., a frame, fabric, 
work ; a machine, engine ; a military 
machine, warlike engine. 

Mackinatio, onis, f (machinor), a 
contrivance, device, artifice; a ma- 
chine, engine. 

Machinatus, a, um, part., with a 
passive signification, § 162, 17, planned, 
devised, contrived : from 

Machtnor, art, atus sum, dep. (ma- 
china), to contrive, devise, plan, de- 
Bign, project, plot. 

Magis, adv., more ; rather ; especial- 
ly. It is often joined with eo, quo, 
tanto, quanto, &c, as, eo magis, and 
that the more, so much the more or 
the more ; magis magisque, more and 
more. Its superlative degree is max- 
ime, which see. Magis is not unfre- 
quently omitted before quam. Cat. 8, 
48, etc. 

Magistratus, us, m. (magistro, to 
rule), an office either civil or military, 
but especially a civil magistracy : also, 
a civil or military officer, but particu- 
larly a civil magistrate. The ordina- 
ry Roman civil magistrates were di- 
vided into two classes, the majores, or 
greater, and the minores or less. In 
the former were included the consuls, 
praetors and censors ; in the latter, the 
ediles, quaestors and tribunes of the 

Magnified, adv., magnificently, 
splendidly, nobly, grandly, pompously, 
in a lofty strain, in a style of enhance- 
ment or amplification, boastfully, 
sumptuously, haughtily, pathetically: 


Magnificus, a, um, adj. (magnus # 
facto), magnificent, splendid, noble; 
boastful, proud, glorying, ostentatious, 
sumptuous, rich, costly; great, glo- 
rious, exalting, conferring honor 
Magnifca pro se dictitare, — self-glori 

Magnitudo, tnis,f, (magnus), great- 
ness, bulk, magnitude, extent ; multi- 
tude, quantity; weight, importance, 
dignity. Magnitudo itineris, the length 
of the march. Magnitudo animi, 
greatness of soul, loftiness of spirit, 
magnanimity. Post magnitudinem 
nominis Romani, after the Roman 
name or nation had become great. 
Magnitudo pecunicc, a great sum, — a 
great amount — . Pro magnitudine t 
considering the importance, accord- 
ing to the importance. 

Magnum, adv., § 192, 4, (b.) very, 
greatly, extensively : from 

Magnus, a, um, adj. (comp. major, 
sup. maximus, $ 125, 5.), § 250, great, 
large, powerful, mighty, excellent, 
much, considerable ; momentous, im- 
portant, valuable. Magna vox, a loud 
voice. TJbi mare magnum esse ccepit, 
when the sea begins to swell. Cele- 
brare in majus, to exaggerate, to en- 
hance, to extol beyond due bounds, 

Majestas, dtis,f, {majus, obs., great), 
greatness, majesty, grandeur, digni- 

Major, see Magnus. Major natit, 
see Natu. 

Majores, um, m. pi. (major), fore 
fathers, ancestors ; the ancients. 

Male, adv., comp. pejus, sup. pes- 
sime, (malus), badly, ill, wrongly, 
amiss, disastrously, wickedly. Male 
pugnatum, unsuccessfully — 

Maledlco, Ire, dixi, dictum, a. (male 
fy dico), $ 225, 1, to speak ill of, rail or 
carp at, revile, slander, asperse, abuse, 

Maledictum, i, n. t (maledico), a re- 




proacn, opprobrious or abusive lan- 
guage ; an imprecation, curse. 

Malefactum, i, n. (malefacio, to in- 
jure), evil deeds, crimes, injuries. 

Maleficium, i, n., a bad action, mis- 
deed, wickedness ; hurt, harm, wrong, 
injury : from 

Malcficus, a, um, adj. (malefacio), 
hurtful, ill-disposed, mischievous, in- 
jurious, pernicious. 

Malevolentia, ce, f (malevolens, ill- 
natured), ill-will, envy, spite, malice, 

Malitia, <z,f, malice; bad qualities, 
demerit, perversity, villainy, wicked- 
ness, vice. 

Malo, malle, malm, irr. n. ty a. (ma- 
gis $ volo), ($ 178, 3,) $ 229, $ 271, $ 
273, 4, to be more willing, choose 
rather, desire more, prefer. It is often 
followed by quam, referring to magis 
in composition. 

Malum, i, n., an evil, mischief, mis- 
fortune, calamity, harm, punishment; 
a fault, bad quality : from 

Malus, a, um, adj. (comp. pejor, sup. 
pesstmus), bad, evil, wicked, corrupt, 
vicious ; worthless, mean, despicable, 
vile, unprincipled; unsuccessful, un- 
favorable, adverse, unfriendly, unfor- 
tunate, mischievous, pernicious, un- 
lucky. Fratres mali, — wanting in af- 
fection, contentious, quarrelsome. 

Mamilius, a, um, adj., of or relating 
to Mamilius, Mamilian. Mamilia lex, 
a law introduced by C. Mamilius 
Limetanus for the trial of those who 
had favored the cause of Jugurtha. 
J. 40, 65. 

Mamilius, i, m. (C), see Limetanus. 

Manastdbal, dlis, m., a Numidian 
prince, a son of Masinissa, brother of 
Micipsa, and father of Jugurtha. In 
some editions it is written Mastana- 
bat J. 5,65. 

Mancinus, i, m. (Manilius), a tribune 
of the Roman people, A. U. C. 646. 

Mancipium, i, n. (manceps, a pur- 

chaser,) property, right of perpetual 
possession, dominion ; a slave. 

Mandatum, i, n., a commission, 
order, command, charge, message 
Mandata efficere or conficere, to exe- 
cute, perform — . Dare mandata ver- 
bis, to give a verbal message : from 

Mando, are, avi., alum, a., $ 223, 
R. 2, $ 273, 2, § 262, R. 4, to commit 
to one's charge, bid, enjoin, order, 
command ; to commit, consign, com- 
mend, confide, entrust. 

Maneo, ere, si, sum, n. fy a., to stop, 
stay, tarry, abide, remain, wait; to 
last, endure, continue ; to remain 

Manifestus, a, um, adj., manifest, 
clear, evident, plain, apparent; $ 213, 
clearly convicted, evidently guilty. 
Manifestum habere, see Habeo. 

Manilius, i, m., see Mancinus. 

Manipulus, i, m. (manus $• pleo, obs. 
to fill), a handful ; a band of foot sol- 
diers, a company, maniple, the third 
part of a cohort. 

Manlidnus, a, um, adj., Manlian, of 
or pertaining to Manlius. 

Mantius, i,m., (T.), see Torquatus. 

Manlius, i, m (A.), a lieutenant of 
Marius in the war against Jugurtha- 
J. 86, 90, 100, 102. ' 

Manlius, i, m. (C), a confederate of 
Catiline, to whom was intrusted the 
command of a large part of the forces 
raised by the conspirators. C. 24, &c. 

Manlius, i, m. (Cn.), a Roman gene- 
ral who was defeated by the Gaulsd 
A. U. C. 649. J. 114. 

Mansi, see Maneo. 

Mansuetudo, tnis, /., (mansuetus^ 
tame), gentleness, mildness, tameness, 
lenity, clemency, humanity. 

Mansurus, a, um, part, {maneo). 

Manus, us, /., a hand ; art, Zaboi 
skill, workmanship ; a body of men., 
an armed force, army, band. Conse 
rere manum, see Gonsero. Manu, by 
hand, forcibly, by force of arms, via 




lently. Conmlere alicui manu, to aid 
ay lighting. Neque consilio neque 
manu, — in action, in feats of arms. 
JRqua manu discedere, to come off 
with equal advantage. Manu promp- 
tus, prompt in action. In manu or in 
manibus esse, to be in one's power, to 
depend on one, with ut and the subj., 
also, to be at hand, to be near or close, 
in distinction from eminus. Facere 
pralium manibus, to come to close 
quarters, fight hand t> hand. Per 
manus, by force, by main force, forci- 
bly, also, from hand to hand. Res 
fidesque in manibus sites erant, their 
property and credit depended upon 
their manual labor. In manus venire, 
to come within one's reach, come to 
blows, come to an engagement. 

Mapalia, ium, n. pi., the name given 
by the Numidians to their cottages or 
cabins ; also villages, hamlets. 

Marcius, i, m., (Q. Rex), see Rex. 

Marcus, i, m., a Roman pranomen. 

Mare, is, n„ the sea. Terra man- 
que, or mari atque terra, § 254, R. 3, 
med., by land and sea. Nostrum 
mare, our sea, i. e. the Mediterranean. 
Maria et montes polliceri, to promise 
seas and mountains, to promise bound- 
less wealth, to make extravagant pro- 

Maritimus, a, um, adj. (mare), of the 
sea, lying near the sea, maritime. 
Maritima ora, the sea-coast. 

Marius, i, m. (C), a celebrated Ro- 
man general, who conquered Jugurtha 
and the Cimbri, and afterwards en- 
gaged in a bloody civil war in oppo- 
sition to Sylla. He was first appointed 
consul A U. C. 647. J. 46, 63, &c. 

Masinissa, ce, m., a king of Nu- 
midia, and grandfather of Jugurtha. 
J 5, 9, 14, 24, 35, 65. 

Massilia, ce,f„ a maritime city in 
the southern part of Gaul, now Mar- 
seilles. It was founded by the Pho- 
ceans and was long distinguished on 

account of the learning and refine 
ment of its inhabitants. C. 34. 

Massiva, <b, m., a JNumidian, the 
grandson of Masinissa, assassmattd 
by order of Jugurtha. J. 35, 61. 

Massugrada, cc, m., the name of a 
Numidian prince, the son of Masi- 
nissa by a concubine. J. 108. 

Mater, tris,f, a mother. Mater fa- 
milias, § 43, 2, the mistress of a family 
lady, wife. 

Materia, ce, ty Materies, ei,f. (mater\ 
matter, stuff, materials ; wood, timber 
Fig. occasion, cause, source. 

Maternus, a, um, adj. (mater), of a 
mother, motherly, maternal. 

Mature adv. (maturus), in time, sea 
sonably, opportunely ; quickly, prompt- 
ly, early, speedily, soon, hastily. 

Maturo, are, avi, atum, a. $■ n., to ri 
pen, make ripe, mature ; to accelerate, 
hasten, quicken, despatch, expedite, 
make haste, § 271 ; to do a thing be- 
fore the time, anticipate, be precipi- 
tate. With an infinitive it may often 
be translated, swiftly, speedily, rapidly, 
with haste, &c. ; as, Maturare iter per- 
gere, to pursue a journey with rapi- 
dity; so Legati maturantes veniunt. 

Maturus, a, um., adj , ripe, mature, 
ready ; seasonable, timely, opportune j 
early, speedy, quick. 

Mauritania ty Mauretania, cB,f., a 
large country in the western part of 
Africa, now Morocco and Fez. J. 16 
19,62. C. 21. 

Maurus, a, um, adj., Moorish Mauri- 
tanian. Maurus, i, m., an inhabitant 
of Mauritania, a Moor, Mauritanian. "" 
J. 18, 19, 80, 82, 97, &c. 

Maxtme. adv. (sup. of magis), § 127 
very greatly, in the highest degree 
most, most of all, eminently, much 
very, for the most part, very much 
above all ; particularly, chiefly, espe- 
cially, principally, in the first place. 
Quammaxime, very much, as much as 




\> esiblc Quam maxime longus, $ 
I5e7, as lasting as possible. S* maxime 
animus ferat, if four) minds (i e if we) 
were ever so much disposed. Maxime, 
-secundum, most of all— next to that ; 
in the first place — in the second place. 
MuLto maxime, most especially, m the 
very highest degree. 

Maximum a, um, adj. (sup. of mag- 
nus], greatest, very great, largest, ut- 
most, chief, highest, most important. 
Maxima u.nicitia, very intimate friend- 
ship. Maxima documenla, the strong- 
est proofs. Maximum silentium, the 
most profound silence. 

Maxhnus, i, m., see Fabius. 

Mecum, see Ego fy Cum. 

Medeor, eri, dep., § 223, R. 2, to 
cure, heal, remedy ; to correct, relieve, 

Mediocris, e, adj. (medius), middling, 
moderate, tolerable, ordinary, indif- 
ferent, common, of moderate extent or 
size ; moderate, calm, temperate, well 
balanced, unambitious. Non medi- 
ocris animus, not moderate, i. e. ar- 
dent, ambitious. Mediocria gerere, 
to engage in moderate enterprises, or 
in hostilities of little moment. 

Medium, i, n., the middle, midst. 
In medio relinquere, to leave undeter- 
mined or undecided. In medio, in 
the middle, between ,' also, in the cen- 
tre : from 

Medius, a, um, adj., mid, middle, 
middle of, $ 205, R. 17, in the middle 
or midst, the middle one, between; 
as, medius ex tribus, $ 212, R. 2, N. 4, 
intervening; common to all; mode- 
rate ; neutral, taking part with neither, 
inclined to neither side 

Me Dius Fidius, or as some prefer 
writing it in one word, mediusjidius, 
8fo Dius fy Fidius 

Medus, a, um, adj., pertaining to 
Media, a country of Asia ; of Media. 
Medus, i,m, a Mede, an inhabitant 
Of Media J. 18. 

Ifeherctile, adv., by Hercules, truly 
in truth. 

Melior, oris, adj. (comp. of bonus), 
better, superior, more excellent, pre- 
ferable. Belle melior, more warlike, 

Melius, adv. (comp. of bene), better, 

Memet, see Egomet. 

Memini, def. pret, $ 183, 3, § 272, 1 
remember, keep in mind, bear in mind, 
| recollect, call to mind; mention. It 
is followed by a genitive or accusativi 
of (he object, $ 216 and R. 1—3. 

Memmius, i, m. (C), a tribune of the 
people in the war with Jugurtha. J 
27, 30, 32. 

Memor, oris, adj. (meminij, § 213 
mindful, remembering. 

MemoraMlis, e, adj. (memoro), wor- 
thy of memory, worthy of being re- 
membered or mentioned, memorable, 

Memoria, &, /. {memor), memory, 
remembrance, recollection; time, so 
far as its events are remembered ; as, 
mea memoria, within my memory, in 
my time ; — a record, report, narrative. 
Memoria rerum gestarum, a narrative 
of past events, history, the composi- 
tion of history. 

Memoro, are, avi, dtum, a. (memor), 
$ 272, $ 265, to mention, make men- 
tion, recount, tell, relate, say, speak of. 
Capsa conditor Hercules Libys memo- 
rabatur, — was said to be, § 210, N. 1. 

Mens, tis,f, the mind, soul, under- 
standing; thought? a design, plan; 
intention ; will, purpose, memory, re- 
collection, wisdom, skill ; reason, judg- 
ment, opinion; nature, disposition, 

Mensis, is, m., a month. 

Meutior, iri, itus sum, dep., to He, 
speak falsely, assert falsely; to de- 
ceive ; to feign, counterfeit, pretend 
invent. Cujus consilio tantam rem 
mentitus esset, — had devised such a 




Mercator, oris, m. (mercor), a mer-i Metuens, entis,parl fyadj., fearing, 
Chant, trader. afraid, afraid of: from 

Merces, edis,f (mereo), hire, wages, I Metuo, ere, ui n. <$r a., to fear, be 
pay, reward; fruit, profit, gain, a de- afraid, apprehend, be arraiu of: from 
eirable object. Manunm merces, the) Metus, us, ?n., fear, dread, care, con- 
wages of manual labor. jcern, apprehension, afright, alarm; a 

Mercor, uri, atus sum, dep. (merx, terror, something feared. See Timor, 
merchandise), to trade, traffic ; to buy, i Meus, a, urn, adj. pro. §139 (mei % 
purchase \gen. of ego), belonging to me, my, 

Merens, ends, part, ty adj., deserv- ! mine, my own : meamet, the same as 
mg, worthy of, either in a good or bad me a, or mea ipsius. 
sense : from Micipsa, cc, m„ a king of Numidia 

Mereo, ere, ui, itum, a. $■ n. $ iVfe-jwho died A. U. C. 636, after a reign 
reor, eri, Itus sum, dep., to deserve, of thirty years. He was the son of 

merit, earn. 

Meridies, ei, m. (medius fy dies), 
mid-day, noon ; the south. 

Meritb, adv. {meritus), deservedly, 
with reason. 

Meritum, i, n., merit, desert ; a kind- 
ness, favor; worth. Ex merito, on 
account of merit : from 

Meritus, a, um, part, fy adj. (mereo 
fy mereor), having merited or deserved, 
deserving well; merited, deserved; 
fair, reasonable, suitable, fit, ri<:!»t. 

Masinissa and uncle of Jugurtha. J. 
5, 6, 8, 9, &c. 

Miles, ttis, m. fy f. (mille), a soldier, 
a foot soldier, a common soldier, in 
distinction from an officer. Milites 
scribere, to levy or enlist soldiers. 

Militaris, e. adj. (miles), of or be- 
longing to a soldier, pertaining to 
war, military, warlike, martial. Res 
militaris, the art of war, military af- 
fairs, war. Homo militaris, — experi- 
enced in war, a good soldier. Mili- 

just. Meritus in prcrlio, distinguish- taris cctas, the military age, the age at 

which the Romans were bound to 

Metellus, i, m. (Q. Ccecilius), a RO' 
man consul who commanded in the 
war against Jugurtha, A. U. C. 645 & 
646, but was superseded by Marius. 
He was subsequently honored with a 
triumph, and received the surname of 
Numidicus on account of his success 
in the war against Jugurtha. J. 43 — 88. 

Metellus, i, m., see Celer and Cret- 

Metior, iri, mensus sum, dep., to 
mete, measure, take measure of; to 
estimate, judge of 

Metor, ari, atus, sum, dep. (meta, a 
bound), to measure ; to plan, arrange 
Melari castra, to measure out the 
ground for a camp, to pitch a camp, 
to encamp. 

Metuendus, a, um, part, {metuo) *o 
be teared, formidable 

serve in war, viz. from the seventeenth 
to the forty-sixth year. Militaria 
signa, standards. Militaris equus, a 
war-horse. Militaria facere, to per- 
form military duties. Militaris rei 
facinora, military exploits. 

Militia, ce, f (miles), military ser- 
vice, warfare ; war. The genitive mill- 
tiae often signifies in war, or abroad, 
in service, especially when joined with 
domi; Militia: patiens, able to bear 
arms. Militice jlagitium, a disgrace 
in war, a military disgrace or of- 

MiUto, are, avi, atum, n. (m^es), to 
serve as a soldier, be a soldier, serve. 

Mille, num. adj. ind., a thousand 
Also a noun, ind. in sing'., in pi. md- 
Via, ium, etc., n. § 118, 6. Mille 
passuum, a thousand Roman paces, 




or one Roman mile ; passmim in this 
construction, is often omitted. 

Mince, drum./, pi., threats, menaces. 

Minmie, adv. (sup. of parum), least 
of all, least ; in negation, not at all, 
not in the least, by no means. 

Minimus, a, um, adj. (sup. of par- 
vus), least of all, the least or smallest, 
very small or little. Minimus, or more 
frequently minimus natu, the young- 

Minister, tri, m., a servant, attend- 
ant; an aider, abettor, accomplice, 
tool ; a helper, assistant. 

Minttor, art, citus sum, dep. freq. 
{minor), § 223, R. 2. to threaten often 
or much, menace. 

Minor, us, gen. oris, adj. (comp. of 
parvus), less, smaller, inferior, less 
important. Minoris, n. with sum and 
verbs of valuing, §214, for less, at a 
less price, cheaper, of less value. Mi- 
nores magistratus, see Magislratus. 

Minor, dri, dtus sum, dep., $ 223, 
R. 2, (1,) (6.), to threaten, menace. 
Minari alicui aliquid, to menace one 
with — . Fig. to overhang, project. 

Minucius, i, m., the name of a Ro- 
man gens. Q. Minucius Rufus, see 

Minuo, ere, ui, utum, a., to lessen ; 
make less, diminish, abate, impair ; to 
restrict, stay, check, restrain. 

Minus, adj (n. comp. of parvus), 
see Minor. 

Minus, adv (comp. of parum), less ; 
not. Si minus, if not. Quo minus, 
the less. 

Mirabtlis, e, adj., wonderful, mar- 
vellous, strange, astonishing: from 

Miror, dri, dlus sum, dep., to won- 
der, marvel, be amazed or astonished 
at ; to esteem, prize, value, admire. 

Mirus, a, um, adj., wonderful, 
strange, extraordinary. 

Misreo, ere, miscui, misium ty mix- 
turn-, a , $ 245, ti, 2, & R. 1, to mix, min- 
gle, blend, unite ; to confuse, disturb, 

throw into confusion, fill with, son 
found, embroil. Miscere se cum ah* 
quo, to unite or make common cause 
with one. 

Miser, a, um, adj., misera ble, wretch- 
ed, unfortunate; distressing, sad, afc 

Miserabilis, e, adj. {miseror), to be 
pitied, pitiable, deplorable, soriy, mis- 
erable, lamentable, wretched. 

Miserandus, a, um, part. (miseror) t 
pitiable, deplorable. 

Misereor, eri, ertus fy eritus sum, 
dep. {miser), §215, to pity, commise- 
rate, compassionate. 

Miseria, cn,f. {miser), trouble, mis- 
fortune, calamity, misery, wretched- 
ness; affliction, distress. Alicui in 
miseriam vertere, to result in one's 
ruin. Quoniam eb miseriarum ventu- 
rus eram, since I was destined to 
come to such an extremity of misery. 

Misericordia, a,f, mercy, compas- 
sion, pity . from 

Misericors, dis, adj. {misereo, to 
pity, <jr cor, the heart), merciful, com- 
passionate, pitiful. 

Miserttus, a, um, part, {misereor). 

Miseror, dri, dtus sum, dep. {miser), 
to pity, commiserate, lament, deplore. 

Mlssio, bnis,f. {milto), a sending, 
mission; a sending away, discharg- 
ing ; dismissal, discharge from office 
or from military service ; in J. 64 it 
seems to signify a temporary leave of 
absence, a furlough. 

Missito, are, dvi, dtum, a freq. {mit 
to), to send frequently. 

Missus, a, um, part, {mitto). 

Mithridaticus, a, um, adj., pertain- 
ing to Mithridates, king of Por.tus, 
Mithridatic. C. 39. 

Mitto, ere, mist, missum, a., to send 
despatch, depute, §230, R. 2, to throw 
away, lay aside, dismiss; to omit, 
pass over, let alone , to throw, cast, 
hurl, discharge. The purpose after 
mitto is expressed f>y the former sn 




pine or the subj. with qui. § 276, II. & 
264, 5. or a dative, £ 227. 

Mix 1 us. a, um, part, (misoeo), mixed, 
mingled, tempered, blended. 

Mobtlis, e, adj. {moved), easy to be 
moved, moveable ; fleet, swift, quick ; 
inconstant, fickle, flexible, pliant, 
ehangeaole, variable. 

MobiWas, atis,f. (mobilis), mobility, 
activity. Fig. inconstancy, fickleness, 
levity, mutability, changeableness. 

Moderatus, a, um, part, fy adj., go- 
verned, guided ; directing or regulat- 
ing one's self, moderate, discreet, tem- 
perate. Tarda temperantia inter am- 
bitionem scevitiamque moderatus, di- 
recting his course in so happy a me- 
dium between courting popularity and 
the practice of excessive severity. 
Nihil pensi neque moderafi habere, to 
have no consideration or self-control 

Moderor, ari, atus sum, dep. {mo- 
dus), $223, R. 2, & (1.) to moderate, 
restrain, govern, regulate, rule, guide, 
manage, steer, direct. 

Modeste, adv. (modestus), moderate- 
ly, with moderation, temperately, dis- 
creetly ; modestJy, humbly. 

Modestia, <e, /., moderateness ; mo- 
deration, dispassionateness, discretion, 
sobriety, modesty, decorum, shame, 
subordination ; honor, dignity, charac- 
ter ; lowliness, humility : from 

Modestus, a, um, adj. (modus), mo- 
aerate, modest, temperate, sober, dis- 
creet, gentle, unassuming, kind. 

Modice, adv., moderately, modestly : 

Modicus, a, um, adj. (modus), mode- 
late, modest, temperate, sober 

Modb, adv., just now, now, lately, 
but this moment. Modo — modo, modo 
— interdum, modo — deinde, now — 
now, sometimes — sometimes, at one 
moment— at another moment, now — 
ihen, at first— afterwards. Only, 
alone, merely simply. Si modo if 

only, provided that. Modo or dnm 

mod \ provided, $ 263, 2. Quod motto 
provided it. Aon modo, not only 

Modus, i, m„ a measure, manner 
way, method, means, fashion, rule, 
mode; limits, bounds; order, rule, mo- 
deration. Facere or statuere modum 
to set bounds or limits. Sine modo, 
without measure, boundless. In mo- 
dum, in the manner of, like. Omni- 
bus modis, in every way. Habere 
modum, to regard, observe — . Impen- 
sius modo, veiy vehemently or great- 
ly, beyond measure, very earnestly. 

Mcenia, ium, n, pi., the walls of a 
city, taken as a whole or surrounding 
the whole city. Any portion of the 
mcenia is called murus ; and sometimes 
the whole is so called, but a part of the 
wall is never called mcenia ; the forti* 
fications of a city; a city. 

Mozror, oris, m., (mcareo, to mourn) 
lamentation, sorrow, sadness,* grief, 

Maestus, a, um, adj. (moereo), sad 
sorrowful, afflicted, melancholy. 

Molior, iri, itus sum, dep. (moles, a 
mass), to attempt something difficult,, 
struggle, strive, labor, toil ; to attempt, 
undertake ; to contrive, plot, meditate, 

Mollio,"ire, ivi, Itum, a., to soften, 
mollify ; to appease, pacify, calm ; to 
enervate, make effeminate : from 

Mollis, e, adj., soft, tender, delicate, 
pliant, flexible, gentle, weak, feeble, 
susceptible; smooth, kind, pleasing. 
Mollis sermo, tender, voluptuous, 

Molliter, adv. (mollis), softly, gent- 
iy, calmly, easily; delicately, luxuri 
ously, effeminately ; weakly, feebly 

Mollitia, (B, and Mollifies, ei,f.(mol 
lis), softness, tenderness; effeminacy, 
voluptuousness; gentleness, mildness 
weakness, imbecility, irresolution 




igere per molUtiem, to live voluptu- 
ously, delicately or effeminately. 

Monec, ere, ui, ttum, a. % 218, & R. 
1, & R. 2. to put in mind, remind, ad- 
monish, advise, warn ; to teach, in- 
struct, counsel, suggest. It takes the 
Subjunctive, and more rarely the infin- 
itive, § 273, 2. j 

Monitor, oris, m. (moneo), an advi-J 
ser, counsellor, admonisher, monitor, 
prompter, teacher. 

Monitus, a, um, part, (moneo). 

Mons, tis, m., a mountain, high hill. 
Fig. a great quantity. 

Monumentum, i, n. (moneo, $ 102, 4), 
a monument, memorial, record. Mo- 
numenta hostilia, monuments of hos- 

Mora, (B, /., a delay, stay, Siop, hin- 
drance : an impediment, obstacle, ob- 
struction. Sine mora, without delay, 
immediately, instantly. Agitare mo- 
ras, to frame delays. 

Moratus, a, um, part, (moror). 

Morbus, i, m., a disease, distemper, 
disorder, malady, sickness. Fig. a 
bad passion, vice, weakness, failing. 

Morior, i, mortuus sum, dep. § 174, 
x (mors), to die, expire. 

Moror, ari, atus sum, dep. (mora), 
to delay, tarry, stay, linger, loiter ; to 
stay, abide, remain, dwell, live ; to re- 
tard, detain, hinder, impede, delay, 
stop, prevent check. 

Mors; tis,/., death. 

Mortalis, e, adj. (mors, § 128, 2.), 
mortal, perishable. Mortalia, human 
affairs. Mortalis, is, m., a mortal, a 
mortal man, pi., men, mankind, per- 
sons, mortals. Mortales is often used 
instead of homines when joined with 
multi or omnes, as including more 
emphatically many or all of all ages 
and of both sexes. Omnes mortales, 
all persons, every body. 

Mos, mons, m., a manner, custom, 
way, fashion, usage, conduct, man- 
ners, behaviour, practice- habit, na- 

ture, kind ; pi. morals, character, man 
ners. Sibi quisque pro moribus con- 
sulunt, — according to their (several; 
characters. More, or ex more, accord- 
ing to custom ; also, after the manner 
of, like. Natura aut moribus, natu 
rally or by custom, by practice. Mere 
militari, or militia:, according to mili- 
tary usage. Illi mos est, he is wont 
or accustomed. Ita se mores habent, 
such is the custom or fashion. 

Motus, us, m. (moveo), a motion? 
moving, movement ; a commotion, tu- 
mult, disturbance, sedition, mutiny. 

Moveo, ere, movi, motum, a. ty n., $ 
251, to move, stir, impel, agitate, put 
in motion, attempt, prosecute, pursue ; 
to remove, drive away, eject, turn out, 
degrade, expel; to excite, promote, 
stir up, cause, occasion ; to affect, in- 
fluence ; to disturb ; to incite ; to per- 
form. Movere castra, to remove one's 
camp, to decamp. Movere jocum, see 

Mox, adv., by and by I presently 
quickly, immediately, soon. 

Muliebris, e. adj., of or pertaining 
to a woman, feminine, female, woman- 
ish, soft, effeminate : from 

Mulier, eris,f., a woman, lady. 

Multitudo, inis,f. (midtus), a multi- 
tude, great number, crowd ; the multi- 
tude, rabble, populace. Plebis vis in 
multitudine minus poterat, — notwith- 
standing their number. Duces multi 
tudinum, the ringleaders of the popu- 

Multum, adv, (comp. plus, sup. plu- 
rimum, § 192, II, 4, (6.) ), much, very 
much, very, greatly, far. Multum et 
familiariter agere, to have frequent 
and familiar intercourse .—in many 
respects, in many cases, often : f m om 

Multus, a, um, adj. (comp. n. plus 
sup. plurimus, which see), many 
much, a great deal, numerous, ire 
jquent, too frequent; great, considers 
ble. Multus ad esse, to be assiduous 




diligent, intent, to be continually pre- bulwark. Fig. security, protection 
sent. Multus insfare,— constantly, in- defence, preservation, preservative 

cessantly. Multi, many, many per- 
sons; zlso, the many, the multitude. 
Mulla, n., much, many things, many 
words. Disserere multis, sc. verbis, 
copiously, at length, at large. Mul- 
tum, n., much, a great part, a consider- 
able part. Multo, n. abl., joined often 
with comparatives, superlatives, fyc. § 
256, R 16, & $ 127, (3,) greatly, 
much, by much, far, by far, a great 
deal, considerably. Multi-—pars, 
many — some. The conjunction et or 
atque after multi, when another adjec- 
tive follows, may commonly be omitted- 
in translating into English ; as, Malta 
atque opportuna habes. J. 102. Multae 
bonaeque artes. J. 28. Multis et mag- 
nis tempestatibus. 

Mulucha, <z?,/., a river of Africa se- 
parating Numidia from Mauritania. 
J. 19.92, 110. 

Mulvius or Milvius, a, un^ adj., 
Mulvius pons, now Ponte Molle, a 
bridge over the Tiber, three miles 
from the middle of Rome upon the 
Flaminian road, which led to Etruria. 
C. 45. 

Munditia, a,f (mundus, ornament), 
cleanness, neatness, cleanliness, neat- 
ness in dress or habit, attention to 
dress ; elegance, polish, refinement. 

Municipium, i, n. (mumceps, a bur- 
gess), a town, particularly in Italy, 
enjoying its own laws, while its in- 
habitants possessed the rights, in 
whole or in part, of Roman citizens, 
a free town, a municipal town. 

Munificentia, a, /., munificence, 
bountifulness, liberality, generosity. 
Munificentia animi, see Animus: 

Munificus, a, um, adj. (munus ty fa- 
cto), liberal, oountiful, bounteous, gen- 
erous, munificent. 

Munimentum, i, n., a fortification, 
wielter, protection, defence, rampart, 



Munic, Ire, Ivi, ttum, n. fy a., to en 
close with walls, fortify, secure, pro- 
tect, defend, strengthen. 

Munitio, bnis,f. {munio), the act of 
fortifying, a strengthening, defending; 
a fortification, defence, rampart, bul- 

Munitus, a, um, part. $• adj. (mu- 
nio), fortified, defended, guarded, pro- 
tected, secured. 

Munus, eris, n., a gift, present, boon, 
reward, favor; an office, part, duty, 
charge, trust, employment; a snow, 
spectacle, entertainment, exhibition, 
public games. 

Murena, a, m. (C. Licinius), a Ro- 
man general commanding in Tran- 
salpine Gaul, A. IT. C. 692. C. 42. 

Murus, i, m., the wall of a town or 
city. See Mcenia. * Fig. a defence, 
protection, security. 

Mulafio, bnis,f (muto), a changing, 
altering, change, alteration ; an inno- 
vation, revolution. Mufaliones or Mu- 
tafiones rerum, changes of govern- 
ment, political changes. 

Muthul, is, m., a river of Numidia. 
J. 48. 

Muto, are, dvi, dtum, a. $ 252, R. 5. 
to change, remove from its place, al- 
ter, exchange, turn; to barter, traffic. 
Muiare fidem, to violate one's en- 
gagements, be treacherous, change 
sides, break one's word. Mutare is 
sometimes used for mutare se, to 
change, alter, Gr. $ 229, R. 4. Qua, quia 
mortis meta muiahant, (sc. se) because, 
through fear of death, they changed, 
i. e. assumed a different character, or 
appeared differently frpm what they 
would have done in other circum* 
stances, — did not appear to be grama 
et jlagitii plena. 

Mutuus, a, um, adj., that is borrow- 
ed or lent, borrowed, lent. Sumer* 




mutuam pecuniam, to borrow money. 
Reddere ccs mutuum, to repay a loan: 
mutual, reciprocal. 

Myrtttum, i, n. (myrtus, a myrtle), 
a myrtle grove, grove of myrtles. 

Nabdalsa, m, m., a Numidian gene- 
lal. J. 70, 71. 

Nadus, a, um, part., (nanciscor). 

Ncb or Ne, adv., certainly, truly, 
surely, indeed. 

Nam, or Namque, causal cony. $ 198, 
7, ibr; but, then. As a causal con- 
junction it off en relates to something 
implied rather than fully expressed. 
See J. 19, 28, 31, 63, 83 & 87. 

Nanciscor, i, nactus sum, dep., to 
meet with, find, light upon; to get, 
gain, obtain. 

Narro, are, avi, atum, a., § 265, to 
tell, recount, relate, report, recite, set 
forth, declare, narrate. Initium nar- 
randi facere, to commence a narra- 

Nas'ica, a?, m., see Scipio. 

Nascor, i, natus sum, dep., to be' 
oorn; spring, arise, grow, be pro- 

Natio, bnis,f. (na?cor), a being born ; 
a stock, race ; a race of people, na- 
tion, people, country. 

Natu, abl. of the defective noun na- 
tus, us, m. § 94, {nascor), § 250, by 
birth, in age. Major natu, older, $ 126, 
4, R. 1. Majorea natu, men advanced 
in years. 

Natura, a, f. (nascor, # 102, 7,R.2), que — et, and not — and; or, not— and, 
nature, the creative power; the nature, neglecting the que. 

or fit for, suited. Annos natus circitei 
viginti, about twenty years old. 

Natiigo, are, avi, atum, a.fyn, 'navis 
fy ago), to steer or navigate a ship; to 
sail, sail in or upon, navigate ; to ob- 
tain by navigation. 

Navis, is,f. $79, 3, a ship, vessel 
bark, boat 

Ne, adv. $ conj. $ 262 & § 267, R. 1, 
not, that not, lest : also for nedum, 
much less; and for dummodo non 
provided that not. Ne qmdem, not 
even, they are usually separated by an 
emphatic word or words, § 279, 3. Af- 
ter verbs of hindering, from, with the 
English gerundive ; as, Impedire ne 
iriumpharent, to hinder from triumph 
ing. It is used instead of^iion before 
imperatives and subjunctives used as 
imperatives, § 267, R. 1, & $ 260, R. 6, 
(b.) (c). See also Nee. 

Ne, enclitic conj. $ 198, N. 1. In di- 
rect questions it is commonly omitted 
in translating into English ; in indi- 
rect questions, whether; ne — an, or 
' — ne, whether— or. 
Nee or Neque, conj. fy adv. (ne ty 
que), neither, nor, and not; also not; 
but not, not; nee — nee, or neque — 
neque, neither — nor. Neque — neque 
sometimes stand for et non — et non, 
and in translating, the first que may 
often be neglected. Neque tamen 
or neque alone, referring to a conces 
sive clause, and still or but still — not, 
nor yet. Neque alone has sometimes 
the same force as neque tamen. Ne- 

natural property, character or consti- 
tution of any thing ; inclination, dis- 
position, genius. Concedere natural, 
to pay the debt of nature, to die. Ver- 
tere in naturam, to become natural. 
Natura and ab natura, by nature, na- 

Natus, a, um, part, (nascor), $246, 
bom, sprung ; born to or for, intended 

Necatus, a, um, part. (neco). 

Necessario, adv., necessarily, of ne 
cessity: from 

Necessarius, a, um, ddj * necessary 
needful, unavoidable, indispensable, 
urgent; friendly, favorable; Necessa- 
rius, i, m., a relation, particular ac- 
quaintance, intimate friend, confi 
dant : from 




Necesse, adj. n. ind., necessary, of | Negotiosus, a, um, adj., full of bu 
necessity, needful $273, 4, $262, R. Ismess, busy, actively engaged in bu 
4, Necesse est, it is necessary, it must siness, occupied with public affairs 

needs be, one must. 

N'cessitudo, 1nis,f (necesse), neces- 
sity ; want, need ; the tie of relation- 
ship or friendship, relation, connex- 
ion, acquaintance. 


Negotium, i, n. (nee fy otium), a bu 
siness, office, employment, part, oc 
cupation, pursuit ; an affair, measure, 
transaction, enterprise ; difficulty, trou- 

Neco, are,dvi,atum,necui, nectum, bie, burden, task, charge; a matter 

a. (nex), to put to death in a cruel 
manner, to slay, kill, destroy, murder. 
Necubi, adv. (ne fy alicubi, some- 
where), lest any where, nowhere, that 

- Nedum, adv., not to say, not only, 
much or still less, much more. 

thing, fact. Dare negotium alicai, to 
commit, confide, intrust ; with ut, fyc, 
§ 273, 2, to commission, order, charge, 
Culpam ad negotia transferre, — to the 
course of events, to circumstances. 

Nemo, ^nis, m. ty f (ne fy homo), no 
one, no body, nc* man, no. Nemo 

Nefandus, a, um, adj. (ne fy fandus, omnium, no one, no man. 

to be spoken), not to be named, impi- 
ous, base, heinous, execrable, abom- 
inable, atrocious. 

Nepos, otis, m„ a grandson. 
Neque, conj. $ 198, N. 3, see Nee. 
Nequeo, ire, Ivi, itum, irr, n., § 271, 

Nefarius, a, um, adj. (nefas, unlaw- not to be able, to be unable, I cannot, 
ful), wicked, impious, base, heinous, imp. it is impossible. It is commonly 
abominable, exec i able, nefarious. \used as a deponent verb when followed 

Negllo, are, a.freq. (nego), to deny by a passive infinitive, 
often or strongly, persist in denying ; ! Nequicquam, fy Nequidquam, adv., 
to refuse positively. in vain, to no purpose. 

Negligentia, <b, f. (negligens, negii- Nequis, Ne quis, or Neu quis, qua. 

gent), negligence, neglect, careless- 
ness, heedlessness, supineness. 

Negligo, ere, leoci, ledum, a. (nee § 
lego), to neglect, disregard, slight, 
make light of, take no notice of, not 
to care for or regard, scorn, contemn, 

Nego, are, avi, atum, a. fy n., $ 272, 
to say no or not, deny, refuse. With 
the infinitive active, to declare that 
one is not, does not or will not. 

Negotiator, oris, m., one who trades 
or traffics, a merchant, factor, trader ; 
particularly a Roman citizen residing 
in a province, and lending money on 
interest to the inhabitants of the pro- 
vince, a banker, usurer : from 

Negotior, art, atus sum, dep. (nego- 
tium), to trade, traffic, transact busi- 
ness ; to loan money in the provinces, 
to be a banker or broker. 

quod or quid, adj. pro. (ne <^ quis, $ 
137, R. (3.), # $ 138), lest any one, lest 
some, lest a, that no, that no one, nor 
any one. 

Nero, onis,m. (Tib.), a Roman sena- 
tor during the conspiracy of Catiline. 
C. 50. 

Neve, by apocope, Neu, (ne $• ve, 
or), nor, neither, or not, and not, and 
that not. Neu quis, see Nequis. 

Nex, necis, /., violent death, mur- 

Ni, conj. (by apocope for nisi), in 
the protasis, § 261, if not, unless. Ni 
multitudo togatorum fuisset, if there 
had not been, or had it not been for 
the multitude — . 

Nihil, n.-.ind. (nihilum, by apocope), 
nothing. It is often used in the ace. 
with a prep, understood, instead of 
non, or nullus, not, in no respect, in 




nothing, not at all, no. With a geni- 
tive, no ; as, nihil causes. Nihil reliqui 
or reliquum facere, to leave nothing, 
omit nothing. Nihil pensi, no con- 
sideration or care, § 212, R. 3, N. 3. 
Nihil languidi, no inactivity or listless- 
ness. Nihil remissi. no negligence. 
Nihil ad me, te, $c. sc. pertinet or est, 
is no concern of mine, does not con- 
cern me, &c. 

Nihilum, i, n. (ne ty hilum, the least), 
nothing. Pro nihilo habere, to make 
no account of, to account as nothing. 
Nihilo, nbl. with comparatives, not a 
whit, not at all, in nothing, no. Ni- 
hilo minus, nihilominits, or nihilo seg- 
nius, no less, notwithstanding, never- 
theless, $ 256, R. 16. 

Nimis, adv., too much, too, ex- 
tremely, exceedingly. 

Nisi, conj. § 198, 8, {ne fy si), used 
in the protasis, § 261, if not, unless, but 
that, except, save only, but, and yet, 
however. Nisi quod, except that, 
only, but, but still. Nisi tamev, marks 
an ellipsis, which is commonly to be 
supplied from that which has gone 
before; but still, but however that may 
be, but yet. Nisi forte, unless per- 
chance, used ironically, and com- 
monly with the indicative. § 261 , R. 6. 

Nisus, us, m., an attempt, endea- 
vor, effort, exertion ; a tread, step. 
Dubia nisu, perilous to attempt or 
dangerous to tread upon, § 250 : from 

Nisus, a, um, part., from. 

Nitor, i, nisus fy nix us sum, dep, $ 
245, II., 1. §271, & $ 273, 1, to lean 
nDon. rest upon, be supported by, de- 
pend upon, trust to, to strive, st ain, 
labor, endeavor, attempt, exert one's 
self; Niti ad, to strive for : — to make 
one's way with effort, move, rise, 
n:ount, advance, climb. Niti cor- 
pure to make gestures or motions, 
make signs, gesticulate. 

Nobilior, oris, m. (M. Fulvius), a 

Roman knight confederate with Catt 
line. C. 17. 

Nobilis, e, adj., (jiosco), known, well 
known, noted; famous, rema.kable 
noble, illustrious, gionous, celeb ared 
distinguished; noble, high-born, oi 
high birth Nobili*, is, m., a nolle 
man. Nobiles, nobles, the nobility. 

Nobilzlas, atis,f, (nobilis), fame, re 
putation, renown ; excellence, noble 
ness; high-birth, nobility; greatness 
of soul, magnanimity, generosity. By 
^metonomy, the nobles, the nobility, 
the Patriciansr Magna nobilitas,high 

Nobis, see Ego. 

Nocens, entis, part. $• adj., {noceo, to 
hurt), hurtful, mischievous, pernicious, 
destructive, baneful ; bad, wicked, cri- 

Noctu,f. abl. sing. $ 94, (nox), by 
night, in the night time. Die noc- 
tuque, day and night, $ 253. 

Nocturnus, a, um, adj. (noctu), of 
night, nocturnal, in the night. 

Nolo, nolle, nolui, n. ty a. irr. (non 
$volo, $ 178, 2), § 271, 273, 4, to be 
unwilling or averse. The impe:ative 
of nolo, with an infinitive, is nans- 
laud by not, and the infinitive, by an 
imperative; as, nolite exislimare, do 
not suppose. Idem velle atque idem 
nolle, to like and dislike the same 
thing, to have the same desires and 

- Nomades, um, m. ty f nomads, a 
name given by the Greeks to the wan- 
dering tribes of Asa a.;d Africa, who 
lived by pasuuage. The sa ne peo- 
ple were called by the Romans Nu 
midor. J. 18. 

Nomen, mis, n., a r.arne. appellat'u ;' 
title. Nomine, by name, in die name 
and it may sometimes bt>. Ira->s'a!(d. />-$ 
the participles (ailed or named, \ 250 
Servants, among the Romans, had 
but one name, but men who were free 


born were distinguished by three jour relatives, friends, fellow- country- 
names ; the nomen, or name of their men, soldiers, troops, &c. 
gens or clan, the cognomen, or name Notus, a, um, part., ty adj. (ncsco,, 
of their Jamil a or, and the known, well known. 
pramomen, or name of the indiv.dual. j Nov&, adv. {novus), newly; iup. no 
To these was sometimes added the vissime, lately, very lately, last of all, 
agnomen, on account of some exploit, lastly, finally. 

&c. of the individual, § 279, 9. — A fa- 1 November, fy Novembris, bris, bre, 
mily, stock, race, nation ; as, Nomen' adj. (novem, nine), of or belonging to 
Latinum, the Latin nation, the La- j November. November, bris, m., the 
tins ; — reputation, dignity, -renown, J month November, 
fame, chaiactei, name; as, memores\ JSovitas, utis, J. (novus), newness, 
nomiuis Romaui,— a pretext, pi etence, freshness, novelty, strangeness; new 
account, reason, excuse. Meo no- ness of family, want of noble ancestry 
mi:e, in my name, on my account. see Homo. 

Meis nominibus, on my own, personal, Novo, are, avi, atnm, a., to hrro- 
private or indiv.dual account. Alienis duce as new, invent ; to change, alter. 
nominibus, on account of others, in jVovare, or novare res, to effect a revo- 
the name of others. Hoc nomine, on l ut ion or change in government, to 

this account, for this reason. 

Nomino, are, avi, alum, a, (nomen), 
to name, call by name, to speak of, 
to accuse. 

make an insurrection : from 

Novus, a, um, adj., new, fresh, 
recent, novel, unusual, uncommon, 
strange, extraordinary ; inexperienced, 

Non.alv. § 191, R. 3, not, no. Non unaccustomed to. Novus homo, see 
quo, not that, not as if. Et non and Homo. Novi miliies, new recruits, 
ac non following q tasi serve to cor- raw gofers. Novi alque nobiles,ne\v 
rect the preceding proposition, " and ail( j \& nobility. Res nova, innova- 
not ratner. tions or changes in the state of af- 

Nona; drum, J. (nonus, the ninth), fairs, a revolution, sedition, rebellion ; 
the nones, the ninth day inclusive be- change. Nova tabula:, a remission 
fore the ides. The nones occurred on j f debts, in whole or in part. See 
thefijth day oj each month except in | Tabula. Novissimus, a, um, sup., 
March, May, July, and October, when } ast) extreme. 
they Jell upon the seventh, $ 316. I jVox, noctis, J, night, night-time, 

Nondum, adv. {non $j,um), not yet, the night. Nodes atque dies, night 

not as yet. Nondum etiam, not even 

Nonnullus, a, um, adj. {non $■ nullus), 

and day. Noctem agitare, to pass tho 

Noxius, a, um, adj. (noceo, to hurt), 

some ; pi. some, some persons. ! hurtful, injurious, noxious ; bad, wick- 

Nos, Nostrum, Nosmet, etc., see ed, guilty, criminal. 

Ego, ty Egomet. 

Nosco, ere, novi, notum, a., to be- 
pome acquainted with, learn. Novi, 

Nubes, is, J, a cloud. 
Nubo, ere, nupsi, fy nupta sum, 
nuptum, a. fy n. $ 223, R. 2, to cover, 

[have learned and hence, I know, veil. Hence, as brides, in ancient 
understand, am acquainted with, § times, were accustomed to put on a 

1S3, N. 3. 

Noster, tra, trum, adj. pro. $ 139, 
[nos), our, ours, our own. . Nostri, 


veil, to marry, be married, spoken cf 
the bride only. 

Nucerlnus, i, m. (P. Sittius), a Ro- 




man, whose cognomen is derived 
from Nuceria, a city of Campania, 
where he was born. To avoid a 
prosecution, he fled from_ Rome just 
before the conspiracy of Catiline, 
and having collected an army from 
Italy and Spain, he passed over 
into Africa, where he engaged in 
the fcervice of various native princes. 

Nudo, are, avi, atum, a. $ 251, to 
make naked, strip bare; to deprive, 
bereave, strip, spoil : from 

Nudus, a, um, adj., $ 213, naked, 
bare, uncovered, unprotected, unde- 
fended ; destitute, without. 

Nullus, a, um, adj. § 107, (ne ty 
ullus), not any, none, no, nobe-dy, no 
one. Alia fuere, quce nulla sunt, — 
none of which. 

Num, adv. In direct questions it is 
not translated, in indirect questions 
whether, whether or no. 

Numantia, cn,f, a city of Spain, an- 
ciently of great celebrity, built upon 
rising ground near the Duero. It was 
destroyed by Scipio Africanus the 
younger, A. U. C. 621. J. 15, 20. 

Numaniinus, a, um. adj. {Numantia), 
Numantine, of or belonging to Nu- 
mantia. Subs, a Numantine. J. 

Numfrus, i, m., a number, quantity, 
multitude. Numero, abl., is sometimes 
%tdded to numerals, as, numero quadra- 
ginta, forty in number, to the number 
of forty, or simply forty, § 250. In 
numero, among, one of. Ex numero 
takes a demonstrative or possessive 
pronoun in the same number and case 
by attraction, instead of the genitive 
plural as, Ex eo numero, instead of 
er eorum numero. Ex suo numero, 
instead of ex suorum numero, $ 207, 
R. 20. 

Numlda, <b. m., a Numidian, an in- 
nabitant of Numidia. J. 5, &c. 
Numidia, an, /., a large country in 

the northern part of Africa, between 
Africa Proper and Mauritania, com- 
piehending the modern territories of 
Algiers, Tunis, and a part of Tripoli 
J. 8, 14, 16, &c. 

Numidicus, a, um, adj., Numidian. 

Numquam, see Nunquam. 

Nunc, adv., now, at present. Nunc 
commonly denotes a time actually pre- 
sent to the speaker. In speaking of a 
past time as then present, tunc is used. 
In arguments, now, such being the 
fact, in this state of things. In this 
sense it is frequently connected with 
the imperative. 

Nunquam or Numquam, adv. (ne fy 
unquam), at no time, never. 

Nuntio or Nuncio, are, avi, atum, a. 
§ 273, 2, § 2-72, to announce, bear 
tidings, tell, report, declare, relate, in- 
form, give notice, make known, signi- 
fy; warn, charge; pass. imp. nuncio- 
turn est, word was brought, notice was 
given : from 

Nuntius or Nuncius, i, m., news, 
tidings, intelligence, advice, a mes- 
sage ; a messenger, reporter. 

Nvpticc, arum, f. pi. (nubo), a wed 
ding day ; a marriage, wedding, nup- 

Nusquam, adv. (ne ty usquam), in no 
place, no where. 

Nutus, us, m. (nuo, obs.), a nod 
beck, sign made by a motion of the 
head. Fig. will, pleasure, consent. 


Ob, prep, with ace, for, on accounf 
of, in consequence of; for the purpose 
of, for the sake of; for, instead of 
Oh rem, to the purpose, with advan 
tage, profitably, usefully. Ob ea, fbl 
these reasons, therefore, on this ac- 

Obediens, tis, part. <$- adj. $ 222, obo 
dient, compliant, yielding, subject, sub 
missive, in subjection to, devoted o* 




enslaved to; prosperous, favorable, in 
accordance with one's wishes : from 

Obedio, tre,lvi,ltum, n. (obfy audio) 
5 223, R. 2, to obey, give ear to, com- 
ply with, listen to, serve. 

Objecto, are, dvi, a turn, a.freq. (obji- 
cio), $ 224, to throw in the way of, ex- 
pose ; to object, charge, upbraid, cast 
in one's teeth Objectare aliquid ali- 
cui, to "charge one with — . 

Objeclus, a, um, part., thrown to, 
exposed : from ' 

Objicio, ere,jeci,jectum, a. (ob tyja- 
do), § 224, to throw before, throw to, 
give, expose. 

Obldtus, a, um, part, (offero). 

Oblino, ere, levi, lltum, a. (pb fy lino, 
to smear), to daub or smear over, be- 
daub, besmear/ stain. 

Oblltus, a, um, part, (obliviscor), 
having forgotten, forgetful, unmindful. 

Oblltus, a, um, part, (oblino), § 249, 1, 
smeared, stained. 

Obliviscor, i, oblltus sum, dep. $ 216, 
to forget. 

Oblongus, a, um, adj. (ob $■ longus), 
oblong, having greater length than 

Obnoxius, a, um, adj. (ob fy noxius), 
$ 222, liable, subject, obnoxious; sub- 
ject, dependent upon, obliged, be- 
holden, or under obligations to, sub- 
missive, in one's power, responsible, 
devoted, influenced, swayed; abject, 
sordid, fearful; exposed, liable to. 
Esse obnoxia alicui, to humor or gra- 
tify any one, to comply with his 

Obruo, ere, ui, utum, a. (ob Sf ruo, to 
throw down), to cover over, over- 
whelm, bury, sink. 

Obrutus, a, um part, (obruo). 

Obscuro, are, dvi, utum, a., to ob- 
scure, darken ; to cover, hide, conceal ; 
to render oh^cure, cause to be un- 
known, cover with obscurity : from 

Obscurus, a um, adj., obscure, dark, 
feint, dim. shady,' obscure, hidden, 

ignoble, mean. In obscuro tan 
habere, — in obscurity, in pnvac: 

Obsecro, are, dvi, alum, a. <Sf > \pbQ 
sacro, to consecrate), $ 273, 2 o en 
treat or pi ay earnestly, besee i im 
plore, supplicate, conjure, impo tune. 

Observo, are, dvi, dtum, a. fy 7». (ob <jr 
servo), to observe, watch, note, mark, 
mind, heed, attend to ; to obey, com- 
ply with, submit to, regarcU to look up 
to, esteem, honor, respect, reverence. 

Obses, idis, m. fy f (ob ty sedeo,) a 
hostage ; any person who is a pledge 
or security. 

Obsessus, a, um, part, (obsideo fy ob- 

Obstdeo, ere, edi, essum, n. <$■ a. (ob fy 
sedeo), to sit around, beset, to take 
possession of, occupy; to besiege, 
blockade, invest, surround. 

Obsido, ere, edi, essum, a. (ob fy si'lo, 
to settle down), to beset , to besiege, 
occupy, take possession of, surround, 

Obstindtus, a, um, adj. (obstino, to 
resolve firmly), obstinate, stubborn, 
perverse, inflexible* resolute, deter 

Obs'to, are, sfiti, etatum, n. (ob <$• sio, 
to stand), $ 224, $ 262, R. 9, to stand 
in the way, oppose, withstand, hinder, 
obstruct, be inconsistent or at variance 

Obstrtpo, Ire, pui, pitum, n. (ob <fy 
strepo), to make a noise at or against, 
interrupt by noise, prevent from being 

Obtestdtus, a, um, part. : from 

Obtestor dri, dfus sum, dep. (ob <| 
testor), to call solemnly to witness 
protest; to conjure, supplicate, en 
treat, beseech, $ 273, 2, § 262, R. 4 
Malta prius Pomptinum obtestolus, 
having fiist on many grounds im- 
plored Pomptinus, § 231, R. 5. 

Obftveo, ere. fenui, fentum, a. ty n 
(ob <$r teneo), to hold, haye, possess ; to 
keep, retain, preserve ; to occupy ob- 




tain, get possession of, acquire, gain. 
Ea fama, quae plerosque obtinet, — 
which holds possession of most per- 
sons, i. e. which generally prevails, — 
is currently received. Nulla pro soda 
obtinet, — occupies as a partner, holds 
the place of a partner or companion. 

Obtruncdtus, a, um, part. : from 

OMrunco, are, avi, dtum, a. (ob <$r 
trunco, to maim), to cut off the head 
or limbs, dismember, cut to pieces, 
slaughter, slay. 

Obluli, see Offer o. 

Obvenio, Ire, veni, ventum, n. (ob ty 
venio), § 224, to meet by chance ; to 
fall to one's lot, fall to ; to fall out, 
' happen, occur, offer itself! 

Obviam, adv. (ob $ via), $ 228, 1, in 
the way, so as to meet. Obviam pro- 
cedere, prodire, fyc, to go to meet, 
advance to 'meet. Obviam mittere, to 
send to meet. Obviam ire periculis, 
to expose one's self to, encounter — . 
Obviam ire, to go to meet, resist, op- 
pose, go against, encounter. Obviam 
itum est, opposition was made. 

Obvius, a, um, adj. {pb fy via), $222, 
meeting in the way; going against, 
opposing; offering itself, obvious. 
Obvius procedere, to go to meet ; also 
to march against. Obvius esse, to 

Occasio, onis, f. (occido, § 102, 7), 
an occasion, opportunity, fit or con- 
venient season. Per occasionem, when 
opportunity offers, on a convenient 

Occasurus, a, um, part, (occido). 

Occasus, its, m. (occtdo), fell, ruin, 
destruction ; the going down or set- 
ting of the heavenly bodies. Solis 
yorasus, sunset, the west. 

Occidens, entis, m. (occido), the west, 
iiie setting-sun. 

Occido, Ire, cidi, cisum, a. (ob <jr 
:ado), to beat, strike; to kill, slay, 
murder, slaughter, destroy. 

Occido, tre, cidi, casum, n. (6b $ 

cado), to fall, fall down ; to go down, 
set ; to die, perish, be lost. 

Occlsus, a um, part, (occido). 

Occulo, &re, cului, cultum, a., to co- 
ver over, hide, conceal. 

Occulte, adv. (occultus), secretly, 
closely, privately, in private. 

Occulto, are, avi, dtum, a. freq. (oc- 
culo), to hide, cover, conceal. 

Occultus, a, um, adj. (occulo), hid- 
den, secret, concealed, private. Oc- 
cultum habere, to keep secret. OccuV- 
turn, i, n., a secret place, a secret, a 
hiding place, concealment. -Esse in 
occulto, to be concealed. 

Occupo, are, avi, • utum, a. (ob fy 
capio), to seize, take possession of, 
invade, occupy, fill, engross; to at- 

Occur so, are, avi, dtum, n. freq. (oc- 
curro, to meet), to meet, fall in with ; 
to oppose. 

Oceanus, i, m., the ocean or main 

Ocius, comp., ocissimL sup. adv 
(ocior, swifter), more quickly or swift- 
ly, more speedily, sooner. Quam 
ocissime, as speedily as possible, with 
all speed. 

Octavius, i, m., a Roman gentile 
name, see Rufus. 
. Oculus, i, m., the eye. In oculis 
situm esse, — before the eyes, in one's 

Odi, or osus sum, def. pretentive 
verb, $ 183, 1, 1 hate, detest, abhor. 

Odium, i, n. (odi), hatred, ill-will, 
spite, animosity, dislike, aversion. 

Odor fy Odos, oris, m., a scent, 
smell, op!or; a stench, offensive smell 

Offendo, Ire, d'u sum, n. ty o. (ob ty 
fendo, obs.), to hit, strike or run 
against. Fig. to offend, give offence 
to, displease. 

Offensa, ce, f. (offendo), a striking 
against; disgust, displeasure; an of 
fence, injury ; liability of offence. 

Offensus, a, um, part, fy adj. (offen- 


do), being struck ; offensive, disliked, R. 5, (4,) laden, burdened, loaded 
odious; offended, disple£sed, averse, freighted. Ager onustus prada, full 
angry, hostile. of, filled with, abounding in — . 

Off era, ferre. obiuli, oblutum, irr. a. Opera, cr.,f. {opus), work, labor, ser- 
(ob df fero), to bring befoie, present, vice, assistance, aid, pains, exertion, 
show, offer, give, hold forth. Quos, Dare operant, $273, 1, to manage, con- 
quoniam res obluleraf, as the subject trive, effect, cause, strive, exert one's 
had brought them befoie (us). j self, take care, see to it. Opercepretium 

Officio, ere, feci, fectum, n. {fib fy\est, there is a reward for one's labor, 
facio), $ 2i4, to hinder, stop, obstruct, ' one's labor is repaid, it is worth the 
oppose, stand in the way; hurt, be while, it is profitable or advantageous, 
hurtful or injurious to. I Operio, ire, erui, erfum, a., to cover, 

Ojjidum, i, n., a duty, office, charge, to close; to conceal, hide. 

trust, engagement; business; kind- 
ness, obl.gingness; service, attention; 
employment, part. 

Opes, see Ops. 

Optfc.x, ids, m. fyf (opus tyfacw), 

a workman, maker, framer, artificer ; 

OLeasler, tri, m. (olea, the olive), the an artist, artisan, mechanic. 

oleaster or wild oLve-tree. 
Omissus, a, um, part. : from 
Omi.tfo, ere, isi, issum, a. (ob <Sr mil- 

Opimius, (L.), L. Opimius Nepos, a 
Roman senator, (A. U. C. 633,) by 
whom C. Gracchus and more tnan 

to), $271, to lay, leave off, omit, three thousand of his adherents were 
let alone, let go, g.veover, cease, pass slain, and who is said to have been, 
over, say uoth ng of, leave, make no subsequently corrupted . by the bribes 
use of. Deditioncm omiltere, to give of Jugurtha. Being brought to trial 
over thoughts of sun euder. |for this, he was banished to Dyrra- 

Omni/io, adv. (omms), wholly, en-'chmni where he died in poverty. J. 16. 
tirely, altogether, utterly, at all ; in ! Opinio, onis, f, opinion, imagina- 
all, in the whule, but, only; univer-: tion, belief, conjecture, expectation, 
sally, geneiaiiy. I Opinione a^perius es', is more dnficult 

Omnis, e, adj., all, every, the whole, than is generally imagined. 
of all kinds ; omnia, all things, every j OpUulor, ari, dtus sum, dep. (ops fy 
thing. Honesta atque inhonesta, di- 'tulo, obs. to bring, whence tali), $223, 
vina el humana, are annexed to omnia R. 2, to help, aid, assist, succor, re- 
f 'or the sake of emphasis, every thing ~]ieve. ' 

of whatever natuie, every thing what-: Oporfet, uit, imp., $269, R. 2, it 
ever. Omnia haec, after an enumera- behooves, it is m^ef, fit or proper, it 
tion, are used for the purpose of em- ought. $ 273, 4, (a.) & (&.). 
phases. Sometimes in the predicate Opperior, iri, oppertus $■ opperitus 
of a sentence omnis s'gf.ifes only, sum, ley , to wait, wait for, tarry for. 
solely, purely; as, Perfugas omnes expect. 

p-azsiuium imposutraU — a garrison: Oppidanus, a, um. a [j.. of or be 
consisting of deserters only, or de- 1 longing to a town Oppidani, orttn 
perte-s only as a garrison. $ 230, R. 2. j townsmen, inhabitants of a town 

OnSro, are, dvi, alrni, a., $ 2-19, I. ! town's-people : from 

i<» load, buiden, lade, fill, gorge :Jrom 
Onus, Sr is, /?., a bnrden, load, weight. 

Fig. a trouble, burden. 
Onustus, a, um, adj. (on?is), $ 213, 

Oppidum, i, n., a walled town, tow u 
Opportunl'as, atis, f, fitness, con 
venience, advantageousness, opportu- 
nity ; benefit, advantage ; a favorable 



circumstance, lucky chance. Magna 
opportunitas, a rare or favorable op- 
portunity. Ex opportunitale, in con- 
sequence of opportunity: from 

Opportunus, a, um, adj., $222, com- 
modious, fit, convenient, suitable, pro- 
per, adapted to the purpose, advanta- 
geous, favorable, seasonable, oppor- 
tune; useful, serviceable; compliant, 
subservient; exposed, subject, liable, 
obnoxious. Malta atque opportuna 
habes, — many facilities or advantages. 
' Opportuna res, a favorable conjunc- 
ture, an advantageous state of affairs. 

Oppressus, a, um, part., pressed 
down, loaded, oppressed, borne down, 
crushed, depressed : from 

Opprimo, ere, pressi, pressum, a. (ob 
typremo), to press, press or bear down, 
oppress ; to cover, hide, conceal, stifle, 
suppress; catch, surprise; to over- 
power, rout, crush, subdue, make one's 
self master of, seize upon, put down, 
conquer, overcome, overthrow, kill, 

Oppugnatio, dais, /., a fighting 
against, attacking, assaulting, storm- 
ing ; an attack, assault : from 

Oppugno, are, avi, alum, a., (ob fy 
pugno), to fight against, assail, as- 
sault, attack, storm. Fig. to attack, 
oppose, prosecute, harass, trouble. 

Ops, opis, f. § 94, strength, power, 
means, resource, might; aid, assist- 
ance, succor, protection, help, sup- 
port: pi. opes, opum, riches, wealth, 
opulence, substance, property, estate, 
treasure; power, weight, influence, 
interest, authority; forces, resources, 
means, strength ; help, aid, assistance. 
Summa, or maxima ope, with all one's 
might or power. 

Optandus, a, um, part. $■ adj. (opto), 
to be wished for, desirable. 

Optime, adv., (sup. of bene), very 
well, excellently, best of all, best. 

Optimus, a, um, adj. (sup. of bonus), 
very good, best, kindest, most bene- 

ficent, best of all, excellent, most 
eligible, most useful; bravest. Op* 
timns quisque, every man of high dis- 
tinction or merit, of high standing: 
also, the most capable, the ablest, the 

Optio, onis, /., choice, liberty to 
choose, option. Facere optionem, see 
Facere : from 

Opto, are, avi, atum, a. ty n., $ 273, 
4, (a.) to wish, choose, prefer ; to wish 
for, long for, desire ; to wish, pray, re- 
quest, ask. 

Opvlenter, adv. (opulentus), richly, 
abundantly, splendidly, magnificently, 
sumptuously, generously, bountifully. 

Opulent ia, &,f (opidens, rich), opu- 
lence, wealth, riches, abundance, 
power, greatness. 

Opulent us, a, um, adj. (ops), rich, 
wealthy, opulent, abundant ; powerful , 
fertile. With the abl. rich or abound- 
ing in, well supplied with, $213, R. 5, (3.) 

Opus, eris, n., work, labor ; a work, 
task ; toil fatigue, hardship ; military 
works, fortifications, engines. In dis- 
tinction from natura or locus, it signi- 
fies, an artificial work, and hence 
opere may often be translated, by art. 

Opus, indeclinable noun fy adj. $ 
243, & R. 1, $ 222, need, occasion, ne- 
cessity; needful, necessary. Tantum- 
modo incepto opus est, we need but to 

Ora, a?,f, the extremity, edge, mar- 
gin, border, boundary; the coast, 

Oratio, onis, f. (oro), speech, dis- 
course, language, speaking; a speech, 
oration, harangue ; eloquence. Ha- 
bere orationem, to deliver, pronounce, 
speak or make a speech address, &c. 

Orator, oris, m. (oro), a speaker, ora- 
tor ; an ambassador, deputy. 

Orbis, is, m., a circle, ring, orb, 
globe, sphere. Orbis terra or ten-a- 
rum, the circle of the earth, the earth 
the world. Orbem facere, to draw up 




troops in the form of a circle, to make 
a circle. 

Ordo, \nis, m., order, arrangement, 
disposition, regularity ; a series, course 
train : a rank, row ; a rank or file of 
soldiers ; a battalion, band, company ; 
an order, rank, degree, state, condi- 
tion. Ordo senator ius, equester and 
plebeius, the senatorial, equestrian and 
plebeian orders, the rank of a senator, 
knight, &c. Ordine, according to 
law vr custom, regularly, rightly, 
wisely, properly, justly, § 249, II. Ob- 
servare or habere ordines, to keep or 
mind the ranks, to remain in line. 
Ordine egredi, to leave the line or 
ranks. Commutare ordines, to alter 
the arrangement, or to change the 
front (of an army). 

Orestilla, a,f., see Aurelia. 

Oriens, entis, part, (orior). 

Origo, mis, /., a beginning, head, 
source, origin, original, cause, stock, 
fountain, root ; founder ; a parent city 
or state, mother-country -.from 

Orior, iri, ortus sum, dep. $ 177, to 
rise, arise, grow up, spring, spring up, 
commence, begin, appear. 

Ornatus, us, m. (orno, to adorn), 
ornament, embellishment, decoration ; 
dress, garb, attire ; trappings, accou- 

Oro, are, avi, alum, n. Sf a. (os, oris), 
$ 273, 2, to speak, utter; to beg, ask, 
entreat, pray for, request, beseech, 
make supplication. 

Ortus, us, m. (orior), a rising ; origin, 
birth. Ortus solis, the rising of the 
sun, the east. Ab ortu solis, on the 

Ortus, a, um, part, (orior), with abl. 
either alone or with ex., $ 246, & R. 2, 
risen, sprung up, born, descended. 

Os, oris, n., the mouth. Fig. lan- 
guage, speech ; the face, countenance ; 
presence, sight. Loqui parum libero 
ore, to speak with too little boldness, 
with too much caution or reserve. 

Incedunt per ma vestra. — before your 
faces. Omnium ora in me conveisa 
sunt, the eyes of all — . 

Ostendo, ere, di, sum fy turn, {ob fy 
tendo), to show, hold forth or expose 
to view, point out, indicate, betoken 
mean, manifest, display, discover, tell, 
declare, make known. Ostendere se, to 
show or manifest one's self, to appear. 

Ostento, are, avi, dtum, a. freq. 
(ostendo), to show, to show often, point 
out, display ; to make show of, exhibit, 
hold out, offer, promise; to threaten, 
menace ; to show vainly, vaunt, 
boast of. 

Ostentus, us, m. (ostendo,) a show, 
appearance, display. Esse ostentui, 
to serve to display; also, to be a 
show, pretence or trick. 

Otium, i, n., ease, leisure, freedom 
from business, want of employment, 
idleness, retirement from public bu- 
siness, private life ; quiet, repose, tran- 
quillity, rest, peace. Per otium, in 
peace, during leisure; through want 
of employment. 

P., an abbreviation of the pramo- 
men Publius. 

Pabulum, i. n, (p>asco), food for cat- 
tle, herbage, grass, pasture, fodder, 
forage, pasturage. Humi pabulum, 
the herbage of the fields, the produc- 
tions of the soil, as herbs, roots, <fec. 

Pacdtus, a, um, part. & adj. (paco), 
peaceful, peaceable, quiet, tranquil, 
reduced to peaceable subjection, con~ 
quered, subdued. Ex pacatis prcedas 
agere, — from those who were at peace 
(with the Romans). 

Paci/lco, are, avi, dtum, a. & a, 
(pacificus, pacific), to treat about or 
make proposals of peace, make or 
desire peace. 

Paciscor, i, paetus sum, dep. n. & a. 
to bargain, covenant, agree, stipulate; 




to promise or demand by covenant, 
stipulate for. 

Pactio, onis,f. [paciscor), an agree- 
ment, bargain, contact, covenant, en- 
gagement, condition, stipulation; a 
corrupt bargain; a promise. Facere 
pactionem, to bargain or agree. 

Paine or Pene, adv., almost, nearly. 

Palam, adv., openly, manifestly, pub- 

Palans, tis, part, wandering, strag- 
ling, dispersed -.from 

-Palor, ari, atus, sum, dep., to wan- 
der to and fro, wander up and down, 
rove, ramble, straggle, be dispersed. 

Palus, udis, /., a marsh, moiass, 
bog, fen, swamp, pool, lake. 

Panis, is, m„ bread. 

Par, paris, adj., § 222, and R. 2 fr 
6, § 250, equal, even in number, like, 
similar. When followed by et, ac ty 
atqtie, the same as. Par est, it is con- 
venient, meet, proper, suitable, right. 
Par esse alicui, to be equal to, to be 
a match for — . 

Par alio, bnis, f. {paro), an aiming 
at, getting, procuring. 

Paralus, a, um, part. <$- adj. (paro), 
with the inf. $ 270, R. 1, and rarely 
with the subj., prepared, ready, pro- 
vided, furnished, fitted, equipped; in 
readiness ; procured, bought. 

Parco, ere, peperci, <fy parei a. fy n. 
{parens), § 223, R. 2, to cease, give 
over, abstain, let alone, omit, spare ; 
to regard, favor, consult, respect, re- 
frain from hurting or injuring, be care- 
ful of; to pardon, forgive ; to use mo- 
derately, be sparing of, save, keep, 
preserve, reserve. 

Parens, a, um, adj., sparing, frugal, 
thrifty, economical, moderate. 

Parens, tis, m. fy f. (pario), a parent, 
father or mother. 

Paiens, tis, part, fy adj., obedient. 
Subs., a vassal, subject, dependent : 
ft um 

Pareo, ere, uiiitum, «., <S 223. R. 2. 

to appear, be seen ; to be in waiting 
or attendance; to obey, submit to 
comply with ; to indulge, gratify, nu- 
mor, follow, be guided by, give way to 
Lsten to, yield to; to depend upon, be 
subject to, be ruled or governed by. 

Paries, etis, m., the wall of a house 
or other edirice. 

Pario, ere, peplri, partum, a., to 
bear or bring forth young, produce; to 
occasion, cause, make, produce; to 
acquire, procure, get, gain, obtain. 

Pariter, adv. {par), equally, in like 
manner, alike, just as much, at the 
same time, together. Pariter ac, 
atque, fyc., just as, equally as, as much 
as. Pariter ac si, just as if. Pariter 
cum, at the same time with, at; equal- 
ly with, jointly with. 

Paro, are, avi, alum, a. § 271, to 
make ready, provide, put in readiness, 
prepare, make prepaiations, under- 
take, attempt, go about, contrive, 
order, dispose, furnish, equip; to ac 
quire, procure, get, obtain, aim at 
strive to obtain ; to buy, purchase, se- 
cure. Parare insidias alicui, to plot 
against — . It is also used absolutely 
for parare se. 

Parrictda, «?, m. § f. {pater fy ccedo), 
a parricide, murderer of parents or 
near relations ; a murderer, assassin ; 
a miscreant, villain ; a rebel, enemy. 

Pars, tis, f, a part, portion, piece, 
share, side; some, part; pars— pars, 
pars — alii, alii—pars, some — others. 
Magna pars, man)'. Maxima pars, 
most. Magna parte, in a gi eat mea- 
sure, for the most part. Pars and 
partes, a party, side, faction. Studia 
pariium, party zeal, party spirit. Par- 
Hum invidia, party rancor. Ab omni- 
bus partibus, on all sides. 

Particeps. cipis, adj. {pars fy capioi, 
§ 213, partaking of, participating of 
sharing in, privy to. Subs, a sharer 
partaker, associate, accomplice, part- 




Partim, adv. (part), partly, in part, 
some, some part. It is often used as 
en indeclinable noun, and is frequent- 
ly repeated or followed by alii ; partim 
^—partim, or partim— alii, some — 

Pcrtio, Ire, fot, ttum, a. (pars), to 
{art, divide, distribute. 

Partus, a, um, part. Xpario), acquir- 
ed, gained, obtained. 

Parum, adv. (com p. minus, sup. 
minime, which see), little, but a little, 
too little, not enough. Parum muni- 
la, feebly — . Parum valere, to be 
wanting in strength, to be feeble. It 
is also used for minus or non, not 
Parum habere, see Habere. Parum 
cognovi or comperi, I have not satis- 
factorily ascertained. Parum facere, 
to value little, to think little of. Pa- 
rum seems sometimes to be a noun or 
adjective in the nominative or accusa 
tive ; as, Parum sapientia. IUis pa- 
rum est impune male fecisse, it is not 
enough for them — . Parum habere. 
See $212, R. 4, & N. 1. 

Parvus, a, um, adj. icomp. minor, 
sup. minimus, which see), little, small ; 
young Parvi pendere, see Pendo. 

Passim, adv., here and there, up 
and down, at random; every where, 
every way. 

Passus, us, m. (pando), a pace, step ; 
a pace, a Roman measure of five feet 
Mille passuum, a mile. See Mille. 

Patef&cio, Ire, feci, factum, a. (pateo 
if facio), to open, set or lay open, 
throw open. Fig. to manifest, de- 
clare, disclose, discover, detect, bring 
to light, show, explain, make known. 

Patef actus, a, um, part (patefa* 

PatefU, tri, foetus sum, irr. pass, of 
Patefacio, $ 180, N. 

Patens, entis, part $ adj., open, ly- 
ing open, extending, stretching, ex- 
tended wide : from 

Pateo, Ire, u\ »., to be open, lie 

open, extend, stretch; to be accessi- 
ble ; to be plain, evident, manifest be 
known, appear; to be subject to one's 

Pater, tris, in., a father. Also, a 
term of respect applied to Roman sen* 
ators ; see Conscriptus. 

Patera, ce, f. (pateo), a goblet, a 
broad cup or bowl. 

Pattens, tis, part. $ adj. (potior) 
with ace, enduring, suffering; with 
gen., $ 213, able to bear or endure, ca- 
pable of enduring, ready to endure, 

Patientia, <r,/., a bearing, suffering, 
enduring, patience, forbearance, tame- 
ness under injuries: from 

Potior, i, passus sum dep. $ 273, 4. 
to bear, undergo, suffer, endure, brook* 
tolerate, support; to submit to, bear 
contentedly, to permit allow, suffer 

Patria, a:, f. (patrius), one's native 
country or city, native soil or land, 
one's country. 

Patricius, a, um, adj. (pater), of or 
belonging to a patrician, of patrician 
rank, patrician, noble. Patricius, t, 
m., a patrician, a descendant of the 
first senators, a nobleman of the first 
rank at Rome. 

Patrimonium, i, n. (pater), a pater- 
nal estate, inheritance, patrimony ; an 

Patrius, a, um, adj. (pater), of or be- 
longing to a father, fatherly, paternal ; 
of one's country, native. 

Patro, ire, ivi, Stum, a., to effect 
perform, execute, perpetrate, commit, 
achieve bring to a conclusion, end* 
finish, accomplish. 

Patrocinium, i, n. (patrbnus, a pa 
iron), protection, patronage, support 

Pauci, «, a, adj. pi., few, a few; 
pauci, a few men ; also, the few, the 
aristocracy; a clique, cabal, junta 
Paucis or puueisnimis, sc. verbis, in 
few words, briefly. Pauca myites kor 




%an t — briefly, in few words, $ 205, R. 
10,&$231, R. 5. 

Paucitas, alif, f. (pauci), ftwness, 
scarcity, smallness or paucity ; f num- 
bers, paucity ; a small number. 

Pauldtim, adv. (paulus), by little 
and little, by degrees, gradually. 

Paulispcr, adv., for a little while, a 
little while. 

Paululian, adv. (paululus, very lit 
tie), a little, a very little, somewhat ; a 
little distance ; a short time. 

Paul urn, adv., a little. 

Paulus, a, um, adj., little, small 
panlo, abl. with comparatives, tyc. $ 
256, R. 16, (2); by a little, a littlo, 
somewhat. Paulo po*l or post paulo, 
just after, a little after, soon.- Paulo 
anil, see Antl. Paulum procedere, 
—a little way. 

Paulus, i, to. (L. AZmilius Lepidus), 
a Roman senator, who commenced a 
prosecution against Catiline, under the 
Plautian law. C. 31. 

Paupertas, atis, f. {pauper, poor)* 
poverty, need, indigence. 

Paveo, ire, pavi, n., $ 232, (2.) to 
tremble or be alarmed at, to fear, be 
afraid, dread. 

Pavcsco, ire, n. inc. (paveo), to be or 
begin to be much afraid, show signs 
of fear be alarmed, tremble. 

Pavldus, a, um, adj. (paveo), timid, 
timorous, afraid, fearful, alarmed, af- 

Pax, pacts,/., peace, quiet, tranquil- 
lity. Agitare pacem, to live in a state 
of peace, be at peace. Pace, and in 
pace, in peace, in time of peace. 

Palatum, t, n., a fault, error, of- 
fence sin: from 

Pecco, ire, avi, Mum, n. <J- a., to do 
wrong or amiss, commit a fault, err, 
mistake, transgress, offend, sin. 

Pectus, oris, «., the breast, chest. 
Pig 5 324,2, the heart, mind, soul, 
memory, thoughts. 

Pecul&tus. us, m. tveculrr. to em 

bezzle), the crime of stealing or em- 
bezzling the public money vt proper 
ty, peculation, embezzlement. 

Pecunia, a, f, money, a sum of 
money : goods, property, wealth, rich 
es Pecunia sumpta mutua, borrowed 
money. Pecunia magna, a great sum 
of money : from 

Pecus, orii, n., tame animals; as 
oxen, horses, swine, sheep, goats, &c„ 
cattle, a herd. Pecora, pi., in distinc- 
tion from man, the brutes, brute 

Pedes, XLis, m. (pes), on foot ; a fool 
soldier ; collectively, the foot, foot sol- 
diers, infantry. 

Pedester, tris, tre, adj. (pes), on 
foot, going on foot, pedestrian. Pe- 
destres copice, the infantry, foot sol- 

PelignuM, a, tun, adj., of or belong- 
ing to the Peligni, a people of Italy. 
J. 105. 

Pello, ere, pepuli, pulsum, a., $251, 
to drive or chase away, discomfit, 
rout; to remove forcibly, expel, dis* 

Pendeo, ere, pependi, n., to hang 
from, to be suspended ; to hang, rest 
or depend upon. 

Pendo, ire, pependi, pen sum, a., to 
weigh ; to weigh or ponder in one's 
mind, think of, consider, deliberate 
on ; to esteem, value, appreciate, re- 
gard; to pay, liquidate, discharge. 
Pendere parvi, to value little, care lit- 
tle for, $214. Pendere pa:nas, to suf- 
fer punishment 

Pene, adv., almost, nearly. 

Penes, prep, with acc^ with, in the 
power of, in the hands or possession 
of. Fides ejus rei penes auctores erit, 
the credibility of this account will 
rest with the writers, i. e. the writers 
must be held answerable for its truth 

Pensus, a, um, part. $■ adj. (pendo) 
weighH, considered, esteemed prized 
alued valuable, precious, deer JSfc 




hit, ox nee quidquam pensi habere, or dispirited, disheartened, surprised, as- 
ducere, $265, $271, not to care or re- tonished filled with consternation, 
gard, not to mind or consider to have dismayed. 

no consideration, regard nothing, re- 
spect nothing, to reckon nothing pre- 

Penuria, ee, f, want, need, lack, 

Peperci, see Parco. 

Peplri, see Pario. 

Per, prep, with ace, along, over, 
through, throughout; for, during, 

Perditus, a, um, part, ty adj. lost, 
ruined, spoiled, desperate, abandoned 

Perdo, ere, didi, dltum, a. C ver $' 
do), to destroy, ruin. Perditum co, 
see Eo, and $ 276, II, R. 2. 

Perduco, ere, xi, cium, a. (per <jr 
duco), to bring through, conduct, lead, 
convey, accompany ; to bring or draw 

about, in, at, by ; between ; with, by, over, persuade, gain over. 

through, by means of, on account of. | Peregrlnans, lis, part., going or liv- 

In pi ayers, tyc, for the sake of, in ing abroad. Subs, a traveller in a fo- 

the name of. Per me, se. etc. of my- reign country, a sojourner. 

self, himself, &c. by myself, himself \ Peregrinor, ari, atus sum, dep. (per- 

&c. singly, without assistance, of egrlnus, foreign), to go abroad, live in 

one's ©wn accord, without soiicita- \ foreign countries. 

tion, as far as depends on me, him, I Pereo, Ire, ii, irr. n. (per fy eo), to 

&c. as far as I, he, &c. are concerned, ' perish, be lost or ruined, be destroyed ; 

as far as I, he, &c. can effect; intrin- to die. 

sically. So Ubiprimum potuissetper 
negolia publica, — so far as public bu 

Perfero, ferre, tuli, latum, irr. a 
(per fyfero), to bear or carry through ,* 

siness was concerned, For its use to bear, carry, bring, convey; to sup- 
with words denoting the means: See j port, suffer, bear patiently, bear or put 
$ 247, R. 4. With an abstract noun it j up with, brook. Perferre legem, or 
often supplies the place of a corre-\rogaiionem, to carry a bill through, 
sponding adverb ; as, per luxum, per ! get a law passed. 
ignaviam,per scelus,per mollitiem, per I Perficio, ere, feci, fectum, a. (per fy 

superbiam, per dedecus, &c. ; see luxus, 
&c. With the name of a person it often 
signifies, by the intervention of, by 
ihe means or instrumentality of. In 
composition, see $ 197, 13. 

Perangustus, a, um, adj. (per, $ 197, 
13, fyangustus), very strait or narrow. 

Per cello, ere, culi, culsum, a. (per ty 
tello, to impel), to thrust or strike 
aside, move forcibly, overthrow, over- 
turn; to strike, hit, smite; to cast 
down; to astonish, amaze, stun, sur- 
prise, strike with consternation. 

Percontor, ari, atus sum, dep. $231, 
'.per fy contor, to explore), to ask, in- 
quire, question, interrogate. 

Perculsus, a, um, part, (percelio) 

facio), $273, 1, to finish, complete, 
accomplish, effect, perform, execute 
dispatch ; to bring about, cause. 

Perfidia,a,f (perfidus,^ex?idi\o\is, 
perfidy, treachery, perfidiousness, false- 
hood, faithlessness. 

Perfuga, a, m., a runaway, fugi- 
tive ; a deserter : from 

Perfugio, e , re,fugi,fugiium,n. (per 
fy fugio, to fly or flee for succor or 
shelter, take refuge. 

Perfugium, i, n. (perfugio).. a refuge- 
shelter, sanctuary,, a place of 
safe retreat. 

Pcrgo, ere, perrexi per rectum, n 
(per 4r rego), to go, proceed, go on, 
come pass on, go forward, advance, 

struck, strongly affected, disquieted, I conth ue on one's way. Pergeie iter 




to prosecute, pursue, proceed on, — 
$ 232, (1). Pergere festinans, to 

Periculbsk, adv., dangerously, with 
danger, hazardously : from 

Penculbsus, a, um, adj., dangerous, 
hazardous, perilous : from 

Periculum,i, n„ a trial, experiment, 
proof; risk, danger, hazard, peril. 
Facere periculum alicui, to occasion, 
cause — . Periculo suo, at his own risk. 

Perinde, adv. (per $• inde), similar- 
ly, just the same. Perinde ac, atque, 
ut, just as, as, just so. Perinde ac si 
or quasi, as if, as though, just as if. 

Peritia, ce,f. (peritus, skillful), skill, 
skillfulness, knowledge, expertness. 

Perjurium, i, n. (perjuro, to swear 
falsely), a false oath, perjury. 

Perlatus, a, um, part, (perfero). 

Perlego, Ire, legi, ledum, a. (per <|* 
lego), to read through, read over. 

Permaneo, ere, mansi, mansum, n. 
(per fy maneo), to remain, endure, 
continue, last, hold out, persevere. 

Permisceo, ere, miscui, mixtum or 
mistum, a. (per $• misceo),$ 245, II. 2, & 
R. 1. to mingle, mix or blend together, 
throw into confusion, confound. 

Permitto, ere, tsi, issum, a. (per $• 
mitto), to dispatch, send away ; $ 273, 
4, to permit, give, grant, allow, suffer ; 
to commit, intrust. lis permissum 
est, it was permitted them, they were 
allowed or empowered. 

Permixtio, bnis, f. (permisceo), a 
mixing or mingling together, mix- 
ture, confusion, convulsion. Permix- 
tio terrce, a convulsion of the ele- 

Permixtus, a, um, part, (permisceo). 

Permbtus, a, um, part. : from 

Permoveo, ere, mbvi, mbtum, a. (per 
fy moved), to move, move greatly, stir 
up, stir, affect, influence, lead, induce. 

Pernicies, ei, f. {perri&co, to kill), 
death, destructi :>n, ruin ; disaster, ca- 

Pernicibsus, a, um, adj. (perniciesy 
pernicious, hurtful, baneful, mischiev- 
ous, destructive, deadly. 

Perpello, ere, puli, pulsum, a. (per 
typello), to move, force; to move, at" 
feet, touch; to drive, induce, per 
suade, lead, prevail upon, $ 273, 2. 

Perp&ram, adv. (perperus, wrong) 
wrong, amiss, preposterously ; falsely 

Perpetior, i, pessus sum, dep. (per <|- 
palior), to suffer, endure, bear, abide, 
undergo, submit to. 

Persa, a, m., a Persian. J. 18. 

Perscribo, Zre, psi, ptum, a. (per $ 
scribo), to write, write out, write fully 
or at large, report, record, copy out, 

Persequor, i, cutus sum, dep. (per fy 
sequor), to follow, come after ; to fol- 
low close, pursue, press upon; to 
revenge, avenge, punish ; to overtake , 
to execute, perform, do, accomplish ; 
to recount, relate, narrate, treat of 

Perses, ce, §44, ty Perseus, i, m., 
the last king of Macedonia. He was 
conquered by the Romans under the 
command of JEmilins Paulus, A. U. 
C. 586. J. 80. C. 5L 

Persolvo, ere, solvi, solutum, a. fy n. 
(per ty solvo), to pay, pay completely. 

Persuadeo, ere, suasi, sudsum, a. 
(per ty suadeo), $223, R. 2, $273, 2. 
to persuade, advise, induce, prevail 

Perterreo, ere, ui, ttum, a., (per <$ 
terreo), to frighten greatly, terrify. 

Peterritus, a, um,part. (perterreo). 

Pertimesco, ere, ui, a. fy n. ( per fy 
timesco, to become afraid), to fear 
greatly, be greatly afraid. 

Pertineo, ere, tinui, n. (per ty teiieo), 
to reach, extend, stretch ; to tend, aim. 
Quo ilia oratio pertinuit ? whither did 
it tend ? what was its aim ? 

Pertingo, $re, n. (per fy iango), the 
same as Pertineo. 

Perturbatus, a, um part $- <*$> 




disturbed, disquieted, confused, thrown 
into confusion : from 

Perturbo, are, avi, atum, a. (per fy 
turbo, to disturb), to disturb greatly, 
throw into confusion, trouble, dis- 
quiet, discompose. 

Pervenio, ire, veni, ventum, n. (per 
f venio), § 225, IV, to come to, arrive 
at, reach, come. Imperium. pervenit 
ad ignaros, falls into the hands of—. 
Perventum est, imp. sc. a nobis, Mis, 
&c we. they, &c, arrive, § 184, 2, & 
$ 248, R. 1. 

Pes, pedis, m., the foot. Also the 
measure of a foot. Irepedibus in sen- 
tentiam, see Eo. 

Pessime, adv. (sup. of male), very ill, 
very badly, worst. Quam guisque 
pessime fecit, tarn maxime tutus est, 
the worse any one has behaved, the 
safer he is. 

Pesslmus, a, um, adj. (sup. o(malus), 
very ill, very bad, the worst, most vi- 
cious, depraved or corrupt. 

Pessum, adv., down, to the bottom. 
Pessum do or Pessumdo, $ 225, IV, 
to send or throw to the bottom, sink, 
plunge; to ruin, destroy, undo. Ad 
inertiam pessum datus est, has sunk 
into sloth. 

Pestilentia, a, f. (pestilens, pesti- 
lent), a plague, pestilence. 

Pestis, is, f, a pest, plague, infec- 
tion, contagion; mischief, calamity, 
destruction, ruin; a pestilence, di- 

Petitio, onis, /., a canvassing or 
soliciting for an office, suit ; a petition, 
demand, desire, request. Petitionem 
alicujus cures habere, to strive to pro- 
mote one's election : from 

Peto, Ire, tivi, tltum, a., § 231, R. 4, 
£ 273, 2, $ 262. R. 4, to ask, seek, re- 
quest, desire, entreat; to seek, sue, 
stand or apply for an office, to be a 
candidate ; to seek after, covet, desire , 
solicit court, woo ; to aim at, assail, 
attack, aim a blow at; to desiru to 


reach, go g~ repair to, make for, travel 
to, advance to. 

Petreius, i, m. (M.), the lieutenant 
of C. Antonius in the war w'th Cali- 
line. C. 59, 60. 

Petulantia, a?,f (petulans, petulanC, 
wantonness, insolence, petulance, im- 
pudence, lasciviousness. 

Phalerm, arum, f. pl„ trappings for 
horses ; ornaments of men or women 

Philceni, drum, m. pi., the Philseni, 
two Carthaginian brothers employed 
as commissioners to settle the boun- 
daries of the Carthaginian and Cyre- 
nian territories. J. 19, 79. 

Phcenix, wis, m., a Phoenician, an 
inhabitant of Phoenicia. J. 19. 

Picenus, a, um, adj., Picene, per- 
taining to Picenum, a region of Italy 
on the Adriatic sea. Agcr Picenus 
Picenum. C. 27, 30, 42, 57. 

Pictus, a, um, part, (pingo), painted. 
Picta tabula, a painting. 

Pittas, dtis, f. (pius, pious), piety, 
veneration, respect, duty, love, affec- 
tion, devotion, religion. 

Piget, uit, Itum, est, imp., with ace. 
of the person and gen. of the thing, $ 
229, R. 6, & $ 215, (1,).& R., it grieves, 
repents, pains, it is irksome or trouble- 
some. Me piget, I am sorry, grieved, 
pained, ashamed, &c. 

Pilum, i, n., a javelin or dart. 

Pilus, i, m., a company of soldiers 
armed with the pilum, a company of 
the triarii or third line of Roman sol- 
diers, the first line consisting of the 
hastati,ara? the second of the principes. 
Primuts pilus, the first company of the 
triarii : see Legio. 

Pingo, ere, pinxi, pictum, a., to de- 
pict, delineate, paint, draw. 

Piso, onis, m. (C. Calpurnius), a 
personal enemy of Ca?sar, and a col- 
league of M. Glabrio m the consul- 
ship, A. U. C. 687. C. 49 

Piso, onis, m. (Cn.), a profligate 
young nobleman, who was an associ- 




ate of Catiline and Autronius in a 
treasonable conspiracy, A. U. C. 688. 
C. 18. 

Pistoriensis, e, idj. } of or pertaining 
to Pistorium, a town of Etruria, now 
Pistoia. C. 57. 

Pix, picis,f, pitch. 

Placeo, ere, ui, \tum, n. § 223, R. 2, 
$ 269, R. 2, to please, give satisfaction, 
be agreeable. Satis placere, to satis- 
fy Placet, imp., it pleases: — mihi, 
■tibi, fyc. it seems good to me, it is my 
pleasure, I like, I choose, decide, de- 
termine, resolve; also, it is my opi- 
nion. The dative of the person is 
sometimes wanting. 

Placide, adv., softly, gently, mildly, 
quietly, peaceably, calmly, placidly: 

Placidus, a, urn, adj. (placeo), quiet, 
gentle, soft, mild, calm, easy, still, 

Placitus, a, urn, part. & adj. (placeo) 
§ 222, 3, agreeable, pleasing, grate- 
ful ; agreed upon. 

Placo, are, dvi, atum, a., to appease, 
pacify, make calm, soften, reconcile, 

Plank, adv. (planus), openly, mani- 
festly, clearly ; altogether, totally, en- 

Planities, ei,f, a plane, smooth or 
even surface, a plain, level ground. 
Erat inter ceteram planitiem mons, — 
in the midst of what was otherwise a 
plain : from 

Planus, a, um, adj., plain, even, flat, 
level, smooth. Planum, i, n., a 

Plautius, a, um, adj., of or belong- 
ing to the Plautian gens, Plautian. 
Plautia lex, the Plautian or Plotian 
law, a law introduced by P. Plautius, 
A U. C. 665, for the punishment of 
those who should be guilty of either 
open or secret violence. C. 31. 

Plebes, ei, or Plebs, is, /., the com- 
mon people, plebeians, in distinction 

from the patricians ; the mob, rabble 

Plenus, a, um, adj. (pleo, cbs., to 
fill), $ 213, full, replete, filled, rich, 
abounding in. Pleno gradu, with a 
quick step, at a quick pace. 

Plericmque, adv., for the most part, 
commonly, generally, often. Uti pie- 
riimque solet, as usually happens: 

Plerusque, aque, umque, adj. (plerus, 
most, fy que), most, the greatest part. 
It occurs more frequently in the plural, 
and has in both numbers a partitive 
translation, like primus, medius, etc. 
$ 205, R. 17: as, Pleraque nobiliias, 
the greatest part of the nobility, many, 
many persons, a great part, the great- 
er part, most, most persons or things. 
Plerique, most men, § 205, R. 7. (1.) N. 
1. The neuter gender is followed by the 
genitive; as, Plerumque noctis, $ 212, 
R. 3. So the other genders with a 
relative ; as, quorum plerisque. 

Plurimum, adv. (sup. of multiim), 
very much, most, especially, principal- 
ly, chiefly, for the most part, general- 
ly, commonly. 

Plurimus, a, um, adj. (sup. of mul- 

s), very many or much, most, the 
greatest part. Plurimum, the most, 
very much : with a genitive, § 212, R. 
3. Qudm plurimum, or quam pluri* 
mum potest, as many or as much as 

Plus, pluris, adj. (comp. of multus, 
$ 125, 5), pi. plures, plura, § 110, more, 
pluris or pluris pretii, of more value, 
higher, of a<higher price, dearer, worth 
more, $ 252. Facere pluris, to value 
higher, esteem more, $ 214. Plures, 
more, a greater number, a majority 
Quam plures, see Quamplures. Plus, 
in the singular is used with a noun in 
the genitive expressed or understood $ 
212, R. 3. 

Plus, adv. (comp. of multnm) 




Pluvius, a, um, adj. (pluo, to rain), 
rainy. Pluvia aqua, rain-water. 

Poena, <z, f, punishment, satisfac- 
tion, a penalty, fine. Lfare,reddere or 
solvere pcenas, to give satisfaction, 
to suffer punishment. Capere pcenam, 
to take satisfaction, to inflict punish- 
ment. Pelere pcenas, to seek satisfac- 
tion, try to inflict punishment. Esse 
poena, § 227, to serve for or to be de- 
voted to punishment. 

Pceni, drum, m. pi., the Carthagi- 
nians. J. 79. 

Pcenitendus, a, um, part., to be re- 
pented of, be sorry for : from 

Pcemteo, ere, ui, n. <jr a. {poena), to 
repent, be sony, § 229, R. 6. Imp., Pes- 
nitet me, etc., it repents me, &c, I re- 
pent, regret, am sorry. 

Pollens, tis, part, fy adj.. § 213, 
R. 5, (4.), having great power, able to 
do much, powerful, strong, potent, ex- 
celling, surpassing : from 

Polleo, ere, n., $ 250, to be able, be 
very strong or mighty, be of great 
force or power, prevail much, excel, 
exceed, be powerful, great or strong. 

Polliceor, eri, ttus sum, dep., $ 272, 
to promise, assume, hold forth, offer. 
Malta polliceri, to promise many 
things, make great promises. 

Pollicitatio, 6nis,f, a free or volun- 
tary promise, promising frequently: 

Pollicitor, ari, atus sum, dep. freq. 
^polliceor), to promise, assure, hold 
forth, promise often Pollicitando, by 
oft repeated assurances. 

Pollicitus, a, um, part, (polliceor), 
having promised. In other authors 
*t is sometimes passive. 

Polluo, tre, ui, utum, a., to pollute* 
infect, defile, corrupt, contaminate, 
violate, dishonor, disgrace. 

Pollutus, a, um, part, ty adj. {polluo), 
polluted, defiled, unchaste, debauched, 
foul, detestable, shameful. 

Pompeius,i, m. (Cn.), Pompey the 

Great, the distinguished rival of Julias 
Caesar. C 16, 17, 38. 39. See also 

Pomptinus, i, m. (C), a praetor who 
was faithful to the state during the 
conspiracy of Catiline. He was Ci 
cero's lieutenant in Cilicia, A. U. C 
711. C.45. 

Pondo, all. $ 94 ; (pendo), in weight 
It is often used as an indeclinable 
noun, a pound. 

Pondus, iris, n. (pendo), weight 
gravity, heaviness ; a load, burden ; a 

Pono, e~re, posui, posltum, a., to put, 
place, set, lay ; to lay aside, lay down, 
put ofX terminate ; to propose, offer ; 
to think, repute, judge, esteem, reckon, 
account; to speak of, mention, set 
down ; to make, constitute, § 230, R. 
2. Ponere vigilias, to post, station — . 
Ponere castra, to pitch a camp, en- 
camp. In partem tertiam ponere, to 
set down as a third part. Ponere ante, 
to .place before ; to value more, allow 
more weight or influence to. 

Pons, lis, m.,& bridge. 

Pontificdtus, us, m. (ponttfex, a pop 
tiff), the office or dignity of a pontife 
or high priest, the pontificate. 

Populdris, e, adj., of or belongin, 
to the people, popular ; one's country 
man, a fellow-countryman, one bon 
in the same town or country ; one oi 
the same party, an associate, partner, 
accomplice; one acceptable to the 
people, a popular man, one who courts 
the favour of the people : from 

Populus, i, m., those who compose 
one state under the same laws, a peo- 
ple, state, nation, community. It is 
used with less extent of signification 
than natio and gens. Also in the sense 
of plebs, the common people, com- 
mons, the people, in distinction from 
the magistrates or nobles. 

Porcius, i, m., a Roman cognomen 
or family name. 




Po?cius, a, vm, adj., Porcian, of or 
elating to Porcius. Porcia lex, the 
Porcian law, a law introduced by P. 
Porcius Laeca, when tribune of the 
people, requiring that no magistrate 
should scourge a Roman citizen or 
put him to death, but should permit 
such as were condemned to go into 
exile. C. 51. 

Porrectus, a, um,part. fy adj., stretch- 
ed out, extended : from • 

Porrigo, ere, rexi, rectum, a. (porro 
ty rego), to stretch, reach or spread 
out, extend, lengthen. 

Porro, adv., right onward, farther, 
afar off; then, moreover, besides, 
next. It often continues a discourse 
in such a manner as to connect some- 
thing which is the opposite of that 
which had preceded it, and may then 
not improperly be translated, on the 
other hand, on the contraiy. 

Porta, 65, /., the gate of a city or 
camp; a door, port, portal. 

Portatio, cms, f. (porto,) a carrying, 
carriage, conveyance, transportation. 

Portendo, Ire, di, turn, a. {porro <^ ten- 
do), to presage, portend, forebode, foi e- 
tell, foreshow, betoken, augur, reveal. 

Portentum, i. n. (portendo), an omen, 
prodigy, portent, miracle. 

Porto, are, avi, atum, a.,} properly 
to bear or carry something heavy, and 
this meaning may be traced even in its 
figurative use, to carry, bear, convey, 
bring, take, conduct, transport. 

Portuosus, a, um, adj. comp. ior. 
(portus, a harbor), abounding in har- 
bors, having many good havens. 

Posco, Ire, poposci, a., to ask, de- 
mand, pray earnestly, importune, re- 
quire, call for. 

Posltus, a, um, part. (pono). 

Possessio, 6nis,f, possession ; a pos- 
session, an estate, property: from 

Possessus, a, um, part., possessed, 
owned, held in possession. 

Possideo, ere, edi, essum, a., to pos- 

sess, have, hold, enjoy, be master of, 
have possession of. 

Possido, ere, edi, essum, a., to take 
possession of, take into possession. 

Possum, posse, potu* irr. nr (potis fy 
sum, | T54, R. 7), § 271, to be able, have 
power, 1 can ; to have authority, power 
influence, ability, weight. Possum is 
joined with quam and the superlative 
degree, in the sense of, as possible, &c 
See Quam. Possum is often followed 
by the accusative of a neuter adjective 
or pronoun, § 234. Quantum ingenio 
possem, as far as I should be able, 
as far as my talents would per- 
mit. Plus or amplius posse, to be 
more powerful or efficient. Posse plu- 
rimitm, to be most efficient or ser- 
viceable, of most avail. Quibus rebus 
possum, by all the means in my power, 
by a 11 practicable means. Potest, imp., 
it is possible, it can be. Potuit ho- 
7ieslius consult, one might have pur- 
sued a more reputable course, or a 
more reputable course might have 
been pursued, § 209, R. 3. (6). 

Post, prep, with the ace, after, since, 
behind, in the rear of, next in order,, 
back of, subsequently to. Post eum 
diem, the day after. Post diemoc- 
tavum, the eighth day after. Ducere 
post, to reckon of less importance. 
Postfuere, were dropped or laid aside, 
gave place. In most editions, the 
words are united, postfuere. With 
names of persons, in expressions de* 
noting time, it supplies the place of a 
clause ; as, Qui proximo anno post Bes- 
Ham consulatum gerebat ; instead of, — 
post annum, quo Bestia consulatum 
gesserat. Also adv., after, afterwards. 

Postea, adv., (postty is), afteiward, 
after that or this, subsequently, here- 
after. Postea loci, the same as postea, 
$ 212, R. 4, N. 4. See Locus. 

Posteftquam, or Postea quam adv 
(postea fy quim), after that, after, 

Posterior, us, gen, oris, adj. (comjx 




of posterus), that come? after, poste- 
rior, later, too late. 

Posterus, a, um, adj. (post), comp. 
posterior, sup. postremus, which see ; 
coming after, following, next, ensu- 
ing. Posteri; drum, m., posterity, de- 

Poslfui, see Post. 

Postquam, adv , (post fy quam), $ 259, 
R. 1, (2.) (b.) after, after that, when, as 
soon as. 

Postremb, adv., lastly, ultimately, 
finally, at last. After an enumeration of 
particulars, in fine, in short, in a word. 

Postremus, a, um, adj. (sup. of pos- 
* terus), last, hindmost. Postrema acies, 
the rear. In postremo or in postremis, 
in the rear. 

Postuldtum, i, «., a demand, re- 
quest, desire : from - 

Postulo, are, avi, alum, a. (posco), 
$ 272, $273, 2, to demand, ask, desire, 
require ; beg, implore, urge. 

Potens, tis, adj. (possum), $213, R. 
5, (3) able, having power, capable, 
strong, efficacious, powerful, might* y. 
vigorous, rich, having great wei-iu or' 

Potentia, a, /., (potens), power, 
force, efficacy; might, authority, in- 
fluence, sway; empire, rule, domin- 
ion, power not granted by the laws, 
usurped power. 

Potestas, ads, f. (possum), $275, 
III, R. 1. (1.) ability, power, leave, li- 
cense, liberty permission, opportuni- 
ty; power granted by the laws and 
constitution, dominion, rule, empire, 
authority, command ; an office, post, 
magistracy Potestatem facere, to 
give liberty, afford opportunity. 

Potior, In, Mus sum, dep. (potis), 
$ 245, 1, & R. to be or become mas- 
ter of, gain possession of, conquer, 
uc quire, get, obtain, possess. 

Potior, us, gen. oris, adj. (comp. of 
potis), better, preferable, more excel- 
lent, dearer, more esteemed. 

Potis, indecl. adj., able, possible. 

Potissimiim, adv. (potior), most of 
all, especially, chiefly, principally, in 
preference to others, fhst of all above 

Potissimus, a, um, adj (sup. of 
potis), most of all, first of all. Igna 
ri quid potissimum facerent,— whal 
they had best do. 

Potiundus, a, um, part, (potior), 
$ 162, 20. 

Potius, adv. romp, (potior), rather, 
preferably. It is sometimes omitted 
before quam. 

Poto, are, avi, atum fy potum, n. fy 
a., to drink ; to drink to excess, tipple, 
indulge one's self in drinking. 

Potui, fyc, see Possum. • 

Prce, prep, with the abl., before ; for, 
by reason of, on account of; in compa- 
rison of. In composition, see $ 197, 15. 

Praacuo, Zre, ui, utum, a. (pro: $• 
acuo, to sharpen), to make very sharp ; 
to sharpen, sharpen at the end or point. 

Praacutus, a, um, part, (praacuo). 

VrcLultus, a, um, adj. (prat, $ 197, 15, 
^- altus), very high or lofty, very deep. 

Prctbeo, ere, ui, Hum, a. (pra <fy 
habeo), to give, supply, afford, minis- 
ter, offer, furnish, provide. 

PraMtus, a, um, part, (praibeo), 
given, supplied, furnished, provided. 

Prcsceps, cipttis, adj. (pro, fy caput) 
headlorjg, rapid; downhill, steep, pre- 
cipitous. Fig. rash, hasty, sudden, 
inconsiderate, precipitate, headlong, 
hastening. Agere pracipitem, to drive 
headlong, to drive to desperation. 
Dari pr&ceps, to be plunged head- 
long, precipitated, rush headlong, to 
be ruined. Ire pr&ceps, iu rush head 
long, plunge inconsiderately; to go 
to destruction or ruin, to fall, be ru- 

Praceptum, i, n. (pracipio), an or 
der or direction ; a precept, rule, max 
im; advice, counsel, instruction; a 




Prceceptus, a, um, part, (prcecipio). 

Prcccido, ere, cldi, cisum, a. (prce fy 
curio), to cut off; to shorten, abridge. 

PrcBCtpio, ere, dpi, ceptum, a. (prce 
fy capio), to take before; $223, R. 2; 
&$273, 2, to instruct, teach, direct, 
charge, enjoin, order, command. Prce- 
ceptum est mihi, I have been ordered, 
instructions have been given to me. 

Prxcipitatus, a, um, part. : from 

Prcecipito, are, dvi, atum, a. (prce- 
ceps), to precipitate, plunge, throw 
headlong, hurry, drive. Fig. Seprce- 
cipitare to hasten to ruin; to ruin or 
destroy trie's self, accomplish one's 
own destruction. 

Prcecisus, a, um, part, fy adj. (prce- 
cidb), cut off; steep, broken, precipi- 

PrcBclarus, a, um, adj. {prce fy cla- 
rus), very clear or bright ; noble, illus- 
trious, brilliant, conspicuous, famous, 
celebrated, excellent, distinguished; 

Prccda, ce,f, prey, booty, plunder, 
spoil, pillage; plundering, pillaging; 
gain, profit, advantage. Agere prce- 
dam or prccdas, to drive off captured 
cattle and captives as booty ; collect 
booty, plunder, take booty. Belliccc 
prcedce, the spoils of war. 

Prcedabundus a, um, adj. (prcedor), 
$ 129, 1, ravaging, pillaging. Dicit se 
prcedabundum eodem esse veyiturum, 
—after going on a predatory excur- 

Prceddtor f oris, m. (prcedor), a rob- 
beilipillager, plunderer. 

Prccdatorius, a, um, adj. (prcedator), 
robbing or plundering, predatory. 

Prceflico, are, dvi, atum, a. (prce ty 
iico, are), to spread abroad, proclaim, 
report, publish, declare give out, pre- 
tend, say, tell, relate ; to praise, com- 
mend sxtol, celebrate. Bene prcedi- 
n are, to speak well of, extol. 

Prccdlco, Ire, xi, ctum, a. (prce fy 
hco, e*re\, to tell before, premise ; to 

foretell, forewarn, predict ; to admo** 
ish, chai-ge, order, direct, enjoin; to 
make known, appoint, give notice of, 

Prcedttus, a, um, adj. (pro> ty datus) % 
$244, having, possessed of, endued 

Prccdoceo, ere, cui, ctum, a. (prce ty 
doceo), to teach beforehand. 

Prccdoctus, a, um, part. (prcedoceo), 
previously instructed. 

Prcedor, ari, dtus sum, (prceda), to 
rob, plunder, pillage, spoil, ravage. 

Project us, a, um, part, (praficio) 
set over, appointed to the command. 

Prafectus, i, m. (prafcio), a super- 
intendent, overseer, diiector, presi- 
dent, governor, prefect, a general, 
commander, a general of cavalry, the 
general commanding the cavalry of 
the allies in the wing of the army. 

Prafero, ferre, tuli, latum, irr a. 
(prcetyfero), $224, to bear or carry 
before ; to show ; to prefer, give the 
preference to, choose rather. 

Prceficio, ere, feci, fectum, a. (prce 
ty facio), $ 224, to set over, appoint to 
the command. 

Prcegredior, Sdi, gressus sum, dep. 
(prce $ gradior, to step), to go before, 

Prccmissus, a, um, part. : from 

Prcemitto, ere, mtsi, missum, a. (pro. 
§ mitto), to send before. The purpose 
is expressed by qui and the subj. $264, 
5, or by the former supine, $ 276 II. 

Prcemium, i, n., money ; utility, pro- 
fit, advantage; a reward, reeomptnse, 
premium, prize; a promised reward 

Prccpe'dio, Ire, Ivi, itum, a. (pra>. $ 
pes), to impede, hinder, obstruct; to 
bind, shackle. 

Prccposterus, a, um, adj. (prce ty 
poslerus), having that first which 
ought to be last, preposterous, ar> 

Prceruptus, a, um, adj. (p^cerumpo, 




to break off), broken, steep, craggy, > (prater $■ eo), § 182, R. 3. tc go or pass 
rugged, hard to climb. by, pass along ; to pass over, leave out, 

Prasens, tis, adj. (pra <$• ens, § 154, pass over in silence, let slip, omit 

ft. 1 ), present, at hand, in person,- vig- 
orous, active, ready, prompt, resolute, 
In prcBsens, sc. tempus, at present, for 
tae present, now. 

Prasentia,a,f. (pr<p$ens\ presence, 
sight, appearance. 

Prasertim, adv., especially, chiefly, 
particularly. Quum prcesertim or pra- 
sertim quum, especially since. 

Prasldeo, ere, edi, ess urn, n. {pros fy 
sedeo), to preside over, superintend, 
direct, command, have the command. 
Presidium, i, n. (presses, a presi- 
dent), a guard, garrison, escort ; a de- 
fence, protection, security, guard ; aid, 
succor, help, assistance, support, re- 
source, refuge, relief, reinforcement. 

Prastabtlis, e, adj. ( press' o, are, 
$ 129, 4), excellent, distinguished, no- 
ble : from 

Prastb, adv., present, ready, at 
hand : joined with sum it signijies to 
be ready, be present, be in attendance. 
Prctsto, are, iti, ilum, a. <£- n. (pra 
fy sto), § 224, & R. 5, to stand before ; 
$ 250, to be superior to or better than, 
excel, surpass, be distinguished ; rare- 
ly also in a bad sense, to be distin- 
guished or notorious ; to do, execute, 
perform, cause, make, effect, § 273, 1. 
Prcestat, imp., it is better. 

Prasum, esse, fui, irr. n. (prce fy 
sum), §224, to be set over, preside 
over, have the charge or command 
of, rule over, direct. 

Procter, prep, with the ace, before, 
close by, near, past, besides, in addi- 
tion to ; except, save. Also adv., ex- 
cept save only. 

P rater ea, adv. (pr ester fy is), be- 
oides, moreover; then, next; at any 
other time, in any other instance. As 
a connective, before a noun, and also, 
before a noun and adjective, and other. 

Pratereo, Ire, i,i, ilum, irr. n. fy a I plication, entreaty. 

Pralergredior, edi, gressus sum 
dep. (prater ty gradior to step), § 233 
to go past or beyond, pass by. 

Prcelor, oris, m. (praeo, to go be- 
fore), a pretor, chief commander ot 
magistrate, a general. Pralor oi 
Prcelor urbanus, a civil magistrate 
next in rank to the consul, a judge. 
Pro pratore, one invested with the 
power of a pretor or commander in 
chief; sometimes temporarily, as dur- 
ing the absence of the general. 

Pratorium, i, n., the pretorium, the 
general's tent or pavilion in the camp: 
from ' 

Prcetorius, a, um, adj. (prcetor), of 
or belonging to a pretor, pretorian. 
Pretoria cohors, the pretorian cohort 
or general's guard. 

Pralura, cc,f, the pretorship, office 
of pretor. 

Pravenio, ire, veni, ventum, a. (pra 
ty venio), to come before, prevent, an- 

Praventus, a, um, part, (pravenio). 
Pravitas, atis, f, crookedness, de- 
formity. Fig. perverseness, depravi- 
ty, wickedness, knavery : from 

Pravus, a, um, adj., crooked, dis- 
torted. Fig. wrong, bad, wicked, 
viciousf depraved, evil, unprincipled, 
perverse, improper, unsuitable. Pro 
vum, i, 7i„ depravity, villainy, vice 

Premo, ere, pressi, pressum, a., to 
press, press upon; to oppress, over 
whelm, press hard upon. 

Pretium, i, n., a price, worth, value * 
a reward, meed; pay, hire, wages, 
gain, profit, gold, money, wealth, 
riches. Pretium est, the same as 
opera pretium est, see Opera. Cum 
pretio, with gain, gainful, profitable. 
Prex, dat. preci, % 94, a prayer, sup 




Pi idem, adv., long ago, long since. 

Primb, adv. (primus), at the first, at 
first, in the first place. 

Primum, adv., first, in the first 
place, for the first time. Primum 
omnium, first of all, § 212, R. 4, N. 7. 
Vbi primum or quum primum, when 
fast, as soon as : from 

Primus, a, um, adj. (sup. of prior), 
(irst, foremost, in the van, in front; 
principal, chief, excellent, distinguish- 
ed, best, most important, most valua- 
ble ; earliest. In primis or imprimis, 
above all, chiefly, especially, pecu- 
liarly, first, in the first place, first of 
all ; also, among the first, in the van ; 

Prius, adv. (prior), first, at first, be 
fore, previously, sooner; with quam 
following, before that, before, sooner 
than, rather than. For the mood after 
priusquam, see § 266, 3. 

Priusquam, adv., see Prius. 

Privatim, adv., privately, in private, 
in a private capacity, as a private citi- 
zen, in private life. Privatim capere 
or rapere, to take from private citi* 
zens, or on one's own private ac* 
count; — as an individual, individually. 
Privatim amiciliam populi Romani 
colere, — by purchasing the favor of in- 
dividuals, by private favor: from 

Privdtus, a, um, part. $■ adj. (privo), 

so, in primo, and apud primos. Pri- deprived of, § 251 ; private, one's own, 

ma habere, to reckon of first import- 

Princeps, tpis, m. fy f. (primus fy 
capio), first, foremost ; an author, ad- 
viser, promoter, encourager, leader, 
head; chief, principal, head-man, 
prince, first in rank. Princeps sena- 
tus, or princeps in senatu, the prince 
or leader of the senate, the senator 
whose name was first marked by the 
censors in the list of senators. Prin- 
cipes, heavy armed soldiers, who were 
stationed in the second line ; see 
Pilus. Princeps belli faciendi, the 
first to commence hostilities. 

Principium, i, n. (princeps), a be- 
ginning, commencement. Principia, 
in military language, the first line 
of an army in order of battle, the front. 
Principiis transversis, the front hav- 
ing been formed at right angles, hav- 
ing converted the flank into the front. 
A principio, from the beginning, first, 
first of all, at first, in the first place. 

Prior, us, gen. oris, adj. § 126, 1, 
sup. primus, which see), $ 250, form- 
er first, antecedent, previous, prior, 

Pristtnus, a, um, adj., former, first, 
accustomed, wonted, pristine, origi- 

particular ; belonging to an individuai 
or individuals ;subs. a private person, 
one not in any public office. 

Privignus, i, m. f a step-son. 

Privo, axe, dvi, dtum, a. (privus, 
single), $ 251, to take away from, de- 
prive, bereave. 

Pro, prep, with the abl., before, in 
front of, opposite to, in presence of; 
in, on ; according to, in proportion to, 
conformably with; as is suitable to, 
as becomes; for, on account of, by 
reason of, in consideration of; for, in 
the place of, instead of, from being ; 
as, for, as if; in favor of, on the side 
of, in behalf of, to the advantage of) 
for; in comparison of; considering. 
Pro tempore respondit, as became the 
occasion — . Pro tectis, on the verge 
of the roofs. 

Pro or Prohl int., O! ah! Pro 
deum atque hominum fidem, $ 238, 2-. 
see Fides. 

Probitas, dtis, f. (probus, $ 101, 1, 
goodness, probity, rectitude, honesty 

Probo, are, dvi, dtum, a. (probus), 
to approve, praise, commend, assent 
or agree to. 

Probrum, i, n., a shameful or wick 
ed action, loose or disorderly conduct, 




any heinous or detestable offence, vil- 
lainy, wickedness; disgrace, infamy, 
dishonor, leproach, shame. Probro 
habere, to cons.der disgraceful, § 227. 
Probri gratia, as a mark of dis- 

Probus, a, um, adj., good, honest, 
virtuous, upright, worthy, modest, 
chaste. V 

Procax, acis, adj. (proco, to ask), 
petulant, pert, saucy, wanton, bold, 
forward, lascivious. 

Procedo, ere, cessi, cessum, n. $ 276, 
[I, to proceed, go forward, advance, 
go foith, go; pass, elapse; to happen. 

out, bring forth, bring before the peo- 

Productus, a, um, part, (produco), 
lengthened ; brought out, brought for* 
wa d befo:e the people. 

Prcelians, tis, part., fighting. Prce- 
liantes, pi., combatants : from 

Prartior, dri, citus^sum, dep., to fight, 
engage, join battle, combat, contend 
in fight: from 

Proelium, i, n., a fight, battle, en- 
gagement, combat, contest, attack ; a 
pitched battle, regular warfare. Prce- 
Hum committere or facere, to join bat- 
tle, engage. Proelium manibus facere, 

turn out, eventuate; to go on well;; to engage hand to hand or in close 

succeed, ptosper; to be aided, pro- 
moted or advanced; to be favorable 
to, be useful or serviceable, $ 224. 
Eo vecordics processit, advanced to 
such a pitch of madness. Adherbal 
ubi intelligit ed processum, — that it 
had come to this. 

Proconsul, is, m. (pro <$• consul), a 
proconsul, one who governed a pro- 
vince or commanded an army with 
consular power. 

Procul, adv., far, far off, at a dis- 
tance, remote ; very much, great\y. 

Procuratio, onis.f (procuro, to take 
care of), the administration of a thing, 
management, charge, care. 

Paodigium, i, n., a prodigy, portent, 
miracle, omen. 

Proditio, onis, f. (prodo), a dis- 
covery, manifestation, indication; 
treachery, faithlessness, treason. 
* Proditus, a, um, part., betrayed : 

Prodo, Ire, didi, dltum, a. (pro § 
do), to declare, disclose, manifest, 
show, discover, betray; to yield or 
surrender perfidiously, desert, forsake 
;reacherously, deceive, betray. Pro- 
dere jidem, to betray confidence, vio- 
late one's engagements. 

Prwluco, ere, xi, ctum, a. f K pro fy 
duco, to draw out, extend; to lead 


combat. Ante proelium factum, be- 
fore the engagement. 

Prof anus, a, um, adj. (pro fy fa- 
num), profane, not sacred or conse- 

Profectio, onis, f (prqficiscor), a 
going or setting out, departure, jour- 

Profectb, adv. (pro § f actus), cer- 
tainly, surely, truly, indeed, in truth, 

Profectus, a, um, part, iproftciscor). 

Profero,ferre, tuli, latum, a. (profy 
fero), to carry or bring out ; to pub- 
lish, make known, spread abroad, 
manifest, reveal; to defer, put off, 
postpone, adjourn. 

Prqfi&iscor, i, profectus sum, dtp. 
(pro tyjacio), § 276, II, to set out on 
a journey, go, go away, depart; to 
journey, travel ; to go on, proceed. 

Prqfileor, eri,fessus sum, dep. (pro 
fy fateor), to profess, declare openly, 
own, acknowledge, avow ; to declare 
one's self a candidate. P-ufteri in- 
tra legitimes dies, to declare one's 
self a candidate within the appointed 
time, i. e. three market days, or sev- 
enteen days before the election. 

Profligcetus, a, um, part., routed, dis- 
comfited : from 

Projtigo, are, dvi, alum, a. (pro £ 




ftigo to strike against), to throw or 
dash to the ground, cast down; to 
rout, put to flight, defeat, overthrow. 

Profugio, 2re,fugi,fug1.tum, a. (pro 
4rfugio), to flee, fly, run away, es- 

Profugus, a, um, adj. (profugio), 
fleeing without knowing whither, es- 
caping by flight, fugitive ; put to flight, 
driven away, banished, exiled. Abire 
ox discedere profugus, to flee. 

Prof undo, 8re, fudi, fusum, a. (pro 
$• fundo), to shed copiously, pour 
forth; to throw away; to lavish, 
squander, waste, consume. 

Profundus, a, um, adj., deep, pro- 
found. Fig. profound, boundless, in- 

Profuse, adv., profusely, lavishly, 
extravagantly, immodei ately, exces- 
sively : from 

Prcfuisus, a, um, part, fy adj. (pro- 
fundo), $213, immoderate, excessive, 
profuse ; prodigal, wasteful, lavish. 

Profuturus, a, um, part, (prosum). 

Progenies, ei,f (progigno, to beget), 
a progeny, offspring, descent ; a line, 
lineage, race ; children, descendants. 

Prohibeo, ere, ui, \tum, a. (pro $• 
habeo), $251, & R. 2. to keep off or 
away, keep or ward off, debar, hinder, 
impede, stop, prevent, prohibit, ob- 
struct ; to keep, preserve, defend, pro- 
tect; to check, curb, restrain) repress; 
to prohibit, forbid, $251, &R. 2: some- 
times also, instead of the ablative of a 
noun, it takes a verb in the infinitive 
or subjunctive. Prohibere ne, etc., see 

Proinde, illative conj s <£• adv. (pro 
(jr inde\ therefore, for that reason, on 
lhat account, just so, equally, the 
same as, in like manner. Proinde 
quasi, just as if. 

Project us. a, um, part. : from 

Projlcio, ere, jeci, jectmh, a. (pro fy 
jddo), to throw o* fling forth or away ; 
lo throw ; to cast or drive out, expel. 

eject. In has miserias project us swn 
— plunged into these misfortunes. 

Protuto, arc, avi, atum, a. (profero) 
to extend, lengthen, prolong, dilate 
to defer, put off, delay, protract, pott 

Promiscue, adv., confusedly, pio 
miscuonsly, indifferently, without or 
der or distinction, indiscriminately: 

Promiscuus a, um, adj. (promisceo, 
to mix), promiscuous, confused, com- 
mon, mingled. Pudorem, pudicitiam, 
divina atque humana promiscua habere, 
to reckon common, to regard as in- 
discriminate, to make no difference 
between, to contemn alike — , pay no 
regard to—. 

Promissum, i, n. (promitto), a pro- 
mise, pledge, vow, proposition, pro- 
posal, engagement, something pro- 
mised. Promissa expectare, to wait 
for the fulfilment of promises. 

Promissus, a, um, part. : from 

Promitto, ere, misi, missum, a< (pro 
ty mitto), to fling, hurl or dart foi ward, 
send before; to promise, engage, 

Promptus, us, m. (promo, to draw 
out), in the abl., in promptu, in readi- 
ness, at hand, visible, manifest, pre- 
sent, evident, clear, easy. Ingenium 
in promptu habere, to bring out or 
display one's talents or abilities. 

Promptus, a, um, adj. (promo), clear, 
manifest, evident, open; ready, pre- 
pared ; practicable, easy ; prompt ac- 
tive, ready, bold, brave, valiant, quick, 
zealous, ardent, $ 250. 

Promulgo, are, avi, atum, a., to pub 
lish, proclaim, propose, promulgate. 

Pronus, a, um, adj., inclined or bend 
ing forward, bending down, stooping 
looking towards the earth, groveling 
prone. Fig. easy, practicable, $222,3 

Prope, adv. (comp. propiiis, sup 
-proxime), near, nigh, almost, nearly 
Also prep, with ace, near, nigii, bo 




eide, close by, near to, almost, nearly. 
Proxlme Hispaniam, tyc. §235, R. 11. 

Propediem, adv. (prope ty dies), 
shortly, after awhile, within a few 
days, in a short t me, presently. 

Propello, ere, puli, pulsum, a. {pro 
f pello), to drive forward, propel ; to 
drive away, repel, repulse, keep or 
ward off 

Properans, tis,part. tyadj. (proper o), 
hastening, in haste, quick. 

Properanter, adv. (propero), hastily, 
quickly, speed iy. Properantius per- 
gere,— too precipitately, too rashly, 
$256, R. 9, (a.). 

Properantia, ce,f. (propero), a mak- 
ing haste, haste, dispatch, expedition. 

Propere, adv. (properus, hasty), in 
haste, in a hurry, hastily, speed. ly, 
quickly. Propere adire, to hasten to. 

Propero, are, dvi, at tan, n. <jr a. (pro- 
ph'us), to make haste, hasten, accele- 
rate, to prepare with haste; §272, to 
be eager, desire. Properandam est, 
there is need of dispatch. 

Propinquus, a, um, adj. (prope), 
$222, R. 1, neighboring, near; near 
of kin, alLed, nearly related. Subs., 
a kinsman, relation, intimate friend. 
Propinqui inter se, near to one an- 
other. Oppido propinqua, sc. loca, 
the parts or places near the town. 
Propinqui genere, nearly related by 

Propior, us, gen. oris, adj. $ 126, 1, 
{prope), sup. proximus, which see; 
nearer, nigher, closer; more nearly 
related or allied ; more like. It is fol- 
lowed by either the dative or the accu- 
sative, $ 222, R. 1, & R. 5, & $ 235, R. 5. 

Propius, adv. (comp. of prope), near- 
er, more nearly, nearer to. Propius 
mare Afrirum, $235, R. 11. 

Prapbno, ere,, posVum, a. (pro 
§ pono), $ 2li5, to set out or expose to 
view set forth or d.splay, offer, pre- 
sent; to publish, make known; to j 
tell, explain, show pt int out, declare. j 

j Propraetor oris, m. (pro df prastar , 
j a propretor, one sent to govern a pro 
Ivince with the authority of pretor 
one invested with the authority of 
' pretor. 

Propter, prep, (prope), with the ace , 
near, hard by, close to ; for, on ac- 
count of, by reason of, owing to, 
through; for the sake of. Adv., near 

Propidso, are, avi, atum, a. freq. 
(propello), to drive away or back, repel, 
keep or ward off 

Proripio, Ire, ripni, reptum, a. (pro 
fy rapid), to snatch away. Proripere 
se, to hurry or hasten away, rush out, 
escape quickly. 

Prorsus, adv. (pro fy versus), straight 
on or alongfdirectly, right onward ; 
altogether, entirely, utterly, wholly, at 
ail, totally; exactly; at the end of an 
enumeration of particulars, in a word, 
in short ; in fact. 

Prosapia, ce,f, a race, lineage, stock 
progeny, pedigree, family. 

Proscr'ibo, Ire, psi, ptum, a. (pro ty 
scribo), to publish any thing to be sold ; 
to confiscate one's property ; to pro- 
scribe or outlaw one; to doom to 
death and confiscation of property. 

Proscriptio, onis,f. (proscribo), ad- 
vertising a thing to be sold; a pro- 
scription of one's effects; a proscrip 
tion or /mtlawry, dooming to death 
and confiscation. 

Proscriptus, a, urn, part, proscribo), 
proscribed, outlawed. 

Prospecto, are, avi, atum, a. freq. 
(prospicio), to view, behold, see afar 
off, gaze upon. 

Prospectus, us, m. (prospicio), a look 
ing forward, view, prospect, sight. 

Prosper $• Pn spBrus, a, um, adj. t 
favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate 

Prospere, adv. (prosper), happily, 
prosperously, fortunately, luckily, sue 

Prosum, desse, fui, $ 154, R. 6, irr. 
n. (pro & sum), § 224, to do good, 




profit, be profitable or serviceable, 
avail, conduce, be of use. 

Provenio, Ire, veni, ventum, n. (pro 
jr venioi, to come forth, appear, be 
born, spring up, arise. 

Piovidens, tis, part, ty adj. (provi- 
deo), provident, foreseeing, circum- 
spect, careful, prudent. 

Providepfer, adv. (providens), pro- 
vidently, with foresight or precaution, 
wisely, prudently. 

Provzdentia, ce, f, foresight, fore- 
cast, forethought, providence, caution, 
prudence, carefulness: from 

Provldeo, ere, vldi, visum, a. fy n. 
(pro $• video), to look forward, fore- 
see ; § 273, 1, to provide or guard 
against, shun, avoid, take measures 
to' prevent, take care : to prepare, pro- 
vide, make provision, see to, look 
after, take care of, provide for, § 224, 
$ 273, 1 ; to perceive, discern. 

Provincia, a, /., a conquered coun- 
try governed by a magistrate sent 
from Rome, a province. Provincia 
or provincia Romana, in the Jttgttr- 
thine war, signifies the Roman pro- 
vince in Africa, consisting of the 
former possessions of the Cartha- 

Provlsus, a, um, part, (provideo). 

Proxime, adv., nearest, next; see 
Prope. \ 

Proximus, a, um, adj., (sup. of pro- 
'pior), $ 222, R. 1, # 5, ty I 235, R. 11, 
very near, nearest, next, last; nearly 
related, closely allied, intimate. Proxi- 
mus, i, m., a relation, familiar or 
intimate friend, partisan, associate. 
Proximum, i. n., neighbourhood, vici- 

Prulens, tis, adj. (for providens), 
prudent, sagacous, provident, wise, 
considerate; skillful, expert, able, 
learned, experienced. 

Prudenier, adv. (for providenter), 
prudently provid«>n>lv, wisely, dis- 

Psatto, ?re. i, n„ to play on a string 
ed instrument; to sing to the sound 
of the lyre. 

Pubes ty Puher, eris, adj. oi ripe 
years, arrived at the age of puberty 
adult. Puberes, um, m. pi., youth, 
young men, persons of mature age, 

Publice, adv. (pubUcus), publicly, in 
public, in the state, in the name or be- 
half of the public, by public authority, 
on the public account, on the part of 
the public; collectively. Publice ra- 
pere, to take from the public. Uti 
publice amicitiam, populi Romani co- 
leret, — by public services. 

Publico, are, avi, atum, a., to con- 
fiscate, make public property of: 

PubUcus, a, um, adj. (populus), com- 
mon, public, belonging to the public 

Publius, i, m„ a Roman prcenomen. 

Pudet, uit, pudiium est; imp., $ 229, 
R. 6, to be ashamed. Ilium pudet, he 
is ashamed. 

Pudicitia, c, f (pudicus, modest), 
chastity, modesty, virtue. 

Pudor, oris, m. (pudeo), shame, mo- 
desty; respect, reveience; reputation, 
fame, a sense of honor, cha acter. 
Pudor refers to the mind, pudicitia 
rather to the bcdy. 

Puer, eri, m., a male child, boy; 
a boy, slave, servant. 

Pueritia, <z,f. (jmer), boyhood, child- 

Pugva, cr,f. (pvgnvs, a fist), a bat 
tie, fight, encoun'er, engage met t, com- 
bat. Facere pugnam, to join battle, 

Pngno, are, avi, atum, n. fptigntf, 
to fight, combat, em; age, contend 
Capere urhes puava<ido, to fake b\ 
assault—. A'a J e pu<j>a'i/m fs,> an nn 
si.ccessfi 1 battle was forghr. 

Pulcher, chra, chrum, adj., fan; beau- 
tiful, handsome excellent, glorioua. 




•Splendid honorable, noble, magnifi- 
cent. Pulchrum est, §209, R. 2. 

Puhus a, um, part, {pelto). 

Pu/vlnus, i, m., a cushion, pillow, 

Fulvis, eris, m. ty f, dust, powder. 

Pumcus, a, um, aij., Punic, Cartha- 
ginian; perfidious, false. Tne Cartha- 
ginians were accused by the Romans 
of frequent violations of their com- 
pacts, and hence Punica fides, signifies 
treachery, perfidy. Punicum bellum, 
Punic war. Tne wars of the Romans 
with the Carthaginians were called 
Panic wars, and were three in number. 
J. 17, 19, 108. C. 51. 

Pulo, are, avi, alum, a., to lop, prune ; 
to adjust, settle or liquidate one's ac-j 
counts; to weigh, ponder, consider, 
revolve in mind, $ zlZ: to think, ac- 
count, esteem, judge, hold, reckon, 
imagine, suppose, in the passive it! 
takes the mi, $ 271. 

Q ! 

Q., an abbreviation of the prccno- j 
men Quintus. | 

Qua, adv. (abl.fem. of qui, sc. via. 
or parte), which way ; where ; whence ; 
in what way; wherever, whereso- 

Quacunque, adv., {quicunque sc. 
parte or via), wheresoever, whence- 
soever, from whatsoever side. 

Quadraginta, num. adj (quatuor), 

Quadra lus, a, um, part. $■ adj. {quad- 
*o to square), squaied, square, quadrate. 
Quadrat um agmen, an army formed 
into a paraleilograin or hollow square, 
with its baggage in the centre. 

Quocro, ere, sivi, situm, a., § 231, R. 
\, $ 265, to seek, seek after, look for ; 
to provide, procuie, get, gam, find, ac- 
quire: obtain ; to make inquisition, in- 
vestigate, search, examine iuto, try ; 
to ask inquire, interrogate ; to desire, 
aim at, purpose ; to demand, require, 


need, to plan, devise, contrive. Dolum 
quairere, to seek to devise or contrive 
some stratagem. Imp. Quaritur in 
aliquem, a piosecution is instituted 
against — , he is tried, or prosecuted. 

Quassitot, oris, m. {qucero), a seeker 
a searcher; a judge, examiner, com- 

Quclso, ere, a. def. verb, $ 183, 7 to 
seek, pray, entreat ask, beg, beseech, 
desire, request. 

Qua:stio, bnis,f. :qua;ro), a seeking, 
inquiring, searching; a question, sub* 
ject of inquiry; an examination, in- 
quiry, inquisition, trial, prosecution. 
Exercere qucestionem, to conduct an 
investigation or-trial. . 
j Quaistor, oris, m. (qua:ro), a questor. 
a Roman magistrate who had the care 
of the pubhc money; a treasurer; a 
paymaster. Qucesfor pro pr&tore, a 
I questor with pretorian power. 

Qucrstus, us, m. (qu&ro), a trade, 
employment, occupation, profession; 
gain, profit, advantage, interest. Quts 
omnia qucnstui sunt, $237, & R. 3. 

Qualis, e, adj., of what kind #r sort, 
what manner of, what. 

Quam, conj. fy adv., how, how much, 
as much Tarn — quam, so — as. or 
quam— lam, as— so. It is often omit- 
ted after plus, minus and amplius, 
§ 256, R. 6. With superlatives or pos- 
sum, as possible, $ 127, 4. Quam 
primum, or quamprimum, as soon as 
possible. Quam scspissime, as fre- 
quently as possible, With compara- 
tives, and words implying comparison, 
as, than. So after alius, aliter, &que, 
secus, contra, etc. 

Quamohrem, illa'ive conj. (quis, ob 
res), why, whe:efore, therefore, for 
which cause or reason. In questions. 
why ? wherefore I for what reason ? 

Quamplures, adj. pi. {quam fy plu- 
res), very many, a great many. 
Quamprimum, see Quam. 
Quamquam, concessive conj., at 




though, though. Before tamen, quam- 
quam or quamvis must sometimes be 

Quamvis, adv. ty conj. (quarn ty vis, 
from vnlo), as much as you will, very 
much, greatly, never so— , however; 
although, though. 

Quando, adv. § conj., when ; since, 
seeing that. 

Quantum, adv., how much, as much 
as. After lanius, as : from 

Quant us, a, um, adj., how great, 
how much, so much ; with tantus ex- 
pressed or implied, as great — as, as 
much— as, $ 206, (16.) Quanti? gen. 
$214, at what price? how dear? how 
much ? Quanto, abl., $ 256, R. 16, by 
now much, by as much. Quanto — 
tanto, by how much — by so much, the 
more— the more, the — the. Quantum 
negotn sustineam, how weighty a 
charge—. $212, R. 3. 

Quapropter, adv. fy illative conj. (qua 
fy propter), for what reason? why? 
for which reason, wherefore, on which 

Quare, illative conj. $• adv. (quis (ty- 
res), for which reason, wherefore, 

Quartus, a, um, num. adj. (quatuor), 
the fourth. 

Quasi, conj. (for quamsi), as, as if, 
as it were, just as if; as, just as, $ 263, 2. 
It often serves as a kind of apolhgy for 
the apparent boldness of a figurative 
expression ; as. Majorum gloria pos- 
teris quasi lumen est. With numerals 
or with adjectives of time or place, 
about, almost. Ex monte medio quasi 
collis oriebatur, from about the middle 
of the mountain arose a hill. Quasi 
vero, as if indeed, ironically. 

Quatriduum, i, n. (quatuor § dies), 
the space of four days, four days. 

Quatuor, ind. num. adj., tour. 

Que, enclitic conj., $ 198, N. 1, and; 
also ; que — et, et — que, both — and. For 
the position of que, see §279, 3, (c.) 

Qiteo, ire, ivi, itum, irr. n., (§ 182, 
R. 3, N.) I 271, to be able, I can. 

Queror, i questus sum, dep. wiU 
ace. with ie fy abl. and with quod <J 
subj. to lament, bewail, bemoan; t< 
complain, complain of. 

Questus, a, um, part, (queror). 

Qui, quce, quod, pro. rel., $ 136, wno 
which, that, what: <£■ int. $ 137, who 
which ? what ? Quo, abl. n., with com 
paratives, by that, so much, the, $ 25G, 
R. 16. quo — eo, by how much — by so 
much, the — the. Qui is much used 
as a connective instead of is, hie, etc. 
with a conjunction. In translating 
such relative by a demonstrative the 
proper conjunction must be supplied, 
as, and, but, for, therefore, hence, <fec. 
With the subjunctive it often supplies 
the place of ut and a demonstrative 
pronoun, $264, 5. 

Qm, abl. of qui ty quis, $$ 136, R. 
1, ty 137, R. (2), how, in what way: why 

Quia, conj., $ 198, 7, because, inas- 
much as. Quod and quia are said to 
be distinguished by quod referring to 
a fact as a cause, and quia to an infe- 

Quibuscum, i. e. cum quibus. 

Quicumque, quaicumque, quodcum' 
que, rel. pro., $136, 3, (qui <$• cumqne), 
whoever, whatever ; whosoever, what* 
soever ; all, every. 

Quid, see Quis. 

Quidam, qucedam, quoddam or quid- 
dam, indef. pro., $ 138, (qui fy dam), a 
certain one, one. With the name of a 
person quidam usually implies that 
he is little known, and hence it is 
often used in contempt. 

Quidem, conj., indeed, truly, in truth 
certainly, at least, even. Ego quidem, 
I for my part. Ne — quidem, see Ne. 
Quidem usually follows an emphatic 
word, $279, 3, (tf.). 

Quies, etis, f, rest, repose, ease 
quiet, peace, sleep. Neque vigihib 
neque quietibus, neither in watching 





nor in slumbers neither waking nor 

Qutesco, ere, evi, etum, n. ((fines), to 
rest, repose, t£.ie rest, be quiet, be at 
rest, sleep. 

Quietus, a, urn, adj. (quiesco), quiet, 
calm, tranquil, peaceable, undisturbed, 
easy, at rest, still, without noise, con- 
tented. Equites rem quietam (esse) 
nuntiant, — that the affair is peaceable, 
that no danger is to be apprehended. 
Quieta movere, to disturb the (public) 

Quilibet, qucrMbet, quodlibet fy quid- 
tibef, indef. pro., $ 1 38, 5, (qui ty libet), 
whosoever will, any one whom you 
please, any person or thing, any one, 
any. Quidlibet, subs., any thing, any 
thing you please. 

Quin, adv. fy conj. (qui fy ne), after 
verbs of doubting, $c. $ 262, R. 10, 2, 
for ut non, that not, but that, so as not. 
It may be translated "without" fol- 
lowed by the English gerundive of 
the following verb, as, quin aperirem, 
without portraying. It is sometimes 
used instead of a relative and non, 
$262, R. 10. 1, who— not. Quin? 
with the indicative, why not? This 
is used in earnest remonstrance and 
exhortation. Quin, yet, however, but, 
nay, even, moreover; indeed, truly. 
Quin ergo, well then, come then. Non 
quin, not but that, not that — not. Ne- 
que illis diulius ea (victoria) uti lieu- 
isset quin, (i. e. ita ut non) qui plus 
posset, imperium atque libertatem ex- 
tor queret, nor could they have enjoy- 
ed the victory very long, without some 
one more powerful wresting from 
them, &c. 

Quinde'cim, num. adj. (quinque fy 
iccem> fifteen. 

Quinquaginta, num. an}., fifty: from 

Quinque, num. adj., five. 

Quinquennium, i, n. (quinquennis, 
of five years 1 , the space of five years, 
five years. 

Quintus, a, um, num. adj. 'quinque, 
the fifth. 

Quintus, i, m., a Roman prcp.nomen 

Quippe, causal conj., for, 
forasmuch as, since, inasmuch as, as 
as being; in fact, indeed. Quippt 
qui, qua, quod, inasmuch as he, be- 
cause he, since he, she or it. Quippe 
quis (sc. nobis) hostis nullus, — since 
we had no enemy. Quippe mi (so 
plebi) omnes copia in usu quotidiano 
et cultu erant, as all their property — . 
Quippe cui in animo hceserat, as it had 
been deeply impressed upon his mind. 

Quirtles, nim, m. pi. properly, flip 
inhabitants of Cures, a town of the 
Sabines. Hence, after the union ot 
the Romans and Sabines, the united 
people were called Quirites, i. e. Rv, 
mans, Roman citizens. J. 31. 85. 

QuU, dat.& of Qui, $ 136, R.2. 

Quis, qua), quid, int. pro. $ 137, who ? 
which? what? Quid, what? why ? 
wherefore? $235, R. 11. Quis mor- 
tal! um, what man ? $ 21 1. Quis fy qui 
after si, ne, neu, nisi, num, etc. have 
the sense of aliquis, $ 137, 1, R. (3). 

Quisnam fy quinam, quavam, quid- 
nam or quodnam, int. pro. $ 137, 2, 
who? which? what? 

Quispiam, qucspiam. quodpiam, quid- 
piam or quipp>am, indef. pro. $ 138. 
(quis), any one, some one. 

Quisquam, quccquam, quidquam or 
quicquam, indef. pro. $ 138, (quis fy 
quam), $212, any one, any, any thing. 
Ne quisquam, etc., no one, nothing, 
no. Ne quisquam hominum or mor- 
talium, or ne quisquam omnium, no 
man, no person. 

Quisquei quccque, quodque, quiclque 
or quicque, indef pro. $138, (quis $ 
que), $ 112, every man, every one 
each, all, every; any one. It is often 
connected with superlatives to express 
universality, $ 207, R. 35, as, pruden- 
tissimus quisque negotiosus maxime 
erat, the ablest men were the most 




engrossed in public affairs. Optimus 
quisque, every man of high standing, 
nr of distinguished excellence. 

Quisquis, quidquid or quicquid, rel. 
pro. $ 136, (quis § quis), whoever, 

to, in regard to or as to this, that 
but, now; $206, (14) , though, although 
that, why, wherefore; that, because, 
in that. 

Quodni or quod ni, conj., but if not, 

whosoever, whatever, whatsoever. Its but unless, § 206, (14.) 

•antecedent is always indefinite, and 
hem:e, like what whoever. &c. in 
English it appears often to imply both 
relative and antecedent. Quoquo modo, 
in whatever manner, in what way 
soever, as. 

Quivi, see Queo. 

Quivis, qucBvis, quodvis or quidvis, 

Quodsi or quod si, conj., but if, if 
now, if then, but then, now, $206, (14.) 

Quoniinus, see Quo. 

Quomodo or Quo modo, adv. fy conj^ 
(qui $• modus), in what manner, in 
what way, how. 

Quoniam, conj. $ 198, 7, (quum fy 
jam), seeing that, since, as; with in- 

indef. pro. $ 138, (quity vis, from volo), dicative, in oratio direcfa. 

any one you please, whoever, whoso- 
ever, any one, any, any whatever, 
every one, every. 

Quo all. See Qui. 

Quo, adv. fy conj. (qui), $ 191, R. 1 
whither, to what place, to what per- 
son or thing, to whom ? where, in or 
to which person, place or thing, to 
which. Vaccenses, quo Metellus 
— -prccsidium imposuerat, — among 
whom: — why; for which reason or 
cause, wherefore, on which account; 
because ; that, as if; to or at which. 
With comparatives especially it signi- 
fies, that by this or that by this means ; 
to the end that, in order that, that, 
and is equivalent to ut eo, or ut ea re. 
Quo minus, after clauses denoting 

Quoquam, adv. (quo fy quam), any 
whither, to any place. 

Quoque, conj., also, likewise, too. 
Quoque, pro., see Quisque. Also the 
abl. of Quis or Qui, with the conjunc' 
Hon que annexed. 

Quoquo, see Quisquis. 

Quotidianus, a, urn, adj., daily ; or- 
dinary, common, usual, familiar : from 

Quotidie, adv (quot <$r dies), every 
day, daily. 

Quousque, adv. (quo fy usque), how 
long, how far. 

Quum or Ciim, adv. <£• conj. % 263, 
5, when, while; though, although. 
Quum — turn, not only — but also, both 
— and. both — and especially, as— so 
also, as well — as also. In this con- 

Jiinderance, $ 262, R. 9 is translated, struction, the clause introduced by turn 

that not, from, or for not, with the 
English gerundive of the verb follow- 
ing it ; as, Quo minus victoria uteren- 
lur, from using or making use of the 
victory. Quo minus— eo magis, the 
less — the more. See Qui. Non quo, 
followed by sed, not that, not as if. 

Quo, abl. of Qui, which see. 

Quoad, adv. <$■ conj. (quo ty ad), as 
long as. whilst, till, until, $ 263, 4. 

Quocumque, adv. (quo fy cumque), to 
whatsoever place, whithersoever. 

Qudd, conj. (qui), for ad quod or 
propter quod, $ 273, 6, with respect 

is usually most prominent : — since, as 


Radix, wis, f, a root ; the foot or 
bottom of a J?iH or mountain. Sub 
radicibus montium, at the foot of the 

Ramus, i, m., a branch, bough an 
arm of a tree. 

Rapina, <b, /., robbery, rapine, pil 
lage, depredation ; also, prey, plunder 

Rapio, Ire, pui.ptum, a., to snaich, 




take or carry away by force, carry off, 
ravish; to plunder, pillage, take away, 
seize foicibly, take forcible possession 
of; to hurry, hurry forward, hasten. 

Raio, onis,f. (reor), leason, the ra- 
tional faculty; a design, plan, purpose, 
measure ; a cause, motive ; a method, 
manner, way, means; a matter, busi- 
ness, concern, affair, advantage, inter- 
est, circumstances; an account, reck- 
oning, calculation ; respect, considera- 
tion, legard, concern, care. Belli 
atq ie pads rahones trahere, to weigh 
ifel.berately the advantages of peace 
and war. Alienum suis rationibus, 
inconsistent with his policy or inter- 

Rafus, a, um, part. <$■ adj. (reor), 
, thinking, judging, believing, suppos- 
ing, cons.dering; established, fixed, 
determined, firm, stable, valid. 

Re, inseparable prep., back, again, 
$196, (b.) & 3, & 197, 18. 

Receptus, us, m. (recipio), a ret! eat- 
ing, retreat; a place of refuge, retieat. 

Receptus, a, um, part. : from 

Recipio. ere. < epi, ceptum, a. (re fy ca- 
p[o), to take again, get back, receive; 
to tetake, legain, recover. Recipere 
se, to come back, return, retreat, re- 
tire : — to take, receive, accept, admit. 
Recipi moznibus, to be admitted into 
the city, entertained within the 

Recito, are, avi, citum, a. (re fy cito, 
to call by name), to recite, read aloud, 
rehearse ; to repeat from memory. 

Rede, adv. (rectus), directly, in a 
tra'ght line; rightly, propeily, well, 

Rector, oris, m. (rego), a ruler, go- 
,emoi, dnector. 

Rect'is, a, um, part, fy adj. (rego), 
right, st a ght, dnect; right, proper, 

Rccupc'ro are, avi, a'um, a., to get 
again, regain, recover. 

Recuso, are, avi, atum, n. fy a. (re fy 

causa), to refuse, deny, reject> be tci 


Reddilus, a, um, part : from 

Reddo, ere, didi, ditum, a. (re fy do) 
to give back, render, restore, leturn 
to give, render, deliver, o pay, re* 
quite, recompense. Reddtre panas 
see Pozna. 

Redeo, Ire, ii, itum, irr. n. (re fy eo) 
to return, come back, come again 
Redire ad rem, to return to the sulh 

Rediens, untis, part, (redeo). 

Redimo, ere, emi, ei upturn, a (re fy 
emo), to buy back or again, repurchase, 
recover, ledeem; to buy, purchase; 
to acquire, get, procuie; to rescue, 
ransom, redeem; to repel, avert, ward 
off by means of money, tyc. Redi- 
mere culpam, jlagitium, facinus, etc., 
to make amends for, atone for, com- 
pound for — . 

Rediturus, a, um, part, (redeo). 

Reditus, us, m. (redeo). a return. 

Refero, ferre, tuli, latum, irr. a. (re 
fy fero), to bring or carry back or 
a^ain; to leturn, restoie, deliver; to 
tell, i elate, repoit, say, mention. Re- 
ferre ad senatum, to propose to or lay 
befoie the senate, consult, ask, pro- 
pose for deliberation. Imp. Postulant 
uti referatur, sc. ad senatum, — that the 
opinion, of the senate should be taken. 

Refert, retulit, imp. (res fy fero), § 
219, & R. 3, it concerns, imports, pro- 
fits, is the interest of. 

Reficio, ere, feci, fectum, a. (re $ 
facio), to make again or anew, repair, 
tebuild, renew, refit ; to rekindle, re- 
emit, refresh, recover, reanimate, re- 

Rtgio, oms,f. (rego), a region, conn 
try, district, territory ; a border, limit 

Regius, a, inn, adj. (rex), of a king 
a king's, kingly »oyal. regal, piincely 
monatchical. Homo regie?, superbicp 
— as pr rid as a king. 




Regnum, i, n. (rex), a kingdom, re- 
gal government, the dominion of a 
king, sovereignty, sovereign power; a 
kingdom, realm, country subject to a 
king. Pervenire in regnum, to be- 
come a king. Parare regnum, to as- 
piie at sovereignty, aim to be a king. 
llegni par alio, aspiring at sovereignty. 

Rego, ere, xi, ctum, a., to keep 
straight, guide, manage, direct, regu- 
late, moderate, govern, rule, sway, 

Regredior, idi, gressus sum, dep. (re 
<£ gradior, to step), to go back, re- 

Regressus, a, um, part, (regredior). 

Regulus, i, m. dim. § 100, 3, (rex), 
the king of a small country, a petty 
king, prince. 

Relictus, a, um, pari, (relinquor). 

Religio, onis, f. (rettgo, to retrace), 
the fear of God, religion, devotion, 
piety, religious or superstitious feel- 
ing; relgious rites and ceremonies; 
a religious scruple; superstition. 

Religiosus, a, um, adj. (relig io,) fear- 
ing God, pious, devout, holy, religi- 
ous; faithful, scrupulous, conscien- 
tious ; sacred, venerable ; superstitious. 

Relinquo, ere, llqui, lictum, a. (re ty 
linquo, to leave), with subj. of purpose, 
to leave behind, leave; to leave at 
one's death ; to forsake, desert, aban- 
don ; to leave as an inheritance, be- 
queath ; to let alone. 

Reliquus, a, um, adj. (relinquo), 
remaining, the rest, the residue, the 
other. Reliqui, orum, m, the rest, 
the others. Reliquum, i, ty reliqua, 
Orum, n, the rest, residue, remainder. 
Reliquum est, it remains, with ut and 
mbj., § 262, R. 3. Nihil reliqui, or 
'■eliquum facere, to leave nothing, 
leave nothing remaining or undone. 
So, Quid reliqui habemus?. who t have 
we left ? $ 212, R. 3, N. 3, see Nihil 
fn reliquum, in future, for the future, 

Remaneo, ere, mansi, mansum. r., 
(re tymaneo), to tarry behind, stay, re- 
main, continue, abide. 

Remedium, i, n. (re $ medeor) a 
medicine, remedy, cure. 

Remissus, a, um, varl. 4f aa J-< S€> nt 
back; slackened, relaxed, neglected: 
remiss, careless, negligent, inattentive. 
Nihil remissi, see Nihil Missis re- 
missisque nuntiis, in sending to and 
fro, or backwards and forwards: 

Remitlo, ere, mzsi, missum, a. (re fy 
mitto), § 271, to send back, return; to 
slacken, let loose, relax; to interrupt, 
leave off discontinue, intermit, cease, 
give over, omit. 

•Remorutus, a, um, part, -.from 

Remoror, ari, dtus sum, dep. (re fy 
moror), § 262, R. 9, to stop, delay, ob- 
struct, hinder, keep back, stay, retard; 
to tarry, stay, linger, delay 

Remotus, a, um, part., removed: 

Removeo, ere, ovi, otum, a. (re fy 
moveo), to remove, withdraw, take 
away, send away, dismiss. 

Renovo, are, avi, atvm, a. (re fy 
novo), to make anew, remake, renew; 
to refresh, relieve, recreate, revive, 

Reor, reri, ratus sum, dep., § 272, 
to suppose, judge, think, conclude, 
imagine, believe, conjecture, antici- 

Repello, ere, pzili, pulsum, a. (re ty 
pello,) to drive or beat back, repel 
drive or turn away, keep off; to reject 
refuse. Repelli ah amicilia, to be ro 
pelled from friendship, i. e., to have 
one's proffered friendship rejected. 

Repens, tis, part, fy adj. (repo). 

Repent e. adv. (repens, sudden), sud- 
denly, on a sudden, unawares, unex 

Repentmus, a, um, adj. (repens). 
unlooked for, unexpected, sudden. 

Reperio, Ire, peri, pertum, a. (re $ 
pa io,) to find, find out, discover, in- 




vent, contrive, devise. Pass. Reperi- 
nntnr, qui etc. $ 264, 6. 

RtpUo, Ire, ivi, ttum, a. (re fy peto), 
to ask or demand again; to demand 
back, demand as one's right, claim, 
demand payment; to resume, go on, 
with again ; to go back, trace back. | 
Supra repetere, to go or trace farther 
back or to a remoter period. ! 

RepetundcR, drum, f. pi., or Pecunice 
repetundcB, {properly the participle of 
repeto, for repetendae, § 162, 20), 
money to be demanded back ; extor- 
tion, the taking of money or other, 
property contrary to law, while one ' 
commanded in a province ; illegal 
exactions made by governors of pro- 

Repo, Ire, psi, ptum, n., to creep. 

Reprehendo, ere, di, sum, a. {re 8f 
vrehendo, to take), to catch again, lay 
hold of, seize ; to reprove, blame, cen- 
sure, find fault with. 

Repudio, are, avi, atam, a. (repu- 
dium, a divorce), to reject, refuse, cast 
- off, repudiate. 

Repugno, are, avi, latum, n, (re fy 
pugno), to fight against, make a resist- 
ance, resist, oppose. 

Repulsa, ai,f. (repello), a repulse, de- 
nial, refusal, defeat, failure of being 
elected to a magistracy when one is 
a candidate. 

Repulsus, a, um, part (repello), re- 
pulsed. Repulsus abire, to be denied 
or refused. 

Reputo, are, avi, alum, a. {re fyputo), 
$265, to consider, weigh over, revolve 
in one's mind, reflect upon ; so repu- 
tare cum animo, — to compute, calcu- 
late, reckon. Reputando, on con- 
sidering, on careful consideration; 
also, in consequence of consider- 

Requies, ei, $• etis,f. (re $■ quies), 
rest, repose, quiet, ease, respite. 

Requie^co, ere, evi, etum, n. (re <jr , 
quies:**, to rest, become calm, be! 

quieted or composed, x ie at ease, ro* 
pose, take rest. 

Requiro, ere, sivi, situm, a. (re $ 
qucero), to seek again, seek out, look 
for, seek after ; to seek, ask, demand. 
require ; to interrogate, inquire after. 

Res, rei,f., a thing, affair, matter 
concern, fact, deed, act, measure, cir 
cu instance, proceeding, subject, busi- 
ness, occasion; the result, event, is- 
sue; method, course. Res militaris, 
the art of war. Res or res gestce, see 
Gestus: — the fact, the truth. Uti rem 
sese habere putant, as they suppose the 
fact to be. Re or re vera, in fact, in 
truth, in reality; — experience, use; 
a cause, reason, purpose. Res and 
res familaris, property, substance, 
effects, goods, chattels; commodities. 
Res Jidesque, property and credit: — a 
state, case, condition, or circum- 
stances. Res secundce, prosperous 
circumstances, success, prosperity. 
Res adversce, adversity. Mala res, 
broken fortunes. Bova res, a pros- 
perous condition. In tali re, in such 
a case ; utility, profit, interest, benefit, 
advantage. Ob rem facere, usefully, 
with advantage or profit. In rem 
esse, to be useful, for one's advantage 
Pro re, according to circumstances: — 
an event, occurrence. Res followed 
by publica, an adjective relating to 
country, as Romana, tyc, or the name 
of a people, signifies the state, govern- 
ment, commonwealth, power, see Res- 
publica: — the subject or matter of 
which one treats. Id quod res habet t 
— which is true or certain. Ex re 
astimare, to regard according to the 
reality, to value intrinsically or on its 
own account. Res nova, see Novus. 
Res capitalist see Capilalis. Nomen 
ex re inditum, a name bestowed upon 
(them) in consequence of (their) na- 
ture or peculiar character. With a 
relative or demonstrative pronoun ies 
often supplies the place of a preceding 




noun or clause, as ea res, Cat. 7 

Rescindo, ere, soldi, scissum, a. {re 
fy scindo, to rend), to cut, cut off cut 
or bieak down, destroy; to annul, dis- 
annul, make void, abrogate, cancel, 
abolish, revoke, repeal. 

Resist o, ere, stifi, n. {re fy sisto, to 
stand), to stand still, halt, stop, stay ; 
to withstand, resist, hold out against, 
oppose, make resistance, $ 223. Non 
votest resisti, resistance cannot be 
made. Haic rcgationi quoniam aperte 
r .Uhre non poterant quin faterentur, 
ns they co;,ld not openly oppose 
tlrs b.ll so as not to profess. $ 262, 
. \\ '■) 

Respicio, Ire, exi, ectum, a. fy n. {re 
fy specio, to see), to look back, look 
back upon. 

Respondeo, ere, di, sum, a. $■ n. {re 
ty spondeo, to promise), § 272, to pro- 
mise in return, to answer, reply, re- 
spond, declare as by an oracle or by 
divination, predict. Respondetur, imp., 
it is replied, a reply is given. 

Respublica ty Res publica, reipub- 
liccc,/. § 91, {res ty public us), the state, 
commonwealth, republic, government, 
politics, public affairs. Tractare or 
habere rempublicam, to administer the 
government. Facere contra rempub- 
licam, to act against the state, to be 
guilty of treason. 

Restinguo, ere, inxi, inctum, a. {re 
6f stinguo, to extinguish), to extin- 
guish, quench, put out 

ResCituo, ere, ui. utum, a. {re $■ 
statuo), to put or set up again, replace, 
restore to its former condition, rein- 
state, restore, revive, give back. 

Reticeo, ere, ui, n. #■ a. {re ty taceo), 
to hold one's peace, be silent ; to con- 
,-eal, keep secret. 

Retweo, ere, tinui, tentum, a {re ty 
'eneo), to hold or keep back, stop, de- 
tain, hinder : to retain, keep, preserve ; 
vO coerce, restrain, check, repress. 

Retractus, a, um, part, brought 
back: from 

Retraho, ere, xi, ctum, a. {re #• trahti), 
to draw or pull back, bring back. 

Reus, i, m., a person accuse d or im- 
peached, a culprit, criminal, deien- 
dant. Fieri reus, to be accused or 

Reverto, Ire, ti, sum, a., fy Revertor f 
i, sus sum, dep. {re ty verto), $ 225, IV, 
to turn back or over, come back, re- 

Revocatus, a, um, part. : from 

Revoco, are, avi, atum, a. {re fy voco), 
to call back, recall. 

Rex, regis, m. {rcgo), a king, sove- 
reign, monarch. 

Rex, Regis, m., a cognomen belong- 
ing to a plebeian family of the Mar- 
cian gens, who claimed descent from 
Ancus Marcius, the fourth king of 
Rome. Q. Marcius Rex, a Roman 
general, sent by the senate to oppose 
Catiline's forces in Etruria. C. 30, 
32, 34. 

Rhegium, i, n„ now Reggio in Cala- 
bria, a city in the southern part of 
Italy, opposite to Messana in Sicily. 
J. 28. 

Rhodius, a, um, adj., Rhodian, of 
Rhodes, an island containing a city 
of the same name, near the coast of 
Caria, in Asia Minor. Rhodii, brum, 
m. pi., the Rhodians, inhabitants of 
Rhodes. C. 51. 

Rogatio, onis, f. {rogo), a demand, 
desire, prayer, request ; a question ; a 
laiv proposed to the people, a bill, an 
ordinance, resolution. Rogationem 
promulgare, to propose a bill or law 
for the approbation of the people. 
Perferre rogationem, see Perfero. 
Rogationem jubere, see Jubeo. 

Rogdtus, a, um, part, {rogo), $ 234 
I., asked. Sententiam rogatus, being 
asked his opinion, questioned as to 
his opinion. , 

Rogtto, are, avi, atum a. freq., to 




ask frequently, make frequent inqui- 
ries, inquire anxiously, inquire, inter- 
rogate, ask : from 

Rogo, are, avi, atum, a. $ n., to ask, 
desire, request, pray, demand, ques- 
tion, inquire, entreat, beg, sue for. 
Rogare magistratum, to take the votes 
of the people on the appointment of a 
magistrate, to elect a magistrate, 
cause to be elected. 

Roma, cb, f, Rome, a city of La- 
tium, in Italy, on both sides of the 
Tiber, the capital of the ancient Ro- 
man empire. J. 8, &c. C. 6, &c. 

Romanus, a, um, adj. {Roma), of or 
belonging to Rome, Roman. Romani, 
drum, m. pi., the Romans. 

Rudis, e, adj., unwrought, unculti- 
vated, unpolished, rude; $213, igno- 
rant, inexperienced, raw, untaught, 

Rufus, i, m. (Cn. Octavius), a Ro- 
man questor, sent into Africa, A. U. 
C. 649. J. 104. 

Rufus, i, m. (Q. Minucius), a Ro- 
man consul with Sp. Albinus, A. U. 
C. 644. J. 35. 

Rufus, i, m. (Q. Pompeius), a Ro- 
man pretor, A. U. C. 691. C. 30. 

Rulna, cb, f. (ruo, to fall down), a 
fall, downfall; ruin, destruction, ca- 
lamity, overthrow. Incendium ruina 
" restinguere, properly, to extinguish a 
fire by pulling down the neighboring 
houses, see Incendium. 

Rumor, oris, m., a rumor, flying or 
common report, hearsay, report. Ea± 
rumore, according to common. fame 
rr report 
Rupes, is,f, a rock, crag, cliff, steep. 
Rursum fy Rursus, adv. (reversus, 
returning), backward; again, on the 
other hand; again, a second time,i 
afresh, anew. It is sometimes appa- 
rently redundant. 

Rutilius,. i, m„ P. Rutilius Rufus, 
the lieutenant of Metellus in the war 
with Jugurtha,. J. 50, 52, 86. 


S., an abbreviation of the prwno 
nem Sextius. 

Sacer, era, crum, adj., consecrated 
holy, sacred, divine. 

Sacerdos, otis, m. tyf. (sacer), a priest 
or priestess. 

Sacerdotium, i, n. (sacerdos,) the of« 
fice of a priest, priesthood 

SacriUgus, a, um, adj. (sacer fy lego), 
guilty of stealing sacred things, sacri- 
legious ; impious, wicked, profane. 

Samius, i, m. (L.), a Roman senator. 
C. 30. 

Scepe, 8<spiu8, scBpissime, adv. § 
194, 5, often, oftentimes, oft, many 
times, frequently. The comparative 
of this word is frequently used for the 
positive. Numero is often added re- 
dundantly to saepe. 

S<zpenume"ro, adv., see Scepe. 

Savio, ire, ii, ttum, n. (scevus), to 
rage, chafe, be fierce or cruel, be an- 
gry, frown. 

Scevitia, a, f, cruelty, severity, 
fierceness, ferocity, barbarity, inhu- 
manity. Sajvitia temporis, the incle- 
mency of the season : from 

Savus, a, um, adj., rigorous, severe ; 
cruel, fierce, barbarous, savage, inhu- 
man. Mare savum, boisterous, stor- 
my, turbulent, tempestuous — . Om- 
nia sxva patiebamur, — every species 
of cruelty. 

Sagittarius, i, m. (sagitta, an arrow), 
an archer, bowman. 

Sal, salis, m. fy n., pi. sales, m., salt. 

Salto, are, avi, atum, n. fy a. freq 
(salio, to leap), to dance. 

Saltuosus, a, um, adj. (saltus, a 
forest), full of woods or forests, woody. 

Saluber, bris, bre, adj. § 108, R. 1, 
healthful, wholesome, salubrious . 
sound, healthy, robust : from 

Salus, utis. f. (salvus, safe), safety 
preservation, health, life, quiet conv 





Saluto, are, avi, S,tum, a. (salus), to 
salute, greet, pay one's respects to, 
send compliments to; to visit, call 

Samnis, itis, m. § /., Samnite, of 
Samnium a country of Italy, now 
Abruzzo Citeriore. Samnites, um § 
turn, m n the Samnites. C. 51. 

Sanctus, a, um, part. $ adj. (sancio, 
to decree), decreed, established; sa- 
cred, inviolable, holy, divine ; virtuous, 
upright, incorrupt. 

Sane, adv. (sanus, sound), soundly, 
soberly, discreetly; certainly, truly, 
indeed, very. 

Sanga, cb, m. (Q. Fabius), a Roman 
senator, the patron of the Allobroges. 
He was descended from that Fabius 
who from his conquest of the Allobro- 
ges was surnamed Allobrogicus. C. 41. 

Sanguis, Vnis, m., blood. Fig. 
death; kindred, offspring, stock, pa- 
rentage, race, descent, blood, relation- 
ship, consanguinity. 

Sapiens, tis, part. $■ adj. (sapid), 
wise, learned sage, judicious, discreet. 
Subs, a wise man. 

Sapientia, cb, f. (sapiens), wisdom, 
good sense, judgment, discretion, pru- 
dence, knowledge. 

Sarcina, cb, f. (sarcio, to mend), a 
bundle, burden, load, pack, baggage. 

Satelles, ttis, m. ty /., a life-guard, 
body-guard, attendant. 

Satietas, atis, /., satiety, fulness. 
Fig. a glut, disgust. Satietas me 
tenet, I am tired or sick of, satiated 
with : from 

Satis, adv., and also an indecl. subs. 
and adj. § 212, R. 4, N. 1, enough, suf- 
ficient; with adjectives and adverbs, 
tolerably, passably, enough, pretty, 
sufficiently ; (comp. satior, us, better, 
more useful or advantageous. Satius 
est, it is better). Satis habere, to be 
content or satisfied, to account suf- 
ficient. Satis credere alicui, to put 
mil confidence in. 

Satisfactio, onis, f. (satufacto, to 
satisfy), a satisfaction ; amends, repa 
ration ; excuse, plea, apology, satisfac 
tory explanation. 

Satius, see Satis. 

Satur, ura, urum, adj. {satis) full 
sated ; plentiful, abundant. 

Satura, ce,f. (satur), a platter or char- 
ger filled with various fruits to be pre- 
sented as an offering to Ceres and 
Bacchus. Per saturam, by the gross 
or lump, without order or distinction, 

Saucio, are, avi, atum, a., to wound, 
hurt : from 

Saucius, a, um, adj., wounded, hurt 

Saxeus, a, um, adj., of stone, stony, 
rocky ; from 

Saxum, i, n., a stone, rock, crag, 

Scales, arum,f. pi. (scando, to climb), 
a ladder, stair. Aggrtdi scalis^Ao 

Scaurus, i. m. (M. JEmilius), a Ro- 
man Consul, A. U. C. 639, and leader 
of the senate, A. U. C. 640, during the 
war with Jugurtha. J. 15, 25, 29, 
30, 32. 

Sceleratus, a, um, adj. (scelero, to 
pollute), wicked, bad, impious, vicious, 
flagitious, nefarious. 

Scelestus, a, um, adj., wicked, mis- 
chievous, unprincipled, impious, infa- 
mous, detestable : from 

Scelus, Zris, n., wickedness, villainy, 
guilt, crime, impiety. Per scelus, ne- 
fariously, wickedly. Per summum 
scelus, most wickedly or villainously. 

Sciens, tis, part. § adj. (scio), $213, 
knowing, acquainted with, having a 
knowledge of; skillful, well skilled or 
versed, expert. Me sciente, with my 
knowledge, if I know it. 

Scientia, cb, f. (sciens), knowledge, 
science, skill, expertness. 

Scilicet, adv. (for scire or scias licet) 
it is evident, clear or manifest, it is 
plain, you may be sure ; truly, m truth, 




certainly, indeed, doubtless, assured- 
ly; forsooth; to wit, that is to say. 
It is often used ironically. It is some- 
times followed by an infinitive depend- 
ing on scire or scias in composition^ 

Scio, Ire, Ivi, itum, a., § 272, $ 265, 
to know, understand, be aware; to 
learn, hear. 

Scipio, dnis, m., P. Cornelius Scipio 
Africanus, an illustrious Roman gene- 
ral by whom Hannibal was defeated 
at the battle of Zama. He is some- 
times called Africanus Major. J. 4, 5. 

Scipio, dnis, m., P. Cornelius Scipio 
JEmilianus Africanus, by whom Car- 
thage and Numantia were destroyed, 
was the son of Paulus iEmilius, and 
grandson by adoption of P. Cornelius 
Scipio Africanus major. J. 7, 8, 22. 

Scipio, dnis, m., P. Cornelius Scipio 
Nasica, was the great-grandson of 
that Scipio whom the Roman senate 
adjudged to be the best man in Rome, 
and the son of him who slew Tiberius 
Gracchus. He was consul, A. U. C. 
643. J. 27. 

Scite, adv. (scitus, skillful), skillfully, 
dexterously, nicely, exactly; ingeni- 
ously ; elegantly, tastefully, genteelly. 

Scortum, i, n., a skin, a hide ; a har- 
lot, courtezan, mistress, prostitute. 

Scribo, ere, psi, ptum, a., to mark, 
cut or imprint lines; to draw; to 
write; to draw up, write, compose, 
treat of in writing, commit to writing, 
record ; § 230, to designate, or appoint. 
Scribere milites, exercitum, fyc, to en- 
list, enrol, levy — . 

Scrinium, i, n., a casket, coffer, 
trunk, chest, case, desk, escritoire, 

Scriptor, oris, m. (scribo), a writer, 
scrivener, author, narrator, historian. 

Scriptus, a, urn, part, (scribo.) 

Scrator, ari, alas sum, dep (scruta, 
old clothes), to feel, search, explore, 
examine, investigate. 

Scutum, i, n., a buckler, shield 

Se,insep. prep., without, apart, aside, 
$ 196, (b.) & 4. 

Se, pro., see Smi. 

Secedo, ere, cessi, cessum, n. (se fy 
cedo),%o go apart, retire, withdraw, 
retreat, secede, separate. 

Secessio, onis,f. (secedo), a letiring, 
withdrawing, separation, secession ; a 
secession of the plebeians from the 

Secretb, adv., separately, apart, aside, 
secretly, in secret, in private -.from 

Secretus, a, urn, part, ty adj. (se- 
cerno, to separate), separated, severed, 
remote, apart, separate, alone ; secret 

Secum, for cum se, see Cum # Sui. 

Secundum, prep, with the ace, and 
adv., nigh, near, after, behind, next 
to, in the second place, in the next 

Secundus, a, um, adj. (sequor), 
second, following, going or coming 
after; favorable, favoring, prosper- 
ous, lucky, successful. Secundo mari % 
along the sea-coast. Secundus heres, 
see Heres. Secunda oratio, a lauda- 
tory or flattering speech. SecundcB 
res, see -Res. 

Secus, adv. (sequor), otherwise, dif- 
ferently. Haud, non or nee secus, 
not otherwise, not less, equally, jusE 
as though: — it is often followed by ac, 
atque or quam, than, and may be 
translated, otherwise than ; non secus 
ac, or atque, not otherwise than, just 
as :— unsuccessfully, unfortunately, ill. 
Secus cedere or procedere, to turn out 
otherwise than one hopes or expecta 
to turn out ill, fail of success. 

Secutus,a, um,part. (sequor), 

Sed, adversative, conj., but, now. It 
is commonly used to denote distinction 
or opposition, but is sometimes only 
continuative or marks a transition 
from one subject to another Sed t* 




tcmeiimes equivalent to sed etiam and 
is also sometimes omitted. 

Sedes, is, f. (sedeo, to sit), a seat, 
chair, bench ; a seat, abode, dwelling 
place, residence, settlement, habita- 

Seditio, onis, f. (sedeo), dissension, 
discord, strife ; a popular commotion 
or insurrection, civil discord, sedi- 

Seditiosus, a, um y adj. (seditio), tur- 
bulent, tumultuous, seditious, treason- 
able, factious, mutinous. 

Sedo, are, dvi, dtum, a., to allay, ap- 
pease, mitigate, calm, soften, assuage, 
allay, pacify, quiet, soothe, check, 
quench, extinguish. 

Segnis, e, adj., dull, heavy, slothful, 
slow, inactive, sluggish, lazy, cow- 

Segritter, adv. (segnis), slowly, slug- 
gishly, slothfully, negligently. Nihilo 
segnius, § 256, R. 16, with the same 
activity or eagerness, with undiminish- 
ed zeal nevertheless, notwithstanding. 

Sella, <e,f. (sedeo), a seat, chair. 

Semet, see Sui. 

Semisomnus, a, urn, adj. (semi, half, 
fy 8omnus), half-asleep, half-awake. 

Semper, adv., always, ever, forever, 

Sempronia, ce, /., a profligate wo- 
man who was concerned in the Cati- 
linarian conspiracy. She was the 
wife, of D. Junius Brutus, and had a 
son, D Brutus, who subsequently took 
part in the conspiracy against Caesar. 
C. 25, 40. 

Semprpnius, a, um, adj., of or re- 
lating to Sempronius, Sempronian. 
Sempronia lex, a law introduced by 
Sempronius Gracchus, A. U. C. 630. 
requiring two provinces to be annually 
assigned for the consuls, by the senate, 
before the consular election. These 
provinces the consuls subsequently took 
by lot or otherwise, as they pleased. 
J. 27. 

Seniltor, oris, m., a senator, (senex 

Senatorius, a, um, adj. (senator), of 
or belonging to a senator, senatorial 

Senatus, us or i, m. (senex), a se- 
nate, council, the Roman senate. 

Senectus, utis, f. (senex, old), age, 
old age. 

Senesco, Ire, senui, n. incept, (uneo 
to be old), to grow or become old ; to 
fade, pine or waste away, decay, wear 
away, fail, ^decline, decrease; to be- 
come torpid or languid; to be com- 
posed, settled. 

Sententia, ce, f. (sentio), opinion 
judgment, resolution, mind, purpose, 
intention, will. Ex sententia, pros- 
perously, successfully, according to 
one's wish or desire, satisfactorily, to 
one's mind. Vir ex sententia ambo- 
bus, agreeable, acceptable. . Mea sen- 
tentia, in my opinion or judgment, as 
I conceive, as I think or imagine. Ex 
animi sententia, truly, sincerely, se- 
riously, positively, in my opinion, on 
my conscience—: — a vote, suffrage, 
sentence, decree, judgment. Senten- 
tiam dicere, to give one's opinion or 
vote: — sense, signification, meaning, 
purport; a thought, sentiment, sen- 

Sentzna, ce, /., the bilge-water and 
filth in the bottom of a ship ; the bot- 
tom of a ship where the bilge-water 
is ; a sink, sewer. Fig. the rabble. 

Sentio, ire, sensi, sensum, a., to dis- 
cern by the senses, perceive, feel, see, 
discover, observe, find out, know, be 
sensible or aware; to think, judge, 
suppose, entertain an opinion or sen- 
timent. Sentire contra rempublicam, 
to be hostile to the government. 

Seorsum, adv. (se fy verto) apart 
asunder, separately. With a. apart 
from, without. 

Separatim, adv. (separdtus, sepa- 
rate), separately, apart, severally 

Septimius, i, m., a Roman name, a 




Camertian, confederate with Catiline. 
C. 27. 

Sequor, i, cutus sum, dep., to go or 
come after, walk behind, follow, at- 
tend, wait upon, accompany; to be 
consequent upon, connected with ; to 
iollow'after, seek for, pursue, aim at; 
to favor, take the part of; to regard, 
obey; to follow, imftate; to accord 
with, correspond to, partake of. Here 
sequi decrevistis, — to pursue these 
measures or this course.* Inertiam 
sequi, to indulge, practice — . 

Serius, a, um, adj., grave, serious, 
in earnest ; of weight or importance. 
Seria, drum, n. pi., serious affairs, 
matters of weight. 

Sermo, dnis, m. (sero, to connect), 
common discourse, talk, speech, con- 

Serpens, tis, m. tyf (serpo, to creep), 
a serpent. 

Servllis, e, adj. (servus), of or per- 
taining to a slave or slaves, slavish, 

Servio, ire, wi, ttum, n. (servus), § 
223, R. 2, to be a slave, serve, obey, 
be subservient to, have regard to, aim 
at, be devoted to. 

Servitium, i, n. (servus), slavery, 
servitude, bondage, service, subjec- 
tion. Servitia, pi., slaves, a body of 

ServVtus utis, f. (servus), slavery, 
servitude, service, bondage, thraldom. 

Servius, i, m., a Roman pranomen. 

Servo, are, dvi, dtum, a. <$• n., to 
save, preserve ; to observe, keep, main- 
tain ; to guard, watch. 

Servus, a, um, adj., serving, subject. 
Servus, i, m., a slave, bondman, ser- 

Sestertius, i, m. (semis, half, $■ ten 
tiust § 327), a sesterce, of the value of 
two asses and a half, or one fourth of 
a denarius, or about 3 1-4 cents of our 
money. Sestertium, i, n„ a thousand 


Severe*, adv. (severus), gravely* se- 
riously, severely, rigidly. 

Sevefitas, atis, f, gravity, serious- 
ness, severity, strictness, austerity: 

Severus, a, um, adj., grave reserv 
ed, serious, severe, rigorous strict, 

Sextius, i, m., a Roman name. The 
name of a quaestor under Bestia. 

Sextus, a, um, num, adj. (sex six), 
the sixth; also, a Roman praeno- 

Si, conj. $ 261, if, provided, in case ; 
since; although, even if. Si modo, 
see Modo ; quod si, see Qudd. 

Sibyllinus, a, um, adj. (sibylla, a 
sibyl or prophetess), of or pertaining 
to a sibyl, sibylline. There were ten 
sibyls who lived at different periods 
and in various countries. Among 
these the Cumcsan sibyl was highly dis' 
tinguished, and the books containing 
her prophecies were preserved with 
great respect by the Romans. C. 47. 

Sic, adv., so, thus; accordingly 
Sic ut, so that, so as ; — hence, there- 
fore. Sic like ita is sometimes used in 
anticipation of a proposition. See 
Ita, and J. 114. 

Sicca, (t, /., a city of Numidia, in 
which was a celebrated temple of 
Venus. J. 56. 

Siccenses, ium, m. pi., the inhabi 
tants of Sicca. J. 56. 

Sicilia, ce,f, Sicily. J. 28. 

Sicut $ Sicuti, conj., (sic ut, $• sic 
uti), so as, just as, as, acccording as; 
as it were, as if, like. 

Sidonius, fy Sidoriicus, a, um, adj. 
Sidonian, Tyrian, Phoenician of or 
belonging to Sidon, a city of Phoeni- 
cia Sidonii, drum, m. pi., Sidonians, 
inhabitants of Sidon. J. 78. 

Signdtor, oris, m. (signo), a sealer 
signer, one who attests a writing by 
affixing his seal. Signdtor falsus a 
false signer, a forger. 




Sign&tus, a, urn, part (signo), mark- 
ed, signed, sealed. 

Signiflco, are, avi, atum, a. (signum 
$ facio), to give notice or warning, 
signify, indicate, intimate, notify, 
show, declare. Significare manu, to 

Signo, are, avi, atum, a., to mark, 
mark out ; to seal, sign : from 

Signum, i, n., a mark, sign ; a to- 
ken ; a statue ; a seal, impression ; a 
standard, ensign, banner, flag ; by 
metonomy, troops, forces ; a signal in 
war ; a watchword, i. e. a word, given 
to the soldiers of an army or to a senti- 
nel on duty, by means of which friends 
could be distinguished from enemies. 
Dare signum, to give a signal. Eo 
signo, on this signal, $ 247. Signa 
canere, to give the signal by sound of 
trumpet, to sound the trumpets for 
battle. See Cano. Relinquere sig- 
num, to desert one's standard. Ob- 
servare signa, to mind or heed the 
standards. The standard was usually 
the figure of some animal; the princi- 
pal standard of a whole legion was the 
figure of an eagle, but besides this 
every maniple had its own standard. 

Silanus, i, m. (T. Ikirpilius), a Ro- 
man governor of the town of Vacca, 
in the Jugurthine war. J. 66, 67, 

Silanus, i, m. (D. Junius), a Roman 
consul, A. U. C. 692. C. 50, 51. 

Silanus, i, m. (M. Junius), a Roman 
consul, A. U. C. 645. The province 
of Gaul was assigned to him where 
he was defeated in battle by the Cim- 

Silentium, i, n., a being silent ; si- 
lence. Silentio, abl., in silence, si^ 
..entry, in obscurity ; — quietness, inac- 
tivity, sloth, stillness : from 

Sileo, ere, ui, n. Sf a., to be silent, 
keep silence, be still, say nothing. 
Siletur, imp.j silence is maintained, 
nothing is said. 

Simttis, e, adj. $ 222, like, resem- 
bling, similar. 

Similitudo, tnis, f (similis), like- 
ness, resemblance, similitude, simi 

Simul, adv. (similis), ' together, in 
company, at once, together with, 
along with, at the same time; like- 
wise, also, besides. As a connective it 
serves to unite that which is of less, to 
that which is of greater moment. Si- 
mul ac, simulac or simply simul, as 
soon as, as soon as ever. Simul et, 
at the same time — and, at the same 
time— and also, both — and. 

Simulans, tis, part, (simulo). 

Simulator, oris, m., a feigner, pre- 
tender, counterfeiter, one who pre- 
tends that to be which is not, skillful 
in simulation. Cujuslibet rei simula- 
tor ac dissimulator, skilled in every 
species of simulation and dissimula- 
tion : from 

Simulo, are, avi, atum, a. (similis), $ 
272, to feign, make like the reality, 
pretend, counterfeit, simulate; to be 
like to, resemble, imitate. Ad simu- 
landa negotia altitudo ingenii incre- 
dibilis, — in the arts of simulation, 
in giving to things a false appear- 

Simultas, atis, f. (similis), a dis- 
guised malice or hatred, secret grudge, 
dissembled animosity, enmity, hatred, 

Sin, conj., but if, if however; si, if, 
is often found in a preceding clause. 
Sin has the force of sed si, being both 
adversative and conditional. 

Sine, prep, with the abl., without. 
Sine with the noun following it, in 
stead of depending on a verb, has often 
the force of a negative adjective or a 
genitive of quality, limiting the mean 
ing of a preceding noun ; a%, oppida 
sine pr&sidio, — ungarrisoned. 

SingulZtim, adv., one by one, seve 
rally, singly, particularly, individual!} . 


*m 265 


Singulatim circumire, to go about 
from one to anotlier : from 

Singulus, a, um, adj., single, one by 
one, each, every, every one, one at a 
time. Singulos appellare, lecdere, etc., 
—separate, single ; or separately, sing- 
ly, individually. 

Sinister, tra, trum, adj.'hft, on the 
left, on the left hand or side. Sinis- 
tra, <B,f., sc. manus, the left hand. 

Sino, ere, sivi, sltum, a., § 273, 4, to 
permit, suffer, allow, let alone. 

Sinus, us, m„ the bosom ; the lap ; 
the innermost part, the heart ; a bay, 
creek, gulf. 

Siquis fy siqui, siqua, siquod fy si- 
quid, or separately, si quis, etc., indef. 
pro. $ 138 & $ 137, R. (3), if any one, 
if any. It may often be translated, 
whoever, whatever. 

Sisenna, <b, m. (L.) a historian be- 
longing to the Cornelian family, who 
wrote a history of the social war and 
of that waged by Sylla. J. 95. 

Sitis, is, /. $ 79, 2 & $ 82, Ex. 2, 
thirst. Fig. drought, dryness, sultri- 

Sittius, i, m„ see Nucerinus. 

Situs, its, m. (smo), site, situation, 
local position ; a region, country, tract. 

Situs, a, um, part, ty adj. {sino), situ- 
ated, situate, placed, set, put, lying, 
built. Situs esse, to rest, depend, be 
placed, $ 265. 

Sive, conj. (si fy ve, or), or if, or in- 
deed if, and if, or ; sive — sive or seu, 
whether — or whether; whether — or 
ratheV; whether — or. 

Soda, at, /. {socius), a wife, partner, 

SociUas, atis,f, partnership, union, 
connexion, company, society, fellow- 
ship, association, alliance, participa- 
tion; a league, confederacy, alliance: 

Socius, a, um, adj., united, associ- 
ated, joining or sharing in, partaking, 
allied, confederate. Socius, i, m., a 

companion, associate, fellow, sharei 
partner; an ally, confederate. Socit 
or socii Itdlici, Italian allies, allies 
from, all parts of Italy south of the 
Rubicon except Latium. 

Socordia, a, f, foolishness, folly 
dullness ; carelessness, indolence, 
sloth, sluggishness, inactivity : from 

Socors, dis, adj. (se fy cor), sense- 
less, thoughtless, foolish, silly, dull 
stupid ; sluggish, inactive, slothful, la- 
zy, careless, negligent, indolent. 

Sol, solis, m., the sun. Magis sub 
sole, more under the sun, nearer the 
equator. • 

Solemnis, e, adj. (sollus, the whole, 
Sf annus), solemn, performed at cer- 
tain times and with certain rites, fes- 
tive, celebrated, appointed, stated ; ac- 
customed, ordinary, usual, customary. 
Solemne, is, n., a solemnity, solemn 
festival, solemn rite or ceremony. 

Soleo, ere, ttus sum, neut.pass. $ 142, 
& 2, § 271, to use, be accustomed or 
wont ; to be usual or customary. It 
may sometimes be translated " frequent- 
ly, often ;" as, Docetque se audire soli- 
turn, — that he had often heard. Ut 
solet, as is usual. Solet sc. facere, is 
wont to do. The pluperfect of this 
verb has often the force of an imperfect. 

Solers, tis, adj. (sollus, the whole, <$r 
ars), § 213, ingenious, skillful, expert, 

Solertia, ce,f. (solers), ingenuity, sa- 
gacity, genius, quickness, shrewdness ; 
craftiness, subtlety, cunning. 

Solitudo, inis, f (solus), a ifonely or 
solitary place; a desert, wilderness; 
solitude ; solitariness. Ubi postquam 
solitudinem intellexit, — the solitari- 
ness of the place. 

Solitus, a, umi part, (soleo). 

Sollicitdtus, a, um, part. : from 

Sollicito, lire, Hvi, Stum, a., to move, 
stir ; to disturb, trouble ; to allure, en- 
tice, gam over, invite, exei*e; to 
tempt, instigate, stir up, urge to rebel 




lion, induce, urge, rouse, press, solicit 
With ad. 

Sollicitudo, fnis,f, solicitude, anxie- 
ty, disquiet, trouble, uneasiness of 
mind, cfcre. 

Sollicttus, a, um, adj., solicitous, 
anxious, uneasy, troubled, disquieted, 

Solum, adv., only, alone : from 

Solus, a, iim adj. § 107, alone, only ; 
lonely solitary, desert, retired, unfre- 
quented; destitute of kindred or 

Solutus, a, um, part. Sf adj., loosed, 
unbound, leleased, relaxed, loose, lax ; 
free, independent, unrestrained; dis- 
united, dissevered, divided, uncom- 
pacted; paid, settled, liquidated, dis- 
charged : from 

Solvo, ere, solvi, solufum, a., to loose, 
loosen, unloose, untie, unbind; to 
weaken, relax, enervate, enfeeble; to 
solve, explain ; to pay, discharge ; to 
atone for. Solvere peenas, to suffer 

Somnus, i, m., sleep, slumber, rest, 
repose. Fig. sloth, laziness. Captus 
somno, overtaken or overpowered by 

Sortitus, us, m. (sono), a sound, 
noise, din. 

Sons, tis, adj., hurtful, noxious ; ac- 
cused ; guilty, criminal. 

Sordzdus, a, um, adj. (sordes, filth), 
filthy, dirty, squalid, sordid, penurious, 
niggardly, foul, base, mean, low, des- 

Sp., an abbreviation of the prceno- 
men Spurius. 

Sparus, i, m., a dart, lance, spear. 

Spa'.ium, i, n., a course, race- 
' ground; a running, race, course; 
space, room, extent; distance, inter- 
val ; time, an interval or space of time. 
Brevi tpa*,io, in a short time. 

Species,, ei,f. (specio, to see), a form, 
figure, fashion, shape, appearance 
a sight, spectacle; semblance, ap- 

pearance; a pretext, color, pretence 
cloak, show ; an image, picture, like- 
ness ; beauty. Specie, in appearance. 
Ager una, specie, — of a uniform ap- 

Spectaculum, i, n. (specto), a specta- 
cle, public sight or show ; a sight, spec- 

Spectatus, a, um, part, ty adj., seen, i 
beheld ; # 222, 3, known, proved, ap- 
proved, tried : from 

Specto, are, avi, atum, a. frea. (spe- 
cio, to see), to behold, look or gaze 
upon, view; to see, observe, mark, 
regard ; to try, prove, examine. 

Speculator, oris, m. (speculor), a spy, 

Speculatus, a, um, part. : from 

Speculor, ari, atus sum, dep. {specula, 
a watch tower), to view, espy, observe, 
explore, watch. 

Speratus, a, um, part., hoped for, 
looked for, expected : from 

Spero, are, avi, atum, a. $ 272, to 
hope, trust, feel confident, expect. 

Spes, ei,f, hope, confidence, expec- 
tation, reliance, prospect. Contra 
spem, contrary to expectation. Pro- 
ficiscitur magnb, spe civium, — with 
high expectations on the part of his 
fellow citizens. Spes maxima, confi- 
dent hope, the most sanguine expec- 
tations, the most extravagant hopes. 
Bona spes, a firm hope, confidence. 
Habere spem in aliquo, to put confi- 
dence, rest one's hopes, depend upon — . 
In spe habere, to have in prospect, to 
hope for. Amplior spe, more'than 
was expected. 

Spiniher, his, m. (P. Cornelius Len* 
tulus), a Roman ed le during the con- 
sulship of Cicero. C. 47. 

Spiro, are, avi, atum, n., to breathe. 

Spoliatus, a, um, part. : from 

Spolio, are. avi, atum, a. $ 251, to 
strip, bereave, deprive of, rob, plun- 
j der, spoil, pillage : jrom 
\ Spolium, i, n., the skin stripped off 




a beast ; spoil, plunder, pillage, booty, 

Sponsio, onis, f. (spondeo, to pro- 
mise), a promise, engagement, bond, 
stipulation, bargain. Sponsionem fa- 
cere, to agree, stipulate. 

Spurius, i, m., a Roman prccnomen. 

Stalilius, i f m. (L.), a Roman knight 
confederate with Catiline. C. 17, 43, 

Statim, adv. (sto, to stand), firmly, 
immediately, forthwith, straightway, 
without delay. 

Slatlvus, a, um, adj. {sto, to stand), 
standing. Stativa caslra, a standing 
or stationary camp, station, quarters. 

Statuo, ere, ui, uturn, a. (sto), to set 
up, raise, erect ; to put, place, set, sta- 
tion, draw up, post, establish, fix; § 
272, to hold, judge, conclude, make up 
one's mind, be of opinion, firmly be- 
lieve ; $ 271, to resolve, determine, de- 
cide, appoint, fix, assign, ordain, de- 
cree ; to give sentence, pass sentence 
or judgment, condemn. 

Status, its, m. (sto), a standing. 
standing still ; a state, station, condi- 
tion, situation, lank. 

Stimulo, are, avi, atum, a. (stimulus, 
a goad), to prick, goad; to torment, 
vex, trouble, disturb ; to urge or drive 
on, impel, rouse, incite, instigate, 
stimulate ; to provoke, stir up, excite- 

Stipator, oris, m. (stipo, to stufT), an 
attendant, companion ; a guard, body- 

Stipendium, i, n. (stips, a small coin, 
<£• pendo), the pay of soldiers, the pay 
of an army, wages ; a stipend or sala- 
ry. Stipendia facere, to serve as a 
soldier. Stipendiis faciendis sese ex- 
ercuit, — in actual service. Miles ent- 
eritis stipendiis, a soldier who has 
completed his term of service, and re- 
ceived his discharge. Homo nullius 
stipendii, one who has seen no ser- 
vice, of no military experience; — a 
tribute cr tax. 

Stirps, pis, m. fy /., the root of a 
tree, the trunk, stump or body of a 
tree, the stem or stock of a tree or 
plant. Fig. the origin or foundation ; 
a beginning, rise, source; a stock, 
family, kindred, race, lineage; off 
spring, progeny, posterity. Ab stupe, 
from the root, utterly ; also, from one's • 
origin or ancestors, in virtue of one's 

Strenue, adv., strenuously, vigorous- 
ly, bravely : from 

Strenuus, a, urn, adj. § 126, 5, (a.) $ 
250, active, strenuous, energetic, rea 
dy, prompt, quick, vigorous, stout; 
brave, valiant. 

Strepttus, us, m„ a harsh or con 
fused noise, hurly-burly, rustling, rat- 
tling, clashing, din, clattering, clamor, 
shouting, uproar, loud noise: from 

Strepo, ere, ui, Itum, n., to make a 
noise or harsh sound, rustle, roar, rat- 
tle, ring, resound. Strepere voce, to 
shout, yell. 

Studeo, ere, ui, n., § 223, $ 272, $ 
•271. R. 4, to study, attend to, apply the 
mind to, take delight in, be devoted to, 
fancy, labor or exert one's self for, be 
bent on, be ambitious of, pursue ; to 
be attached to, favor, be partial to ; to 
desire, aim, wish, be anxious. Novis 
rebus studere, to plot a revolution in 
the state. 

Studium, i, n., study, care, diligence, 
attention; eagerness, zeal, ardor of 
mind, fondness, desire, inclination 
propensity, taste, will, humor, fancy ; 
favor, partiality, attachment, regard, 
affection; pursuit, employment, pro- 
fession, favorite study. Studia civilia, 
civil dissensions, contentions among 
the citizens. Summo studio or ~um 
summo studio, with the greatest zeal f 
very zealously, very eagerly 

Stultitia, cb, f, folly, foolishness. 

Stultuf a, urn, adj., foolish, unwise, 




Stujyrum, i, n., seduction, violation, 
fornication, adultery, lewdness, de- 
bauchery. Stuprum corporis, prosti- 
tution. Multa nefanda stupra fecerat, 
had committed many atrocious acts 
of lewdness. 

, Suadeo, ere, si, sum, n. fy a. § 223, 
R. 2, $ 273, 2, to advise, exhort, re- 
commend, suggest, counsel, urge. 

Sub, prep, with ace. or abl. $ 235, 
(2.) under; beneath, at the foot of; on; 
at, during; towards., near, by. 

Subaclus, a, um, part, (subigo). 

Subdole, adv., deceitfully, cunning- 
ly, craftily, subtly, slyly, artfully : 

Subdolus, a, um, adj. (sub fy dolus), 
cunning, crafty, deceitful, sly, subtle. 

Subduco, Ire, xi, ctum, a. (sub <$■ 
duco), to draw up, lift or raise up, 
raise, withdraw, take away, remove, 
draw off, lead 'away. 

Subigo, ere, egi, actum, a. (sub $ 
ago), to bring, lead or conduct under ; 
to urge on, lead, impel, drive, force, 
constrain, compel, oblige, necessitate; 
to subject, subjugate, reduce, van- 
quish, conquer, subdue. In Sallust 
. with inf. and ace. 

Sublatus, a, um, part, (sustollo), rais- 
ed; taken away, removed. Sublato 
auctore, concealing the (name of her) 

Sublevo, are, avi, atum, a. (sub fy 
levo), to lift, raise or hold up, support ; 
to help, aid, succor, relieve, assist, fa- 
vor, protect, defend; to ease, lighten, 
lessen, diminish, soften. 

Subsidium, i, n. (subsideo, to lie in 
wait), a body of troops in reserve, a 
reinforcement; a line or rank of 
troops; aid, help, assistance, succor. 
Locare or collocai e in subsidio or sub- 
sidiis, to station as a reserve. The 
name of subsidium was especially ap- 
plied to the triarii, see Pilus. 

Subv'&nio, ire, veni, ventum, n. (sub ty 
vonw), S 224, to come on, to come 

after; to come to one's assistance 
assist, aid, help, succoi relieve Pri- 
usquam subveniretur, before assist 
ance could be given. Subveniendum 
est, assistance must or should be given. 

Subverto, Ire, ti, sum, a. (sub <jr ver 
to), to turn upside down, overturn, 
overthrow, demolish, subvert, annul, 
reverse, make void, destroy, put an 
end to ; to corrupt, impair. 

Succedd, ere, cessi, cessum, n. (sub $■ 
cedo), to approach something elevated, 
as the walls of a town, &c, to go un- 
der, go to, approach, advance. It is 
followed by the dative, $ 224, or by the 
accusative with ad. 

Succurro, ere, curri, cur sum, n. (sub 
§ curro, to run), § 224, to run under ; 
to run to one's assistance, succor, aid, 
assist, help, relieve. 

Sudes, is,f„a stake. 

Sudor, oris, m., sweat. Fig. labor, 
fatigue, toil, difficulty, pains, exertion. 

Suffvdio, ere, fodi,fossum, a. (sub $ 
fodio, to dig), to dig under, under- 

Suffragatio, onis, f. (svffragoi to 
vote for), giving one's vote or influ- 
ence to get a person elected, a voting 
for one, earnestness or zeal to promote 
one's election, interest in one's favor, 

Sui, sibi, se, subs, pro. m. f. fy n., § 
.133, of himself, herself, itself, them- 
selves, &c. In the ace. $■ abl. it is 
often doubled, sese. The prep, cum 
when used with se is annexed to it, as 
secum. The particle met is often an- 
nexed intensively ; § 133, R. 2. 

Sulla, as, m. (P. Cornelius), a consul 
elect, A. U. C. 688, who was convict- 
ed of bribery. C. 17, 18. 

Sulla, ce, m. (Servius Cornelius), a 
confederate of Catiline, and brother 
of P. Sulla. C. 17, 47. 

Sulla, cc, m. (I. Cornelius), L. Cor 
nelius Sylla or Sulla, a Roman gene 
ral of the Cornelian gens, distinguish 




ed for his military talents, and still 
more for his enmity to Marius, and his 
cruelties during the civil wars. He 
was the uncle of Publius and Servius 
Cornelius Sylla. J.95,&c. C. 5,&c. 

Sulldnus, a, um, adj., of or relating 
to Sylla. Sylla's. C.21. 

Sulphur, uris, n., sulphur, brim- 

Sum, esse, fui, irr. n. § 153, to be ; 
to exist, live; to stay, remain, con- 
tinue, abide. With two datives, § 227, 
to bring, confer, be, serve, constitute, 
become, be accounted, prove, afford. 
Esse in conjuratione, to be engaged 
or 'concerned in — . Esse extra con- 
jurationem, not to be engaged in — . 
Supra esse, to exceed, surpass. Post 
esse, see Post. Esse pluris, etc. to be 
worth,-^$ 214. With a dative of the 
possessor, $ 226, to have. With a 
genitive or ablative of character, &c, 
$ 211, R. 6 & 8, to be of, to possess. 
To rest in, be placed upon. To be 
the part, property, &c. to become, § 
211, R. 8, (3). It often takes an adverb 
in the predicate where an adjective is 
wed in English ; as, Mala abunde 
omnia erant, — were abundant. Frus- 
tra esse, to be unsuccessful or fruitless 
as, Cujus consilium frustra erat. Ita 
sum, for talis sum. — Fuere qui dice- 
rent, some said, § 264, 6: — to tend, 
serve, contribute, with the genitive of a 
gerund or gerundive. 

Summus, a, um, adj. (sup. of supe- 
rus), highest, at the top, topmost, up- 
permost ; last, greatest, very great, su- 
preme, utmost, consummate, extreme, 
glorious. Summus vir, very great or 
eminent, illustrious, excellent — . Sum- 
ma ope or vi, with all one's might or 
power with might and main. Sum- 
mum, i, n., the top or summit of any 

Sumo, tre, sumpsi, sumptum, a., to. 
take,, take up, receive. Pecuniam 
mutuam sumere, to borrow — . Su- 

mere supplicium de aliquo. to punish 
inflict punishment upon : — to choose, 
select. Bellum sumere, to enter upon 
engage in, undertake:— to procure 
Liberos sumere, to adopt — . 

Sumptus, us, m. {sumo), charge, ex- 
pense, cost. 

Sumptus, a, um, part, (sumo) 

Sudmet, see Suus. 

Supellex, lecttlis, f., household fur- 
niture or goods, movables, chattels. 

Super, prep, with ace. or abl. § 235, 
(3) ; with ace, over, above, on, upon, 
beyond, more than ; with abl., of, on, 
about, concerning. Super esse, to 
surpass. Also adv., over, above, over 
and above. Satis superque, enough 
and more than enough. 

Superbia, as, f, pride, haughtiness, 
insolence, arrogance. Per superbiam, 
proudly, haughtily : from 

Superbus a, um, adj., % proud, haugh 
ty, vain-glorious, arrogant, insolent 

Superior, us, adj. (comp. of super us), 
higher, upper; past, gone by, preced- 
ing, former, first ; superior. Discedere 
superior, to come off victorious. 

Supero, are, avi, atum, a. ty n. (su- 
per), to outreach, outdo, outstrip, sur- 
pass, exceed, excel, outweigh, be supe- 
rior to; to overbalance, more than 
compensate; to overcome, conquer, 
vanquish, subdue, destroy; to refute, 
disprove, repel ; to abound, be abun- 
dant, be supeifluous or redundant: to 
remain. Superare alicui, to be too 
much for — , to be more than one can 
perform, $223. 

Supersto, are, n. (super ty sto), to 
stand over or upon. 

Superus, a, um, adj. (super), comp. 
superior, sup. supremus or summus^ 
above, upper. 

Supervacaneus, a, um, adj. Isuper- 
vaco, to be superfluous), $ 222, above 
what is necessary, usual or ordinary 
that is not strictly necessary, tran- 




winding the limits of necessity, su- 
perfluous, needless. 

Supervado, ere, n. (super <jr vado), § 
233, to go, climb or pass over, sur- 

SuppUo, %rc, mi, Hum, a. (sub fy 
peto), to occur, suggest itself, come 
into one's mind; to be near or at 
hand Minus suppetere, not to oc- 

Supplementum, i, n. (suppleo, to 
supply), a supply, filling up, supple- 
ment; supplies, reinforcements, re- 
cruits. "' Supplementum scribere, to 
levy or enlist recruits. 

Supplex, tcis, adj. (sub fy plico, to 
fold), suppliant, begging or entreating 
on one's knees, kneeling, prostrate, 
humble, submissive. Subs, a suppli- 
ant, humble petitioner. 

Supplicium, i, n. (supplex), a suppli- 
cation, prayer humble entreaty, soli- 
citation ; supplicatory offerings or sa- 
crifices, a public thanksgiving, wor- 
ship; capital punishment, condign 
punishment, torture, any severe pun- 
ishment. Summum supplicium, capi- 
tal punishment. Supplicio cogere, to 
govern with severity, impel to duty by 

Supplico, are, avi, atum, n. (supplex), 
$ 224, to kneel before, make supplica- 
tion to, pray or beg humbly, beseech, 
implore, entreat, supplicate, worship. 

Supra, prep, with ace. (superus), 
above, over, upon, beyond, more than. 
Supra esse, to surpass. Supra bonum 
atque honestum, beyond what is proper 
and becoming. Supra caput esse, to 
be over the head, to be near, to be at 
nand, to menace. Also, adv. above, 
before, farther. Supra repetere, to so 
farther back, to carry one's narration 
farther back. Patiens supra 
quam credibile est, more than, above 
or beyond what, higher or farther 

Sura, (b, m., see I<entulus 

Susceptus, a, urn, part, taken up 
undertaken : from 

Suscipio, ere, cepi, ceptum, a. (mr 
sum, up, $ capio), to take or lift up* 
receive, catch ; to bear, sutler ; to un- 
dertake, take in hand, take up, enter 
upon, begin, engage in, encounter 
take upon one's self, incur, undergo. 

Susp>ectus, a, um, part, fy adj. (sus- 
picio), § 222, suspected, mistrusted 
suspicious. Habere suspectum, to sus* 

Suspicio, onis, /., suspicion, mis- 
trust, distrust, jealousy : from 

Suspicio, Zre, pexi, pectum, n. fy a 
(sursum, up, or sub § specio, to see), 
to look up or upwards ; to look up to, 
admire, honor, respect; to mistrust 

Susptcor, ari, atus sum, dep. (suspi- 
cio), to suspect, apprehend, fear, mis-- 
trust ; to think, imagine. 

Sustento, are, avi, atum, a. freq., to 
sustain, bear or hold up, uphold, feed, 
support, maintain ; to hold out, bear, 
suffer, endure; to withstand, oppose, 
resist; to check, stop, restrain, keep 
back : from 

Sustlneo, ere, tinui, tentum, a. (sur- 
sum, up, <$r teneo), to hold up, sustain, 
uphold, support, undertake, bear, car- 
ry, hold, discharge ; to defend, support, 
protect, preserve, maintain, nourish; 
to suffer, bear, undergo, endure, hold 
out against. 

Sustollo, Ire, sustuli, subldtvm, a. 
(sursum $■ tollo), to raise or lift up ; to 
take away, remove, suppress. The 
second and third roots of this verb are 
taken from suffeio. 

Suthul, ulis, n., a town of Numidia 
J. 37, 38. 

Suus, a, um, poss. adj. pro. $ 139, 
(sui), § 208, one's own, its own, his <r 
her own, their own; his, hers, ito. 
their. Suum or pi. sua, w. one's own 
property, possessions or rights. Suus 
locus, the place of one's own choice 




tnd hence favorable. Sui, one's l Taceo, ere, id, Ifum, n., to be silen 
«riends, party, side, people, soldseis, hold one's peace, say nothing. 

. &c. § 205. R. 7, (1) N. 1. The enclitics 
met and pte are sometimes annexed 
to it. 

Syphax, acis, m., a king of Numi- 
dia, who was conquered by ScipiOj 
with the aid of Masinissa. J. 5, 

Sijrtis, is, f (crupw, to draw), sands, 
shelves, quicksands, a syrtis or place 
of movable sand-banks in the 
which were so called because the 
sands were drawn to and fro by the 
violence of the winds and tides. Of 
this kind are two tracts in the Mediter- 
ranean near the. coast of Africa, which 
are called Syrtis Major and Syrtis 
Minor, now the gulf of Sidra and th< 
gulf of Capes. J. 19, 7a 

T., an abbreviation of the prcenomen 

Tabernaculum, i, n. (taberna, 
shed), a tent, pavilion. 

Tabes, is, f. (labeo, to melt away), a 
melting or wasting away; poison, 
fection ; a wasting disease, consump- 
tion, pestilence, - plague, contagion, 

Tabesco, ere, tabui, n. incept, {tabeo), 
to melt, dissolve, be dissolved or melt- 
ed; to waste or pine away, be con- 
sumed, decline, languish, decay, fade, 

Tabula, ce, /., a board or plank. 
Tabula or tabula picta, a picture, 
painting;— a table or tablet covered 
with wax for writing on, a writing, 
book. Tabulcb, writings, account 
books, record^ bills, bonds, instru- 
ments. Tabulcc nova, new accounts, 
bills, &c, by which the whole or a 
part of his debt due on the old ac- 
count, was remitted to the debtor. 
See Novus 

Tacitus, a, um, part, fy adj. (taceo), 
silent, mute, in silence, silently; still, 
quiet; without notice, unobserved. 

Tccda, <e, f, a tree producing pitch, 
the torch-tree, pitch-tree; a torch; 
chips or pieces of the pitch or pine 
tree ; a fire ball made of pieces of the 

T&det, duit, or tccsum est, imp., it is 
irksome to, it wearies. Tcedet me I 
am weary of, tired of, disgusted with. 

Tcedium, i, n. (tccdel), weariness, 

Talis, e, adj., such, of this or that 
kind, such like, so distinguished, so 
great, so eminent, of such magnitude. 

Tarn, adv., so, so much, so very 
Quam — tarn, with comparatives or su- 
perlatives th« — the, as — so. 

Tamen, adversative, conj. $ 198, 9, 
notwithstanding, nevertheless, for all 
that, however, yet, still. In the apodo* 
sis of a sentence it corresponds to ta 
metsi, quamvis, quamquam, si, quum, 
etc., in the protasis, and is sometimes 
to be supplied. 

Tametsi, concessive, conj. § 198, 4, 
{tamen fy etsi), though, although, not- 
withstanding that. It is used in the 

Tana, ce, m., a river of Numidia be- 
tween the towns of Lares and Capsa 
J. 90. 

Tandem, adv. [tarn fy demum), at 
length, at last, finally, in the end. In 
urgent interrogation, pray. 

Tanquam, or Tamquam, adv. {tarn 
§ quam), as, just as, as it were, as if. 

Tantum. adv. {tantus), only, alone, 
but, merely. 

Tantummvdo, or Tantum modo,adv 
only ; provided only. 

Tantus, a, um, adj., so great, so 
much, such, so important, as great. 
It is often followed by ut, that, or 
quamas, as, § 26-2 R. 1 — Tantum 




. fiiNtO 

modb re?norati,— so long only, $236. 
Tunto, abl. t by so much, so much, the, 
with comparatives, tyc. § 256, R. 16, (2 ) 

Tarde, adv., slowly, tardily : from 

Tardus, a, um, adj., slow, taidy, 
sluggish, slack. 

Tarquinius, i, m. (L.), a confederate 
of Catiline, who, being arrested, be-- 
came a witness against the conspira- 
tors. C. 48. 

Tectum, i, n. (tego), a roof. Pro 
tectis, see Pro. 

Tectus, a, um, part : from 

Tego, £re, texi, tectum, a., to cover, 
hide, conceal, disguise, cloak ; to de- 
fend, protect, shelter. 

Telum, i, n., a missile weapon, a 
dart, javelin, lance, spear, arrow. 
Esse cum telo, to go armed, to carry 
. arms about one, to be in arms. 

Temere, adv., without cause, casu- 
ally, by chance, inconsiderately, light- 
ly, rashly, hastily, thoughtlessly, in- 
discreetly; caielessly, confusedly, 
without order, irregularly. Temere 
munita, hastily, slightly — . 

Temeritas,at'tS,f. (temere), rashness, 
inconsiderateness, hastiness, thought- 
lessness, temerity, foolhardiness, in- 
discretion, imprudence. 

Temperantia, ce,f. (temperans, tem- 
perate), moderation, temperance, ab- 

TempiZro, are, avi, Htum,a. fy n. (tern- 
pus), to temper, mix in due propor- 
tion; to mitigate, soften, temper; to 
regulate, moderate, set bounds to, 
cneck, restrain. Temperare, or tern- 
perare sibi, to govern one's self, to 
practice moderation, be moderate. 
Temperare victoria?, to use a victory 
with moderation, to be temperate in 

Tempesfas, atis,f. (tempus), time; a 
year, season, period; good or bad 
weather, stormy or boisterous weath- 
er, a storm, tempest Fig. trouble, 
calamity, misfortune. Multce tempes- 

tates, a long time, a long ioius 
years, many years, many occasions or 
times ; many perils, commotions, dif- 
ficulties or trials. Pquccb tempesiatis, 
a short time, a brief space. Alia in 
tempestate, at another time. 

Templum, i, n„ an open space ; con 
secrated ground ; a temple. 

Tempus, oris, n., time, space of 
time, duration, a season ; an occasion, 
opportunity, convenient, proper or ap- 
pointed time; the state or condition 
of any one, circumstances; danger, 
difficulty, exigency; an event, occur- 
rence, conjuncture, the times. Ad 
tempus or in tempore, in time, season- m 
ably, at the appointed time, in proper 
time, in good time, opportunely, in 
good season. Ad hoc tempus, hither- 
to, to the present time. Ex tempore 
or pro tempore, as time permits, ac- 
cording to circumstances, as occasion 
requires. Ex tempore, immediately 
without premeditation. Tempore, in 
time, in point of time. 

Tendo, Ire, tetendi, tensum or ten 
turn, a. fy n., to stretch out, extend ; t„ 
go, advance, travel towards, direct or 
shape one's course or march ; to con- 
tend, strive, tiy, exert one's self, en- 
deavour, fight, contend, oppose, resist 
Tendere insidias, see Insidiai. 

Tenebrcc, arum,f pi., darkness; ob- 
scurity, gloom. 

Teneo, ere, ui, tentum, a. fy n. (tendo) f 
to hold, hold fast, keep, have ; to pos- 
sess, hold, occupy; to detain delay, 
check, curb, restrain ; to keep, refrain 
abstain ; to retain, keep, hold, preserve ; 
to hold out, last, endure, continue : to 
rule, direct, sway, govern, move. 
Magna me spes tenet, great hopes pos 
sess me, I have great hopes : — to cap- 
tivate, charm, delight. Imbecilla atas 
ambitione corrupta tenebatur,—wasse- 
I duced or captivated — . Tenere in cus- 
todia or in custodiis, to keep in custody 
I or in prison, to detain in free custody 




Tentcltus, a, um, part, tried, essayed> 
proved, attempted; tempted, sol.cited, 
sounded, tampered with : from 

Tento, are, avi, atum, a.freq. {tendo 
or teneo) to explore by touching, feel, 
examine. Fig. to seek, try, essay, 
attempt; to make attempts, prove, 
explore, sound, tempt, tamper with, 
entice to revolt, put to the test ; to at- 
tack, harass, invade; to assail, prac- 
tice upon; to irritate, provoke, excite, 
incite. Lassitudinem tentare, to try 
the effect of—. Bello tentare, to make 
war upon. Tentari aliqua re, to be 
brought into peril by, exposed to, 
ihreatened with, in danger from — . 

Terentius, i, n. (Cn.) a Roman sen- 
\tor. C. 47. 

Tergum, i, m., the back of a man or 
aeast. A or ab tergo, from behind, 
behind, in the rear. 

Terra, cc, /., the earth ; a country, 
region, land. Terra, marique, by land 
and sea, in all places. Terrai or orbis 
terrarum, the earth, the world. Fig. 
men, mankind. 

Terracinensis, is, m., a Terracinian, 
an inhabitant of Terracina, an an- 
cient city of Latium, still called by the 
same name. C. 46. 

Terreo, ere, ui, Vum, a., to affright, 
frighten, alarm, terrify, inspire with 
terror; to attempt to frighten. 

Terribilis, e, adj. (terreo), dreadful, 
terrible, shocking, • horrid, horrible, 

Territus, a, urn, part, (terreo), alarm- 
ed, affrighted, frightened, dismayed. 

Terror, oris, m. (terreo), great fear, 
terror, affright, dread. 

Tertius, a, um, num. adj. (ter, 
thrice), thiid, the third. 

Tesfamentum, i, n. (testor, $ 102, 4), 
a testament or last will. 

Testis, is, m. $ /., a witness. 

Testor, dri, atus sum, dap. (testis), § 
272, to testify, witness, bear witness, 
attest, show, declare ; to affirm, aver, 

declare solemnly, protest; to call to 
witness, appeal to. 

TesLudo, ini.s,f„ a tortoise ; in mili- 
tary affairs, a testudo, a covering ol 
shields held over the heads of a body 
of soldiers to protect them from fall- 
ing darts, &c. Also, a movable shed 
or pent-house under which besiegers 
advanced to the walls. 

Teter, tra, trum, adj., foul, offensive, 
noisome, horrid, hideous, gloomy. 

Tetrarcha, &, m., a tetiarch or go- 
vernor of a fourth part of a country , 
a governor of a part or division of any 
country, without regaid to the num- 
ber of parts into which it is divided. 

Thala, ce,f„ a town in the southern 
part of Numidia, the exact situation 
of which is unknown. J. 75, 77, 80, 

Therm, drum, m. pi , inhabitants of 
Thera, an island of the iEgean Sea. 
J. 19. 

Thesaurus, i, m., a treasure, collec* 
tion of money ; a • repository, store- 
house, magazine, treasury. 

Thirmfda, &,f., a town of Numidia 
the situation of which is uncertain 
J. 12. 

Thrax, dcis, adj., Thracian. Subs 
a Thracian, an inhabitant of Thrace 
a large country of Europe on the eas' 
of Macedonia. J. 38. 

Tiberius, i, m., a Roman pramomen t 
often written by abbreviation Tib. 

Timeo, ere, ui, a. $ n., $ 262, R. 7 
to fear, be afraid of, dread, apprehend, 
regard ; with dat. to fear for or on ac- 
count of; to be averse to, dislike. 

Timtdus, a, um, adj. (timeo), full of 
fear, fearful, timorous, timid, aft aid, 

Timor, oris, m. (timeo) fear, appro* 
hension, dread, affright. Timor is pro- 
pel ly dastardly fear, metus, a reason- 
able and well grounded apprehension 
of coming evil. Hence the former is 
always disgraceful, the latter is often 




excusable Timor animi, see Ani- 

Tisidium, i, n., a town of Africa. 
J. 62. 

Titus, i, m., a Roman prcenomen. 

Togdtus, a, um, adj. {toga), clothed 
in a toga or Roman gown, gowned, 
togated, toged. Togdti, drum, m. pi., 
Romans, since the Romans were dis- 
tinguished by the use of the toga. 
Also, Roman citizens, in distinction 
from soldiers, as the latter did not 
wear the toga. 

Tollro, are, avi, dtum, a., to bear, 
bear patiently, brook, submit to, suf- 
fer, support, endure, toleiate, allow; 
to maintain, support, sustain, allevi- 
ate, lighten. 

Tollo, ere, a., to raise, lift or take 
up, elevate. Fig. to set up, send up, 
cause to ascend; to extol, praise. 
Tollere animum, to take courage ' y to 
inspire with courage. 

Toreuma, atis, n., a vase or any 
piece of plate engraven, chased, em- 
bossed or adorned with bas-relief 

Tormentum, i, n. (torqueo, to hull), a 
warlike engine for throwing stones, 
darts, &c. 

Torpesco, ere, pui, n. inc. (torpeo, to 
be numb), to grow numb or torpid, 
become languid or dull, grow faint, 
listless, sluggish, inactive or indo- 

Torqudtus, i, m. (L. Manlius), a Ro- 
man consul, A. U. C. 689. C. 18. 

Torqudtus, i, m. (T. Manlius) a ce- 
lebrated Roman dictator who put his 
son to death for engaging with the 
enemy contrary to orde;s A.. U. C. 
115. C. 52. 

Toties or totiens, adv., so often. 

Totus, a, urn, adj. gen. ius, § 107, all 
together, whole, total, entire, the 

Tracto, are, avi, dtum, a. freq. 
[traho), to drag forcibly; to touch, 
handle, feel; to exercise, manage; 

to treat, conduct towards. Tractare 
rempublicam, to diiect, govern — . 

Tract us, fys m. (traho), a drawing on 
dragging; a diiection, course, extent 
a ti act, region, country. Pari tractu. s 
an equal or uniform distance, parallel 

Traclus, a, um, part, (traho). 

Traditus, a, um, part. : from 

Trado, ere, didi, dltum, a. {trans $ 
do), to give, consign, deliver, give 
over. In custcdiam tradere, to com- 
mit to custody or to prison ; — to give, 
j bequeath; to lecommend, commit to 
tone's care or protection; to give up 
surrender, commit, devote; to trans- 
mit, hand down. Per manus tradere, 
to transmit fiom hand to hand, hand 

Traduco, or Transduco, lre t xi, 
ctum, a. (trans § d'uco), to bring or 
carry over, lead or convey through 
transport, transfer 

Traho, ere, xi, ctum, a., to draw 
drag. Trahere, or truhere ad st/ppli 
cium, to dtag to execution- Trahere 
pecuniam, to squander, waste, throw 
away; — to draw to one's self; to con- 
ceive, get, receive. Trahere, rapere 
to rob, plunder; — to protiact, draw 
out, spin out, delay, defei, put oft con 
sume, letard, piolong; to lead awaj 
withdiaw, divert; to weigh, considej 
conceive, imagine, revolve, reflect on, 
to ascribe, attribute; to interpiet, ex 
plain, construe ; to fbim, take, drect 
order. Trahere consilium, to form a 
decision or determination. Trahere 
omnia, to interpose delays of all kinds. 
Trahere animo, or cum animo, to im- 
agine, figure to one's j-elf have ever 
in mind, revolve or dt kbtiare Within 
one's self, § 272, $ 2(15. 

Trames, llis, in. (frameo, to £<;• 
through), a cross-way, cross-iuad, ny 

Tranquillus, a. um, adj., calm, still, 
smooth, tranquil, quiet, peaceful 




Travsduco, see Traduco 

Trauseo, Ire, ii, I um, irr, n. fy a. 
trans, over, beyond, <jr «<'<•)• § '8i, K. 
3> $ 4133, to go or pass over or beyoi.d ; 
to deseit, go or pass over to the ene- 
my; to pass, pass through. 

Transfero, ferre, tuli, latum, irr. a, 
{trans $ fere), to carry or bring over, 
transfer, transport. Transferre suam 
culpam, to transfer one's own fault, 
charge the blame due to one's self: — 
to turn, apply, adapt; to defer, post- 
pone, put off! Transfer ri, to be trans- 
fen ed, to pass. 

Transfuga, cr, m., a deserter, fugi- 
tive, runaway, one who goes over to 
the enemy : from 

Transfugio, ere, fugi, fugVum, n. 
{trans ty fugio), to fly over, go over 
to the enemy, desert, levolt. 

Transtgo, ere, egi, actum, a. {trans 
fy ago) to drive right th tough. Tran- 
sigere vilam, to lead, pass, spend : — to 
finish, despatch, accomplish, perform, 
conclude, tiansact, settle, adjust. 

Transpadanus, a, um, adj. {trans fy 
Padus, the Po), beyond ihe Po. Subs. 
one living beyond the Po. C. 49. 

Transvec.tus, a, um, part. : from 

Transveho, ere, vexi, rectum, a.) trans 
fy veho, to carry), to carry or convey 
over, transport. Transvehi, to pass 
over, travel or sail over. 

Transversus, a, um, part, fy adj., 
tin iied away or across, placed cross- 
wise or at right angles ; athwart, cross- 
wise, transverse, oblique. Transversa 
prcelia, attacks upon the flank. Trans- 
vcrsum agere, to lead aside or astray : 

Transverto, Ire, ti, sum, a. {trans $■ 
verto), to change, turn, turn away. 

T m epldo, are, avi, atum, n., to be in 
a hurry or confusion, make haste for 
fear, run up and down in a state of 
trepidation; to be agitated, flurried; 
to tremble for fear, be afraid or alarm- 
ed : from 


Trepidus, a, um, adj., hastening 
with feat and trembling, trembling or 
hastening for tear, in disoider or tre- 
pidation, confound* d.d.smayed,ala:m- 
ed, frightened, afra d, anxious, solicit- 
ous, feaiful* hutrkd, unquiet, disturb- 
ed, agitated, full of anxiety ; causing 
alarm, alarming, anxious. Res tre- 
pidce, alarming or dangerous circum- 
stances, a perilous state or condition, 
agitation, commotion. 

Tres, tria, num, adj. § 109, three. 

Tribunatus, us, m. {tribus), the tri' 
buneship, the office and dignity ot a 

Tritjunicius, a, um, adj., of or per- 
taining to a tribune, tribunicial -.from 

Tribunus. i, m. {tribus), a tribune, 
properly one who presides over a 
ti ibe, a president. Tribuni militares, 
tribunes of the sold.eis, military tri- 
bunes; at first, they were commanders 
of the third part of a legion, after- 
wards, as the legions were enlaiged, 
the number of tribunes was inci eased. 
Tribuni plebis, tribunes of the people 
or of the plebeians; inferior magis- 
trates elected by the people for their 
defence against the senators. They 
had the power of forbidding all pro- 
ceedings, even of the consuls and of 
the senate, if in their view they were 
injurious to the common people. Sec 
J, 39. 

Tribuo, Ire, ui, utum, a., to give, as- 
sign, attribute, grant, impart, bestow 

Tribus, us, f. {tres), a tribe, a divi- 
sion of the Roman people, whom 
Romulus divided into three parts 
The tribes were gradually increased 
in number tc thirty-five. 

Triduum, i, n. [ties fy dies), the space 
of three days, three days. 

Triginta. num, adj. ind., thirty. 

Triplex, tcis, adj. {tres fy plica, to 
fold), threefold, triple. Triplices, um, 
pi., three. 




Tristitia, <B,f. (iristis, sad), sadness, 
sorrow, grief, melancholy, care. 

Triumyho, are, avi, atum, n. ty a., to 
triumph, celebiate a triumph* 

Triumphus, i, m., a triumph, an 
honor bestowed upon such generals 
as had gained important victories, in 
consequence of which they were per- 
mitted to enter the city with great 

Triumvir, ?ri, m. (tres $ vir), one 
of three men jointly employed to exe- 
cute any public office, a triumvir. 
Triumviri capitales, three magistrates 
who had charge of the prison, and 
who inflicted capital punishment on 
condemned criminals ; jailers, sheriffs, 
executioners. Triumviri colonics de- 
ducendis, magistrates appointed to 
distribute lands taken from the ene- 
my, and to conduct colonists to their 
place of settlement. 

Trcjanus, d, urn, adj. (Troja, Troy), 
Trojan, of or belonging, to Troy. 
Trqjani, m. pi., the Trojans. C. 6. 

Trucldo, are, avi, atum, a. (trux, 
grim, § ccedo), to cut in pieces, cut 
down, . slaughter, murder, massacre, 
assassinate, butcher, destroy. 

Tu, tui, subs. pro. m. fyf, thou, you : 
pi. vos, vestrum or vestri, you, § 133. 
The enclitic syllables te ty met, are 
often joined, to this pronoun in an in- 
tensive sense, you yourself, $ 133, R. 2. 

Tuba, <z?,/., a trumpet. 

Tuhicen, icinis, m. (tuba fy cano), a 

Tueor, eri, tuttus <$■ tutus sum, dep., 
to see, view, behold ; to look to, keep, 
preserve, take care of, support, main- 
tain, defend, protect, favor, assist. 

TiLgurium, i, n„ a cottage, hut, shed. 

Tuli, see Fero. 

TuUiUnus, a, um, adj., pertaining to 
Tullius. Tidlianvm, i, n., the lower 
part or dungeon added by Servius 
Tullius to the prison built at Rome by 
Ancus Martius C. 55. 

Tullius, i, m., see Cicero, 

Tullus, i, m., (L. Volcatius), was 
consul with M. Lepidus, A. U. C. 688. 
C. 18. 

Turn, adv. fy conj., then, next, in the 
next place, hereupon, again ; turn de- 
mum, or turn vero, then indeed, in 
which sense, turn alone is sometimes 
used. Also then, at that time. As a 
conjunction it is repeated, or, when the 
latter clause is intended to be promi> 
nent, quum takes the place of the form- 
er turn. Turn — turn, both — and, not 
only — but also, as well — as. See 
Quum. For the distinction between 
the adverbs Turn and Tunc, see 

Tumulosus, a, um, adj. {tumulus, a 
hill, $ 128, 4), full of hills or hillocks, 
hilly. - 

Tumultus, us, or i, m., a tumult, 
bustle, disturbance, commotion, up- 
roar, hurly-burly, sedition, insurrec- 
tion, a sudden insurrection or war, 
especially such as originated in Gaul 
or Italy, and in which all without dis- 
tinction were called to take up arms ; 
alarm, confusion, disoider, disquie- 
tude, uneasiness. 

Tumulus, i, m., (tumeo, to swell), a 
hill, hillock. 

Tunc, adv., then. Tunc is properly 
used in connection with events oc- 
curring at the same time, turn in 
speaking of successive events; but 
turn is sometimes used for tunc. In 
the oratio obliqua, tunc and turn are 
substituted for nunc in the oratio di- 

Turba, <b, /., a disturbance, tumult, 
uproar; confusion, disoider; a con- 
fused multitude of people; a crowd 
throng, press, troop. 

Turma, cr,f, a troop or squadron o{ 
horse, consisting of thirty, or, with 
their officers, thirty-three horsemen. 
Ten* turma were attached to each 




Turmatim, adv. (turma), by troops 
or squadrons. 

Turpi liu8 : i, m. ( T), see Silanus. 

Turpis, e, adj., ugly, unsightly, fil- 
thy, foul. Fig. shameful- base, dis- 
honorable, d.sgraceful, infamous, scan- 
dalous. Turpis Jama, a bad reputa 
tion, infamy 

Turpiiudo, Hnis, f. (turpis), deform* 
ity. Fig. baseness, dishonor, disgrace, 
infamy. Per turpitudinem, shame- 
fully, disgracefully, infamously. 
" Turns, is, f. $ 79, 3, a tower, tur- 
ret, citadel. Aho, a movable tower 
used in besieging cities. 

Tuscus, a, um, adj., Tuscan, Etrus- 
can, Etrurian. Tusci, drum, m. pi., 
the Tuscans. C. 51. 

Tutatus, a, um, part, (tutor). 

Tute for Tu, see Tu. 

Tute adv. (tutus), safely, securely. 

Tutor, ari, atus sum, dep. freq. 
(tueor), to defend, protect, guaid, pre- 
serve, maintain, take caie of. 

Ihitus, a, um, part, fy adj. (tueor), 
free from danger, secure, protected, 

Tuus, a, um, adj. pro. (tu), thy, 
thine, thine own, your, yours, your own. 


Ubi, adv., where, in what or which 
place, in which, in what. Ubi and 
ibi or eo are sometimes used like rela- 
tive and demonstrative pronouns ; as, 
Ubi adolescentiam habuere, ibi senectu- 
tern agant, for in quibus — in Us. Ubi 
gentium, where in the woild, in what 
part of the woild; — when, after, as 
soon as. For the construction of ubi 
with the perfect rense, see § 259, R. 
If (2), (d). Apud illoH ant ubi illi 
volunt, i. e., apud quo*, with whom. 
Ubi prinium, see Prirnum. 

Ubicumque, adv. (ubi & cumque), 
wheresoever, in what place soever ; 

Ubique, adv., every where, m every 
place, wheresoever. Also for el ubi, 
and where 

Ubivis, adv. (ubi ty vis, from vtio), 
where you please, any where, in any 

Ulciscor, i, ultus sum, dep., to chas- 
tise, punish, revenge, be revenged on, 
avenge. Ultum ire, to proceed to re- 
venge, to revenge, avenge, $ 276, R. 2. 
It seems sometimes to be used passively 
as, Quidquid ulcisci nequitur. 

Ullus, a, um, adj. $ 107, any, any 
one; non ullus, no one. 

Ulterior, us, adj. comp. $ 126, 1, 
(sup. ultimus), farther, on the farther 
side, ulterior. Gallia ulterior, farthei 
Gaul, Gaul beyond the Alps. See 

Ultra, prep, with the ace, $ adv., be- 
yond, on the farther side of, past, be- 
yond that, faither, besides, more- 

Ultro, adv.. of one's own accord, 
voluntarily, spontaneously, unasked, 
unsought, of one's own motion, un- 
provoked, without provocation; moie- 
over, besides. 

Ultus, a, um, part, (ulciscor). 

Umbrenus, i, m. (P.), a freedman 
employed by Catiline to treat with the 
ambassadors of the Allobroges. C 
40, 50. See also Cic. in Cat. III. 6. 

Una, adv. (unns), together, alonp 
with, at the same time, together with 
It is sometimes annexed emphatically 
to cum. 

Unde, adv. $ 191, R. 1, whence, from 
which; also for a quo, from whom, by 

Undtque, adv. (unde § que), from all 
pa'ts or places, from all quarters; on 
all sides, on evoiy side. 

Universus, a, um, adj. (unns <£• ver- 
sus), whole, univesal, all, all toge- 
ther, entiie, together, all collectively. 

Unquam or Umquam, adv. t at any 
time, ever 




. Unus, a, um. gen. unius, num. adj. § 
107, & $ 283, 1, Ex. 4, & $ 15, one. 
Unus el alter, one and another, a few, 
some: — one only, alone, a single one. 
In unum, after a verb of motion, to- 
gether into the same place. Ager 
u? a specie, — of^a uniform appearance. 
It is used particularly with a gen. or 
the all with ex. $ 212, R. 2, N. 4. 

Unusquisque, unaquccque, unum- 
quodque or unumquidqne, ind. adj. 
pro. $ 138, (unus 4' gnisque), each, 
each one, every, every one. 

Urbanus, a, um, adj., of or belong- 
ing to a city; refined, polished, ele- 
gant : from 

Urbs, bis, /., a city ; a walled town. 
Also the city, i. e. Rome. Imperator 
ad urbem, — near Rome. Command- 
ers, while waiting the honors of a tri- 
umph, were forbidden to enter the city. 
Ad urbem, with verbs of motion, to or 
towards Rome. 

Urgeo, ere, ursi, a., to press upon, 
harass; to press hard, weigh down, 
bear down, oppress, distress, pursue; 
to be near at hand. 

Usquam, adv., in any place, any 
where, at any place, in any thing, to 
any place. 

Usque, adv., even, as far as, right on, 
constantly, without ceasing. Usque 
eo, to such a degree, so far, to that ex- 

Usus, us, m. (utor), use; frequent 
exercise, practice, habit; utility, use- 
fulness, use, advantage, profit, benefit, 
good, interest. Usui esse, to be of 
Vise or service, $ 227, & R. 2:— inti- 
macy, familiarity. Usus belli, things 
necessary for war, recruits, supplies, 

Usus, a, um, part, (utor), having 
used, practiced, enjoyed. 

Ut or Ut\, adv. $ conj., I. as, like 
as, just as, even as, as if. It is often 
preceded or followed by sic or ita, so : 
—according as ; considering that. Ut 

\in tali negotio, since circumstances 
were such, considering the circum- 
stances:— how, in what way or man- 
ner. In this sense ut like quomodo is 
followed by the subjunctive in indirect 
questions, $ 265, and Note 2. II. 
After talis, &c. § 198, 8, & § 262, R. 
1, that, so that, with the subjunctive 
mood, $ 262; in explanations, that, 
namely, to wit. Ut is sometimes 
omitted before the subjunctive, $ 262, 
R. 4. 

Uter, tris, m., a bag of skin or leath- 
er, a leathern bottle, a wine-bag. 

Uter, tra, trum, adj. $ 107, whether 
or which of the two, which. 

Uterque, utraque, utrumque, gen. 
utriusque, adj. (uter $• que), $ 107, 
both the one and the other, both, 
each. Qua utraque, both of which 

Uti, see Ut. 

Utica, cr,f, a town of Africa on the 
shore of the Mediterranean sea, near 
the river Bagiada. J. 25, 63, 64, 86, 

Ufilis, e, adj. (utor), $ 222, & R. 4, 
(1.) useful, fit, profitable, advantage- 
ous, good, suitable, salutary, servicea- 

Utinam, adv. (uti & nam), § 263, 1, 
! that, I wish that, would that. 

Utique, adv. (uti ty que), certainly 
surely, at all events. 

Utor, i, usus sum, dep. $ 245, I, to 
use, make use of, manage ; to conduct 
one's self towards, to treat ; to enjoy 
have. Lege uti, to have the benefit 
of—. Domo uti, to occupy — . Hono- 
re uti, to enjoy a post of honor, to fill 
a public office. 

Utpote, adv. (ut), as, seeing r r con- 
sidering, inasmuch as, namely. It is 
often followed by qui, quae, quod, as 
he, &c. 

Utrinque or Utrimque, adv. (uter), 
on both sides or parts, from both 

Uxor, oristf, a wife, spouse. 




Varca, ce, f, a town of the Numi 
dians, not far from the Roman pro- 
vince. In some editions of Sa'ilust 
this town is called Vaga, and its in- 
tiabitdhts Vagenses. J. 29, 47, 68. 

Vaccenses, inm, m. pi., the inhabi- 
tants of Vacca. J. 66, 69. 

Vacuus, a, um, adj. (vaco, to be 
empty), with gen. or abl. $ 213, R. 5, 
(3.) of so with prep. a. g 213. R. 4, (4.) 
empty, free fiom, vacant, baie, desti- 
tute, without. Vacuum facer e, to 
empty, clear. Animo vacuus, $ 250, 
secuie, free from care or apprehen- 
sion, quiet, at ease, unconcerned, un- 
occupied. Vacua respublica, sc. de- 
^fensonbus, unprotected — . 

Vades, um, pi. of Vas, a surety. 

Vado, ere, si, stan, n., to go, walk. 

Vadosus, a, um, adj. (vadum, a foid), 
having frequent fords or shallows, 
shoaly, shallow. 

Vagor, uri, fifus sum, dep. to go or 
pass to and fro, wander, move or 
course up ai d down, rove, ramble, 
roam, stiay, wander about : from 

Vagus, a, um, aij., wandering, ram- 
bling, roving,, loaming. 

Valens, tis, pari. $ adj., sound, well, 
in good health; strong, stout, robust; 
powerful, mighty, strong; available, 
efficacious: from 

Valeo, ere, ui, n., to be well, in a 
sound or healthy condition ; to have 
stiength or power, be strong,- be able, 
be able to do, be poweiful or vigorous, 
have fo ce or effect, have weight, in- 
terest or infli.e: ce, p evail, succeed; 
to be exerted; to aval, b> effectual, 
exert one's power. ^ alet fama,— pre- 
vails. ; 

Valerius, i, m., see F/accus. j 

Valid us, a, vm,, adj. {valeo), $ 250, 
sound, hea 1 thy; strong, stout, robust, 
vigorous, powerful, mighty. 

Vallum, i, n (vallus, a stake), a for- 

tification composed of the earth dug 
from the ditch, and of sharp stakes or 
pahsades stuck into it, a rampart, in- 
trenchment, bulwark. 

Vanilas, a/is, f, emptiness, incpn 
sidetateness, giddiness, weakness, lev 
ity, vain- glory, vanity, falsehood; os- 
tentation : from 

Vanus, a, um, adj., vain, empty, 
void; idle, futile, fruitless, without ef- 
fect, unfounded, groundless, unmean- 
ing, untrue, false, lying, deceitful, faith- 
It ss. 

Vargunfeius, i, m. (L.), a Roman 
senator who was engaged in the Cati- 
litianan conspiracy. He was proba- 
bly of the equestrian order. Compare 
Cat. 28, and Cic. in Cat. I. 4. C. 
17, 47. 

Varie, adv., variously, diversely, in 
different ways: from 

Varius, a, um, adj. § 250, of divers 
colors, variegated. Fig. various, dif- 
feient, diverse, full of vicissitudes, 
changeful. Varia victoria, shifting, 
varying, of various success, inclining 
now to one side, now to the other — . 
Animus varius, versatile, changeable, 
vaiiable, light, fickle, inconstant, wa- 
vering, in doubt or peiple.xity — . 

Vas, vadis, m., a surety, bail, espe- 
cially in criminal prosecutions. 

Vas, vasis, n. ; pi. vasa, drum, § 93, 
2, a vessel, utensil, all kinds of furni- 
ture. In military language, the bag- 
gage of an army. 

Vasfitas, dtis,f. (vastus), desolation, 

Vasto, are, av\ atum, a., to lay 
waste, ravage, desolate, pillage, des 
t!oy, spoil, strip: to trorMe, d sturb 
haiass, torment, disjuiei. peipiex 

Vastus, a, um, adj., vast, large, am 
pie, spacious, immense, huge, enor- 
mous; immoderate, insatiable; waste. 
deseit. Vastus ab humano cuitu, un 




Ve, inseparable prep. $ 196, (b.) de- 
noting negation, opposition or depri- 
vation ; as, Vecors, mad, from cor, the 
mind, the understanding. 

Vecordia, <b, f [vecors, mad), mad- 
ness, phrenzy, insanity, fury; folly, 
Jotage, fatuity. 

Vectigal, alis, n., a tax, toll, impost, 
revenue, duty : from 

Vectigdlis, e, adj. (veho, to carry), 
tributary, subject to the payment of 

Vegeo, ere, a. $■ n., to excite, move ; 
to be lively, flourish, thrive, prevail, 
be vigorous, prosper. 

Vehemens, tis, adj., vehement, im- 
petuous, violent, ardent, eager. 

Vehementer, adv. (vehemens), vehe- 
mently, ardently, eagerly, strongly, 
forcibly, strenuously, very much, ex- 

Vel, conj., or ; vel — vel, either— or ; 
— even. 

Veles, ttis, m„ a light-armed soldier, 
skirmisher. The velites often fought 
mingled with the cavalry, and in ad- 
vancing and retreating mounted be- 
hind the horsemen. 

Velitaris, e, adj., (veles), of or per- 
taining to the velites. Velitaria arma, 
light arms, such as were carried by 
the velites, consisting of a sword, a 
small round shield or buckler, carried 
in the left hand, and seven javelins in 
the right. 

Velocitas, atis, /., velocity, swift- 
ness, fleetness, rapidity : from 

Velox, ocis, adj. (volo, to fly), swift, 
quick, nimble, fleet, rapid, speedy, 
agile, active. 

VilUti or Velut, adv. (vel fy ut\ or 
ut), as, like, like as, as if, as it were. 

Yenalis, e, adj. (venus), exposed or 
net to sale, to be sold, venal, merce- 
nary, to be purchased for money- 
Forum rerum venalium, a mart for the 
purchase and sale of commodities, a 
market town. 

Vendo, $re, didi, ditum, a. (venus fy 
do), to sell, vend, set or expose to sale* 
exchange. Omnia honesta atpie in> 
honesta vendere, to sell every (mark 
of) honor and disgrace, i. e. to confer 
honor or disgrace for reward. 

Venenum, i, n., a drug or mecficine 

Venenum, or venenum malum, poi- 
son, venom. 

Venio, Ire, veni, ventum, n., $ 225* 
IV. & R. 2, & 3, $ 227, $ 276, II., to 
come, arrive; to happen; to accrue, 
befall. Ventum est, we, they, &c. 
came or have come. 

Venor, ari, atus sum, dep.', to hunt, 
chase, pursue. 

Venter, tris, m., the belly, stomach. 
Fig. appetite, gluttony, sensuality. 

Ventum ty Venturus, a, um, part. • 
(r =nio). 

Ventus, i, m., the wind. 

Venus, its or i, m., sale. It is found 
in the dot. ace. and abl. Venum iri f 
or dari, sc. ad, to be exposed or set to 
sale, to be sold, to be venal. 

Verber, eris, n., a scourge, lash, 
whip, rod ; a stripe, blow. Verberibus 
animadvertere, to scourge. 

Verbero, are, avi, alum, a. (verber), to 
beat, strike, scourge, whip. 

Verbum, i, n., a word, expression, 
saying, remark. Verba facere or ha- 
bere, to hold a discourse or conversa- 
tion ; to make a speech, to speak, dis- 
course, utter, deliver, pronounce — ; to 
reply. Verbo or verbis, abl., by word 
of mourn, orally; also, in words, in 
pretence. Verbo, in a word, in a few 
words, briefly. Nuntiare, $c. ve>bis 
alicvjus, in the name of, in bel.ulf 

Vere, adv. (verus), truly, in truth, 
with reason, correctly ; sincerelj , hon- 
estly, seriously, really, in earnest. 

Vereor, eri, Vtus, sum, dep. $ 262, R 
7, to fear, reverence, respect, revere 
be afraid of, apprehend, be apprehen- 




Verttus, a, um, part, (vereor). 

Verd, adv. $■ conj. (verus), $279,3. 
(a.)S(c): in truth, indeed, truly, cer- 
tainly; but. 

Verso, are, dvi, alum, a.freq. (verto), 
to turn often, turn, roll, turn about. 

Versor, dri, atas sum, pass, (verso), 
to frequent, haunt, stay, remain, live, 
dwell, be; to be occupied, busied, 
exercised engaged; agitated, dis- 
turbed, harassed. 

Versus, its, m. (verto), a line; a 
verse : poetry. Facere versus, to com- 
pose verses. 

Versus or versum, adv. (verto), to- 
wards or toward. It is often used with 
a verb of motion after ad or in ; as, In 
Galliam versus, castra movere, — to- 
wards Gaul; and it sometimes takes 
the accusative without ad or in, and 
always stands after its accusative, 
$ 235, R. 9. 

Verto, Ire, ti, sum, a. ty n., to turn, 
turn round; to change, transform, 
alter; to impute, ascribe; to con- 
vert, appropriate. Vertere or vertere 
se, to turn out well or ill, terminate, 
issue, result, become. 

Verum, conj. (verus), but, however. 
Verum enimvero, but indeed, but truly. 

Verum, i, n. (verus), the truth. Ex 
vero, from regard to truth, truly, 
fitly ; reasonably ;— rectitude, right, 
virtue, integrity. Absolvere verum, to 
state or declare the fact. 

Verus, a, um, adj., true, real, actual, 
certain; of persons, true, sincere, 
veracious, speaking the truth. Verum 
est, it is right, proper, fit. 

Vescor, i, dep. $ 245, 1, to live or feed 
upon, be fed or supported by, subsist 
upon, eat. Vescendi causa, on account 
of food, to gratify the palate. 

Vesper, eris, fy eri, m., the evening 
star or the planet Venus ; the evening, 
eventide, eve. 

Vesta, <z,f, Vesta, a goddess wor- 
shipped bv the Greeks and Romans; 

the daughter of Saturn and Ops. The 
vestal virgins were consecrated to her 
service. C. 15. 

Vester, tra, trum, adj. pro. (vos) f 
your, yours. 

Vestimentum, i, n., clothes, a gar- 
ment, vest, vestment -.from 

Vestio, ire, ivi, %tum, a. (vest'is, a gar- 
ment), % 249, 1, to clothe, cover, array, 
deck, adorn. 

Vestlt us, a, um,part. (vestio), clothed, 

Veterdnus, a, um, adj. (velus) old, 
veteran. Veterani milites, veteran sol- 
diers, veterans. 

Veto, are, ui, ttum, a., to forbid, pro- 
hibit, dissuade, hinder, prevent. 

Vetus, eris, adj., old, ancient, ot 
long standing or duration, antique; 
former, of former days. Vetera, old 
things, by-gones. Veteres milites, old 
or veteran soldiers, soldiers who have 
seen much service. 

Vetustas, atis, f. (vetus), antiquity, 
oldness, age. 

Vexillum, i, n., a flag, banner, en- 
sign, standard. 

Vexo, are, dvi, dtum, a., to agitate ; to 
trouble, molest, disquiet, vex, harass, 
torment, disturb, annoy, distress, pain, 
hurt. When applied to things, to in* 
jure, impair, corrupt. Pecuniam vex- 
are, to waste, squander — . 

Via, a,f., a way, road, passage, 
path, track ; a method, rule, manner, 
way, course. 

Vicesimus or Vigesimus, a, um, 
num. adj. (viginti), the twentieth. 

Vici see Vinco. 

Viciriitas, atis, f (vicinus, near), 
nearness of place, neighbourhood, vi- 
cinity ; those living in the neighbour 
hood, the neighbours. 

Victor, oris, m, (vinco), aconquetor 
vanquisher, victor. Adj. victorious, 
superior to. Libidinis et divitiarum 
victor, holding in subjection his pas- 
sions and his love of money. 




Victoria, a,f. (vinco), victory. Vic- 
inriam adipisci, to obtain a victory* 

Victus, us, m. (vivo), every thing 

Viginti, num. adj. ind., twenty. 

Vilis, e, adj., cheap, of small price 
or value. Fig. vile, despicable, con- 
temptible, of no value or account 

necessary to support life; food, rai- paltry, worthless, mean. Vile habere 
ment, sustenance, provisions, fare, to hold cheap, reckon of no account 
meat and drink ; manner or style of | despise. 

living. I Villa,<r,f., a country-seat, country- 

Victus, a, um, part, (vinco), van- house, a farm-house with its appur- 

quished, conquered. Victus abire, dis- tenances, a villa. 

cedere, etc. See Discedere. 

Virus, i, m„ a village ; a street, ham- 
let, division or quarter of a city. 

VilUcus, i, m. (villa), the overseer 
of a farm, a stewaid. 

Vincio, ire, vinxi, vinctum, a., to 

Videlicet, adv. (videre licet), for cer-jbind, tie, bind about, fetter, fasten, 
tain, certainly, truly; it is evident, | strengthen, secure, make tast. 
clear or manifest, to be sure ; forsooth ; | Vinco, Ire, vici, victum, a. ty n., to 
indeed; to wit. It is often used ! conquer, vanquish, overcome, over* 
ironically. power, defeat, subdue; to outstrip, ex- 

Video, ere, vidi, visum, a., $ 272 &!ceed, outdo, excel; to constrain, mas- 
265, to see, behold, look at, mark, ob- ter, soften, gain over, move, win, 
serve, perceive, take notice, under- to be victorious, obtain the victory* 
stand, learn. Abs. to look on, be a prevail, carry the day. Divitias vin 

spectator. Instead of the inf. pres. 
with the. ace. a pres. part, and ace. are 
often used, $ 272, R. 5. 

Videor, eri, visus sum, pass fy dep. 
(video), to be seen, $223, 271 ; to seem, 

cere, to exhaust-r-. 

Vinctus,a,um, part, (vincio), bound 
fettered, in chains, secured, made fast 

Vinculum, i, n. (vincio), a bond or 

appear ; imp. to seem, seem good, fit, band. Vincula, fetters, the stocks, a 
or proper. I, he, &c, resolve 0"- deter- 1 prison or gaol. In vincula ducere, to 

mine, $ 269, R. 2. 

Vigeo, ere, ui, n., to be in force, be 
strong or vigorous ; to flourish, pros- 
per, be in estimation, prevail. 

Vigeslmus, a, um, see Vicesi?nus. 

Vigil, His, adj. (vigeo), watchful, 
waking, vigilant. Vigiles, um, m. pi., 
watchmen, sentinels. 
. Vigilia, a, f. (vigil), a watching, 
waking, want of sleep; a military 
watch, a fourth part of the night ; a 
guard by night; watchmen, guards, 
sentinels. Crebrce vigilicc, guards 
phced at short intervals. Vigilias 
habere, to Keep or maintain guards. 

Vigtlo, are, avi, atum, n. <£• a. (vigil), 
io watch, keep awake, abstain from 
sleeping. Fig. to be watchful, vigi- 
lant or attentive. 

conduct to prison, to imprison. 

Vindex, tcis, m. cjr /., an avenger 
punisher. Vindex rerum capitalium, 
an executioner: from 

Vindico, are, avi, atum, a. fy n., to 
punish, chastise, inflict punishment* 
to avenge, resent, revenge ; to claim, 
assert, lay claim to ; to preserve, jus- 
tify, vindicate. Vindicatum est in alt 
quern, punishment was inflicted upon 
— . Vindicandum est, punishment 
must or should be inflicted, § 162, 15 ; 
$ 209. R. 3, (3 :) § 225, III, R. 1. Vin. 
dicare aliquem in libertatem, to assert 
one's freedom, defend one's liberty, 
to defend, protect. 

Vinea, &,f, a vineyard ; a vine ; an 
arbor ; a warlike machine under cover 
of which besiegers assailed the walla 




of a town, a shed, mantelet, covered 

Vmum, i, n., wine. 

Violenter, adv., (violens, violent), by 
force/ with violence, violently, forcibly, 
furiousiy, vehemently. 

Violentid, ce, f. {violens), violence- 
force. Violentia fortunce, the buffet- 
ings of fortune. 

, Vir viri, m., a man; a husband; a 
man of fortitude, a brave man, a hero. 
Viri atque arma, men and arms, i. e. 
men fit for war, soldiers. 

Vires, ium, f. pi. of vis, force, 
strength, especially bodily strength, 
power, vigor. 

Virgultum, i, n. (virgula, a little rod), 
a shrub, bush, small tree; a thicket, 
shrubbery, brushwood. 

Virilis, e, adj. (vir), of or pertaining 
to a man, manly, becoming a man, 
manful, not effeminate, valiant, brave, 
requiring the courage of a man. 

Viritim, adv. (vir), from man to 
man, severally, singly, separately, 
apart, by one's self. 

Virtus, utis,f. (vir), virtue, the vir- 
tues; bravery, valor, prowess, forti- 
tude, courage, firmness, resolution, 
energy ; good qualities, goodness, ex- 
cellence, merit, worth, importance, 
value. Virtus or virtus animi, mental" 
endowments, intellectual excellence, 
talent, genius, mental powers. See 
farther under Animus. Emori per 
virtutem, to die bravely. 

Vis, vis,f., § 85, force, vigor, strength, 
might, power, efficacy, energy, virtue, 
vehemence, zeal, ardor, fury, violence, 
effort, exertion, effect, potency, influ- 
ence, efficiency, ability. Vi or per 
vim, by force, forcibly:— a quantity, 
multitude, number, abundance, plen- 
ty ; Vis pidveris, a cloud of dust : — 
the powers or faculties of the body or 
mind, ability. Vis serpentium etf era- 
rum, dangerous or savage nature, in- 

nate ferocity, native malignity— 
Summa vi, see Summus. 

Viso, Ire, si, sum, a.freq. (video), to 
go or come to see, visit, call upon ; to 
see, look at, view, behold. 

Visus, a, urn, part, (video.) 

Visus, us, m. (video), the faculty 
sense or act of seeing ; the sight, vis- 
ion; an appearance, sight, vision. 
Qua visus erat, as far as the sight 
could reach. 

Vita, ce, /., life ; the life, conduct, 
morals, actions of life. 

Vitabundus, a, um, adj. (vito), $ 129, 
1, & $ 233, N. avoiding or shunning, 
trying to escape, escaping, carefully 

Vitium, i, n., injury, hurt ; a defect, 
fault, blemish ; a vice, error. 

Vito, are, avi, atum, a., to shun, 
avoid ; to escape. 

Vivo, ere, vixi, victum, n., to live, 
have life ; to live or pass one's life in 
a certain manner, pursue a certain 
course of life ; to live wefy enjoy life. 
Vivere ohkdiens, to be always obedi- 

Vivus, a, um, adj. (vivo), living, alive. 

Vix, adh., scarcely, hardly, with 

Vocabulum, ?, n., a word, term, ex- 
pression, name : from 

Voco, are, avi, atum, a. (vox), $ 230, 
$ 210, to call, name ; to cite or sum- 

Volens, tis, part. $■ adj. (volo, to 
will), willing ; of one's own accord, 
ready, of one's own free will, willing 
ly, spontaneously; favorable, propi* 
tious, wishing well, benevolent. Fo- 
lenti animo, with willing mind, eager- 
ly, gladly. Dis volentibus, by favoi 
of the gods. 

Volo, are, avi, atum, n., to fly, move 

Volo, velle, volui, irr. a. # n ($ 178- 
1,) $ 271, R4.& 273, 4, & $ 262, R. 4, 





to will or be willing, wish, desire, 
choose ; to command, ordain, appoint. 
It is used to express the will of the 
people in respect to the passage of a 
law, &c. , while the will of the senate 
was expressed by the verb censeo, to 

Volturcius, i, m. (T.) a Crotonian, 
confederate with Catiline. C. 44 — 50. 

Voluntarius, i, m., a volunteer, a 
soldier who serves willingly : from 

Voluntarius, a, um, adj., voluntary, 
willing -.from 

Voluntas, dtis,f (volo, to will), will, 
inclination, wish, choice, desire, mind, 
purpose; love, affection, good will, 
benevolence, favor. Voluntate, in af- 
fection, in feeling, voluntarily, wil- 
lingly, of one's own accord. Volun- 
tate or ex voluntate, according to one's 
wish or desire ; at one's instigation. 

Voluptarius, a, um, adj. pleasant, 
delightful, pleasurable ; voluptuous : 

Voluptas, atis,f, pleasure, joy, de- 
light, enjoyment, sensual pleasure ; so, 
voluptas corporis. 

Volux, ucis, m., the son of Bocchus, 
king of Mauretania. J. 101, 105, &c 

Volvo, <ire, volvi, volutum, a., to roll, 

turn about or around, roll or tumble 
down. Fig. to revolve in one's mind 
ponder, meditate, think upon, l effect 
consider, think over, § 265. 

Vos, see Tu. 

Votum, i, n. (voveo, to vow), a vow 
or promise made to some' deity; that 
which is promised, a prayer, wish. 

Vox, vocis,f, a voice ; a word, say- 
ing, sentence ; speech, language. 

Vulgus, i, n. fy m., the common 
people, the vulgar, populace, rabble, 
herd ; the people collectively, the mul 

Vulri&ro, are, avi, atum, a., to wound, 
hurt: from 

Vulnus, eris, n., a wound, hurt 
Confecti vulneriius, disabled by 
wounds, covered with wounds. 

Vultus, us, m., the countenance, 
look, aspect, visage, features, mien, 
the face. Vultus corporis, the coun- 
tenance, looks, aspect. Vultus bonus, 
a fair outside. 

Zama, a,f, a town of Africa, dis- 
tant live days journey from Carthage 
J. 56— 61. 

*#* The section marks (§) in the preceding Dictionary and in the Notes, 
with their accompanying letters and figures, refer to the sections and 
subordinate divisions of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, and of 
Andrews' Latin Manual. 


I. Fdlso queritur. The four introductory sections of each of the treatises 
of Sallust have no direct connection with the histories to which they 
are prefixed, and, with only slight alterations, might have served equally 
well as prefaces to any other works. In both, the train of thought is 
nearly the same, and they each contain a defence of the author for 
choosing to devote his talents to literary employments, rather than to a 
participation in public affairs. 

Imbecilla, sc. natura sua, instead of imbecillum, agreeing with humanum 
genus, or imbecillus, agreeing with homo, $ 324, 2. 

uEvibrevis, $211,'R. 6.— Regatur, $266, 3. 

Vim out tempus deesse. Vim relates to imbecilla in the preceding sen- 
tence, and tempus, to cevi brevis. So below, vires and tempus. Invenies 
is here construed first with the accusative, and then with the infinitive 
and accusative. Instances of double constructions are common in 

Sed dux. This sentence contains a reply to the complaint mentioned in 
the first sentence, and sed, serving to introduce a different view of the 
nature of man, is strictly adversative. 

Eripere cuiquam potest, sc. fortuna. 

Sin, captus, sc. mor talis animus, i. e. homo or quisquam. In its adversative 
character sin serves to introduce a clause which is opposed to ubi ad 
gloriam virtutis via grassatur. 

Perniciosa libidine paulisper usus, — natures infirmitas accusatur. An ana- 
coluthon, $ 323, 3, (5). The regular termination of the sentence would 
have been, natures infirmitatem accusat. 

Suam quisque, $204, R. 10, & $209, R. 11, (4). 

Auctores, sc. culpa. — Tanta cura esset, $ 261, 1. 

Quanto studio— petunt, i. e. quantum est studium, quo—petunt, $ 206, (6), (6). 

Neque regerentur, i. e. et non regerentur ; sc. casibus. 

Eo magnitudinis, $ 212, R. 4, N. 3. 
II. Corporis alia, sc. naturam sequuntur. Gr. $ 204, R. 10. 

Res cunctce, sc nostras. — Habet cuncta, " possesses," " controls" — . 

Prcssertim, sc. pravitas eorum admiranda est. 
fll. Verum ex his, sc. artibus. — Cupienda, sc. esse, $ 270, R. 3. 

Quoniam neque virtuti honos datur. The remainder of this chapter is 
occupied with the author's reasons for declining to take part in public 
affairs ; first, that offices were not bestowed upon the deserving ; and 



secondly, that those engaged in the contest for office, and who are di- 
vided into three classes* were neither happier nor more respectable on 
account of their success. 
Uli quibus per fraudem is (sc. honos) fuit, — " who have acquired office by 

deceptive arts ;" these constitute the first class. 
Vi quidem regere. The second class is described as obtaining powerl>v 

Parentes, from pareo, " subjects," though some interpret it " parents." 

Possis, sc. regere patriam, &c. 

Frustra autem niti, sc. regere patriam, &c., et delicta corrigere. 

Dementice est, $ 211, R. 8, (3). 

Nisi forte quern. The third class, whom Sallust ironically excepts from 

" the number of those whom he dissuades from the pursuit of office. Nisi 
quern, $ 137, B. (3.) 
IV. Prcetereundum, i. e. prcetereundum esse mihi de cujus virtute dicere. 

Memet, the subject ofextollere. — Important, $264, 6. 

Certe, quibus, i. e. ii quibus, &c. imponent nomen inertia, &c. 

Maxima industria, $210, N. 1. — Qui si reputaverint, $206, (17.) 

Quibus ego temporibus. Sallust was questor soon after the suppression of 
the Catilinarian conspiracy, and tribune of the people subsequently to 
the victory of Caesar, at the time when Clodius was slain by Milo. 

Quales viri. Cato, about this time, was. an unsuccessful candidate for the 

Qua genera kominum. Reference is here made to a large body of sena- 
tors created by Csesar. 

Reipublicce venturum, $ 225, IV. Rem. 2. 

P. Scipionem,, sc Africanum majorem. 

Sibi animum, $ 211, R. 5, 1. So egregiis viris, below. 

In sese habere ; habere depends on scilicet, i. e. on scire or scias, one of its 
component parts, $272. 

Rerum gestarum, sc. majorum. 

Egregiis viris, sc. Maximo, Scipioni, &c. $211, R. 5, (1.) 

Quam virtus, i. e. ipsorum virtus, sc. Maximi, &c. 

Eorumfamam, sc. majorum. 

Adcequaverit, $ 263, 3. 

His moribus, " of these manners," " of the present manners," $211, R. 6, 
i. e. possessing the manners of the present day. 

Contendant, $ 262, R. 10, 1. 

Magnifica sint, $ 263, 2. 

Civitatis morum piget tcedetque, $ 209, R. 3, (4). 
V iBellum scripturus sum, $ 162, 14. 

Varia victoria, $ 211, R. 6. The genitive or ablative of character or quality 
is often thus used in the predicate, instead of a simple adjective, and 
usually for the want of it ; and in such cases is found united in con- 
struction with adjectives, as here, bellum magnum et atrox vai iaque vie 
torict. See in regard to this connection $ 278. 

Tumprimum, i. e. after the death of the Gracchi. 

Qua contentio, sc of the popular and aristocratic parties. 


Studiis civilibus helium atque vastitas Italics jinem faceret ; m war, &c 
made the end, i. e. were the end, the issue or result of the civil dissen- 

Ad cognoscendum, $ 275, 1, R. 1. The, gerund may often be translated 
either actively or passively. 

Maxime attriverat, " more than any other one" — . 

Receptus a. P. Scipione, i. e. the elder. 

Africano cognomen, $ 204, R. 8. 

Rei militaris facinora, i. e. militanafacinora. 

Imperii, i. e. his empire as enlarged by the grant of territory made by the 

Micipsa films. Masinissa is said to have had many children, but of these 
four only are mentioned by Sallust; viz. Micipsa, the father of Adherbal 
and Hiempsal, Gulussa, the father of Massiva; Manastabal, the father 
of Jugurtha and Gauda, and Massugrada, the father of Dabar. 

VI. Qui ubi, § 206, 17.— Decor a facie. See Chap. V. note 2d- 
Non, se luxu, § 89, R. 3. 

Equitare. The present infinitive is of very frequent occurrence in Sallust, 

instead of the imperfect of the indicative, § 209, R. 5, & $ 269, (a.) Jin. : 

" he practised riding," &c. 145, II. 1. 
Opportunitas— qua. The author seems to have referred the relative 

quce not to opportunitas as modified by suce et liberorum cetatis, but to 

opportunitas alone. 
Ex quibus, $ 206, (13) : from which circumstances. 

VII. Nequeper vim neque insidiis, $ 247 & R. 4, & $ 278, R. 2. 

Quod erat Jugurtha. This clause contains the reason of the succeeding 

one, statuit eum objectare, $c. 
Prafecit, sc. eum. 

Naturam, P. Scipioms, sc. the younger. 
Romania imperator, sc. erat, $ 211, R. 5. 
Quod difficillimum, § 206, {13).—Difficillimum inpnmis. This expression 

is nearly equivalent to a double superlative. 
Quorum alterum — alterum, " the latter — the former" — 
Quis rebus, § 136, R. 2. 

VIII. Non mediocrem, $ 324, 9. 

Si Micipsa etc.— fore. Fore depends on dicendo implied in pollicitando, 
g 270, R. 2, (b.) — See also note on Prceterea esse, Cat. XXI. — Occi- 
disset, § 266, R. 4. — Solus, sc. is, i. e. Jugurtha. 

In ipso maximam virtutem. Before this clause a causal particle is implied. 

Neu quibus, § 137, 1, R. (3.) 

A paucis emi, sc. id, § 206, (4.) 

Et gloriam et regnum, § 278, R. 7. — Venturum, § 205, R. 2, (2.) 

IX. Quas Micipsa redderet, § 264, 5. 

Longe maxima, § 127, 3. — Quam rem. § 206, (13,) (c.) 
Uti idem, sc. carus, § 207, R. 27, & § 222, R. 7. 
Avo suo, I 208, (6,) (c.) 

X. In meum regnum. In this passage, Micipsa professes that he had in- 

tended from the first to admit Jugurtha to a share of the kingdom, 


though in fact he had adopted him three years only before his death 

and then sorely against his inclination. 
Si genuissem, $ 266, 2, R. 2, $ R. 4.—Liberis, though found in all the 

manuscripts., appears to be an interpolation: if this be omitted, te is to 

be supplied with genuissem. 
Ea res, " this belief, this expectation." 
Ut omittam, $ 262, R. 8. 
Egregiatua, sc. facta. 
NomenfamilicB renovatum. Masinissa had acquired great reputation by 

his military exploits in Spain. 

Quod difficillimum, $ 206, (13.) 
Per hanc dextram, sc. tuam. See Virg. Mn. IV, 314. 
Si tuis, sc. cognatis or propinquis. 
Boni—mali, the precise meaning of words having so general significations 

as these, may be ascertained by their connection. 
JVe aliter, i. e. otherwise than harmoniously, — that no discord arise. 
Facere videtur, sc. mjuriam — Men naturally favor the weaker party. 
Kl Et ipse, i. e. Jugurtha. 
Postquam Mi, $ 223. Fecerant. The construction of postquam with the 

pluperfect is rare, § 259, R. 1, (2.) (d.) ; but is occasionally found in 

other passages of Sallust, as in J. 44 & 108. 
Matemo genere impar, see Chap. V 
Dextera, sc. a. 
Adherbalem assedit, $ 233. 
Ipsum ilium, sc. Jugurtham. In the oratio directa this would be tu ipse 

Concerning the change of tu into ille in the oratio obliqua, pee tile and 

7s in the Dictionary. 
Moliri, parare, — habere; historical infinitives. See note on equitare 

Chap. VI. 
Tardius, $ 256, R. 9, & (a.) 
XII. Placuerat, sc Mis, i. e. regulis. 
Alius alio, § 204, R. 10. 
Utebatur — referebantur. The imperfect here is to be referred to $ 145, II 

4, as denoting preparation to act, or. that which was about to be done. 
Proximus lictor. The Romans often applied to other nations names o! 

office which were peculiar to themselves, as here that of lictor. 
Ille, sc. Jugurtha. 
Referebantur, " were about to be delivered" to Hiempsal. See above on 

Utebatur, etc. 
Se ipsum venturum, $ 270, R, 2, (b.) 

Numida — confecit, atque — introducit. The perfect indefinite with the his- 
torical present. See Cat. xx. • 
Quum interim Hiempsal reperitur. For the use of the present and perfect 

tenses of the indicative in the second part of a compound sentence, see 

note on Chap. CI. 
PrcBcepit, — uti expleant. The present depending on the perfect indefinite 

which is not common. See note Cat. XLI. 
Mulieris ancillcB, $ 204, R. 1. 


XIII. Ilium alterum, sc. Jugurtham. 

In provinciam, sc. Romanam. This province consisted of the former pos- 
sessions of the Carthaginians. 

Iram ejus, i. e.populi Romani. — Ne cunctentur, sc. parare. 

Hospitibus aliisque — magna munera misere, $ 225, IV. R. 2. 

Quorum pars, sc. nobilium, $ 206, 11. 

Ubi satis confidunt, i. e. when they were confident of having secured a 
sufficient interest in the senate. 

Utrisque datur, i. e. legatis Jugurtha et Adherbalis. 

XIV. Si eafecissem, $ 266, R. 4 & $ 270, R. 2, (6.) 
Quibus non egerim, $ 266, 1. 

Vellem. A double construction here follows this verb. 

Neque mihi, $ 211, R. 5, (1.) 

In manufuit, $ 202. III. R. 2, & 3. 

Jugurtha qualisfuit, $ 265. 

Ceteri reges,— familia nostra. Adherbal urges the disinterested character 
of Masinissa's friendship. 

In suis dubiis rebus, i. e. quum res sues dubice essent. 

Fides ejus, sc. populi Romani. 

Quorum progeniem, sc. majorum, implied in familia nostra, $ 206, 11. 

Ad impetrandum, sc. auxilium, $ 275, III. R. 2, (3.) 

Tamen erat majestatis, $ 259, R. 4, & $ 211, R. a (3). 

Mihi erepta sunt, $ 224, R. 2. 

Mea injuria, § 211, R. 3, (c.) 

In sanguine, ferro, fuga versabimur, $ 323, 1, (2). 

Ilia pestis, sc. Carthaginienses. 

Quern vos jussissetis, sc. esse, i. e. haberi kostenu 

Intoleranda audacia, $ 211, R. 6. 

Atque eodem, $ 207, R. 27. 

Post, ubi me. The protasis ends at capere ; exspectantem agrees with me 
understood; "he caused that I, expecting nothing less, &c, should 
be exiled," &c, ut ubivis, &c, " so that I should be safer anywhere," 

Ut ubivis tutvus—essem. See Sum in Dictionary, for this use of the ad- 

Quod in familia nostra fait, prcBstitit, sc. id ; " our family have done what 
was in their power." 

In omnibus bellis, especially in the wars against the Numantines and the 

Tertium, scfratrem. 

Quern minime decuit, sc. ei vitam eripere. Quern relates to propinquus. 

Pars in crucem acti, $205, R. 3, (1.) 
. Cum moerore et luctu, $ 247, 2.' 

Adversa facta sunt, sc. qua, $ 209, R. 2, (1), (b). 

Ex necessarhs. Reference is here made both to his changed fortune and 
alienated friends, especially to Jugurtha, and necessariis is consequently 

Nationesne. i. e. vicinas nationes. 


Hostilia monumenta, memorials of wars undertaken by the ancestors of 
Adherbal in aid of the Romans. 

Vnd nobis occidendum, $ 225, III. Und, sc. cum imperio Romano, 

Dls volentibus, i. e. Deorum voluntate. 

Sociorum injurias, the objective genitive, $ 211, R 2. 

Licet sc. vobis. 

Jllud vereor, $ 207, R. 22.— Ne quos, see Nequis in Diet 

Fingere me verba, $ 270, R. 2, (6.) 

Quodutinam, $206, (14).— Videam, $263, 1. 

Eadem Jicec simulantem, " practising the same dissimulation," i. e. suffer 
ing evils as real as those I suffer. 

Vnde minime decuit, sc. tuam vitam eripi. 

Non enim regnum, sed fugam, exsilium, egestatem et arumnas — a?msistv 
zeugma, $ 323, 1, (2). 

Rerum humanarum, " of human affairs," that is of their instability. 

Tuasne injurias, $211, R. 3, (c.) 

Cujus vita ; cujus relates to ego understood, the subject oiconsulam. Such 
a construction is unusual. 

Utinam emori, $ 269 ; fortunis, $ 211, R. 5 ; neu vivere. Adherbal wishes 
for one of two things. See the next sentence. 

Per scelus et sanguinem familiar nostrcs. Familia limits sanguinem only. 
XV. Postquam rexfinem loquendi fecit, $ 259, R. 1. (2.) (d.) 

Quam causa, " than to the justice of their cause." 

Postquam superatus sit, $266, 2. — Putarent, $209, R. 11. 

Ante facta suaponerent, $ 208, (1.) & $266, R. 3. 

Utrique curia egrediuntur, i. e. Adherbal et Jugurthce legati. 

Subveniendum Adherbali, § 209, R. 3, (3.) & § 239, R. 4. — For the omis- 
sion of the agent, see § 225, III, R. 1. 

Mmilius Scaurus. A high character is attributed to this nobleman by 
Cicero as well as by Valerius Maximus. 

Is postquam videt The historical present occurs frequently in Sallust 
after postquam. 

VI. Vicit tamen, i. e. notwithstanding the opposition of iEmilius Scaurus 
and others. 

Quia consul, i. e. quia quum consul f nit. 

In plebem. Opimius had slain more than three thousand of the common 
people who had followed C. Gracchus. 

Qucb pars. $ 206, (3.) — Quam usu, sc. potius. 
XVII. Res pcstulare videtur — exponere. The purpose after verbs signifying 
to request, demand, &c. is usually expressed by the subjunctive with ut, 

Sed qucB loca — de Us, $206, (3,) & (a.) — Item, i. e. et item 6b. 

Quce loca et nationes — minus frequentata sunt, $ 205, R. 2, (2). 

Pauci tantummodo Asiam et Europam esse, sc. dixerunt or voluerunt 

Ea fines habet, sc. Africa. Pronouns often relate, not to the nearest ante- 
cedent, but to that which is the principal object of attention in the sen- 
tence Fines, $230, R. 2. 

Arbore mfecundus, $250, 2, (1.) 


f&alubri corpore, see note on Varia victoria, chap. V. 

Interfere, i. e. solent interire or intereunt. The perfect often occurs in this 

Habuerint, — accesserint,—permixti sint, $265. 

XVIII. Multis sibi quisque imperium petentibus The regular construction 
would have required quoque instead of quisque, or quum, amisso duce, 
multi sibi quisque imperium peterent, $ 204, R. 10, last clause, & $ 209 
R. 11. (4.) & $ 323, 3, (5). 

Eo numero, instead of eorum numero, $ 207, R. 20. 

Intra oceanum magis. Some explain this to mean "more within,' or 
" farther on this side of the ocean," i. e. in the Mediterranean, farther 
east than the colonies of Medes and Persians. Others with perhaps 
more probability, suppose intra oceanum magis to mean " farther out in 
the ocean," and mare magnum, to refer not to the wider parts of the 
Mediterranean, but to the Atlantic. On this latter supposition, the 
Persians must have settled at first on the shores of the Atlantic south 
of the straits of Gibraltar. 

Semet ipsi Numidas appellavere, $ 207, R. 28. 

Accessere Libyes, § 233. 

Sub sole magis, i. e. farther south. 

Hique mature oppida habuere, i. e. the Medes and Armenians. See note, 
Chap. XVII, on Ea fines habet. 

Proxime Carthaginem, $235, R. (11.) 

Qua — Numidia appellatur, $ 209, R. 9. 

Utrique alteris freti, i. e. the two divisions of the Numidians, those who 
had originally settled intra oceanum magis, and who subsequently re- 
moved farther into the interior, and the colony which returned to the 
neighborhood of the sea, not far from Carthage. 

Africa pars inferior, the northern part of Africa, bordering upon the 

XIX. Nam de Carihagine. Nam relates to something understood ; as, ' I 
say nothing of Carthage," nam. 

Ad Catabathmon, " next to" or " after the Catabathmos." 

Secundo mari, " following the coast," i. e. towards the west. 

Thercebn, — PhilcBnbn, Greek genitives, instead of the usual Latin form in 
orum, $ 54, 4. 

Post alice Punica urbes, after post supply Philcenon aras. 

Super Numidiam, " beyond Numidia," i. e. farther in the interior 

JEthiopas, $ 80, 1, and $ 85, fixe. 2d. 

Fines Carthaginiensium, quos novissime habuerant, i. e. the territories pos- 
sessed by the Carthaginians immediately before the destruction of their 

Cetera ignarus, $ 234, II, & R. 2. 

Neque bello neque pace antea cognitus $ 247. 

XX. Regno diviso, $ 257, R. 5. The narrative is resumed from Chap. XVL 
Certum ratus, quod, $ 205, R. 9, & $ 206, (13.) Esse is to be suppled with 

certum; its subject being the clause, omnia Roma venalia esse, $239, 


Convertit, sc. se, $ 229, R. 4. 

Injurias suas, $211, R. 3, (c.) 

Neque se parem armis existimabat, $ 230, R. 1. 

De injuriis qucestum misit, $ 276, II. 

Suis animum — anger -e, $ 211, R. 5. 1. 

XXI. Ed processum, $239, R. 3, & $209, R. 3, (2.) 
Utriusque consedit exercilus ; sc. Adherbalis et Jugurthce. 
Tempus legatorum antecapere, i. e. tempus reditus legatorum, 
Ubiplerumque noctis processit, $259, R. 1, (2.) (d.) 

Senatus de hello eorum accepit, sc. famam, nuntium, &c. $ 229, R. 4, 2. 
Velle et censere, sc. se, i. e Senatum populumque Romanum, 
Ita seque illisque dignumfore, i. e. itafacere et Romania et regions dignum 

XXII. Quorum, Juguriha, accepta oratione respondit, instead of quorum 
oratione, &c. 

Abjure gentium, i. e. in this place, the right of avenging injuries, which 

right belonged to every sovereign state. 
Sese, $ 208, (1.) 
Ita utrique, sc. Juguriha et legati Romani. 

XXIII. Africa decessisse, $ 242, & $ 268. 
Aut per vim aut dolis, $ 278, R. 2. 
Confirmat uti — pergerent, $258, 2, R. 1, (a.) 

XXIV. Litter cb Adherbalis in senatu recitatce, sc. sunt The verb sum, espe- 
cially as an auxiliary, is often to be supplied. 

Nisi tamen. See Diet. Nisi refers to plura de Jugurthh, scribere dehorta 
tur mefortuna mea: " this only I will write." 

Quintumjam mensem, $ 236, R. 2. 

Micipsce patris beneficia, i. e. his favors to Jugurtha. 

Etjam antea. Et sometimes introduces a clause explanatory of a preced- 
ing one, and may be then translated "as, since." 

Antea expertus sum ; see Chap. XVI. 

Qucb sanefuerint, $260, R. 3 — Unaforent, $ 262, R. 4. 

XXV. Fuere, qui — censer ent, $ 264, 6. — Censer ent has here a double con 
struction, first with the accusative and infinitive, and then with the sub- 
junctive, $ 273, 3. 

Adherbali subveniendum, $ 209, R. 3, (3), & $ 239, R. 3. 

Ab Numidis obsecrati, i. e. by the Numidians sent to Rome wrth the letter 

of Adherbal, Chap. XXVIII. 
Ad provinciam accedat, sc. ut, an order being implied in litteras mittunl 

$262, R. 4. 
Seque ad eum — missos, sc. dicentes, which also is implied in litteras mit 

tunl, $ 272. 
Diducta manu hostium, i. e. dispersed to various parts of the wall, in con 

sequence of an attack being made on every side at the same time 
Quod oppvgnatione non desisteret, $ 266, 3. 

XXVI. Italici. These appear to be the same persons who were previously 
called negotiatores and togati, including not only the Italici properly so 
called, but Roman citizens also. 


Defensabantur. Frequentatives are often used by Sallust instead of their 

Deditione facta. The ablative absolute is here used instead of a condi- 
tional clause, " that should a surrender be made," § 257, R. 1. 

Adherbalem excruciatum necat, — " after torturing," or " when he *iad tor- 
tured." The construction of the perfect passive participle is often 
owing to the want of a perfect participle of the active voice, $ 274, 3. 

Uti quisque armatis ebvius, sc. fuerat. 

XXVII. Agiiari cozpta, sc. est, § 183, 2, N. 2. 

Scepe gratia, inter dum jurgiis, " often by the exertion of their influence 

sometimes by altercation." 
Leniebant. The imperfect here, as well as in some other places, denotes 

" striving" or " endeavoring" to do. 
Edocuisset id agi,—" that the plan was," or " that this was the design," 

$27a, 1. 

XXVIII. Contra spem nuntio accepto, i. e. the intelligence respecting the 
dangers which threatened him. 

Pracepit—aggrediantur. See Note on Prcecepit ut simulent. Cat. XLI. 

Quippe cui in animo hceserat, § 211, R. 5, (1.) 

Iique decrevere, synesis, $ 323, 3, (4.) 

Deditum venissent, $ 276, II. 

Irtgat sibi. The legati or lieutenants were chosen by the generals whom 

they were to assist, but the choice was confirmed by the senate. 
Homines nobiles, factiosos, $ 205, R. 16. 
Siciliam — transvectce, § 237, R. 5. 

XXIX. Assumitur Scaurus, see Chap. XV. 

Belli moram redimebat, " attempted to purchase, see Chap. XXVII, on 

Deditionis mora, $ 253. 

Prcssenti consilio, i. e. the council of war called by the Roman consul 

Locutus de invidia facti sui, viz. in putting to death .Adherbal and the 
Italians, see Chap. XXVI." Locutus is here construed with the accusa- 
tive, and also with a subjunctive clause. With the latter it has the sense 
of " asking, requesting, $ 323, 1, (2.) 

Secreta transigit, instead of secretb, &c. $ 205, R. 15. 

Calpurnius Romam. Scipio the colleague of Calpurnius was now dead. 

XXX. Quoque modo, for et quo modo. The accusative res, as well as the 
subjunctive clause, depends on the verb divulgavit — Acta J r oienU $265. 

Agiiari, for agitabatur, impersonally ; " discussions were had." 

Parum constabat, sc. patribus or Us, " it was not clear to them," " they 

were at a loss." 
Supra diximus. See Chap. XXVII. 

XXXI. Behortantur, instead of dehortentur, this construction in the apodosis 
of a sentence is more common with past tenses than with the present, 
$ 260, R. 4. The subjects of this verb in apposition with multa, $ 204, 
R. 10 are singularly varied, including the clause qubd innocenticB, &c 
§ 202, III. R. 2, & 3; and jus nullum, in the sense of qubd jus nullum est. 

Opes factionis, sc. nobilium. 


fnnocentice plus periculi — est, $ 226. 

Nam ilia quidem. The three subsequent clauses are in apposition with 

His annis quindecim, " for these fifteen years," i. e. last past. 
Quam ludibrio fueritis, $ 265. 
Quamfcede quamque inulti perierint. An adjective is here connected with 

an adverb. See $ 205, R. 15, & $ 278. 
Vestri de/ensores, sc. the Gracchi and others. 
Vobis animus, $ 211, R. 5, (1.) 

Ab ignavia atque socordia corruptus, $ 248, II, Note. 
Obnoxiis inimicis. The nobles were many of them liaole to punishment 

for the part they had taken in respect to the affairs of Jugurtha. 
Quibus decet, sc. vos. 
Certe ego libertatem, $ 209, R. 1, (6.) 

Quod scEpe majores, $ 206, 13. — Necesse est — eant, $ 262, R. 4 
Sed sane fuerit,— -jure factum sit, $260, R. 3. — Plebi sua restituere, $208, (7.) 
Superioribus annis. The author having in the preceding sentence grant 

ed, for the sake of argument, that the violence of the nobles in punish 

ing the adherents of the Gracchi might be justifiable, proceeds to enu 

morale other injuries inflicted by them on the common people. 
Imperio nati, $ 223, instead of the gerund, ad imperandum, denoting a 

Iidemque, " and yet." See Diet. 
Pars eorum occidisse tribunos, qu&stiones injustas. Two construction* 

are united, $ 229, R. 5, 2d par. 
Metum — transtulere, instead of metum a se sceleratis ad vos ignavos trans* 

Eadem cupere, &c. $ 269. — Sed Jkbc, sc. eadem cupere, &c. $ 206, (10.) 
Quam illi ad dominationem accensi sunt, the regular construction of this 

clause, in order to correspond with the preceding one, would be, quam 

illi dominationis. 
Beneficia vestra, i. e. the offices and honors in the gift of the people. 
Quod magis vosfecisse, i. e. vindicasse in eos manu, &c. 
Verum qucestionibus, &c. sc. vindicandum est in eos. 
Et ilia — tempora, sc. the times immediately subsequent to the death of the 

Quis vestrum, $ 212, R. 2, N. 2, & 133, R. 3. 
Quantum importunitatie, instead of pro tanta importumtate, quantum, &c 

" such is their insolence," § 226, (3), (a.) 
Faciendi licentia eripitur, i. e. malefaciendi licentia illis eripitur. 
Id est regem esse, supply, eum or hominem, $ 239, R. 3, & $ 209, R. 3, (5), 

(a.) fin., & I 207, R. 22. 
Vt malitis, &c. i. e. I would not advise you to become so fond of punish- 
ing the evil, as to desire occasions for doing it, but only to exercise thia 

power sufficiently for the protection of the good. 
Bonos perditum ealis, $ 276, R. 2. 
Auxilii egeas, sc. bonorum. 
XXXII. Interpositafide publica, sc. for his safety. 


I'ecunicB mpta, $ 274, R. # 5. 

Fuere qui iraderent. See Sum in Diet. 

Plurima etjlagitiosissima. For this use of et see Multus in Diet. — jEfo 

phantos, see Chap. XXIX, near the end. 
Alii—vendere, pars — agebant, $209, R. 11. In this and other instances 

Sallust unites the present infinitive with the imperfect indicative, as of 

similar force, $ 209, R. 5, Note 7. — Perfugas, sc. Numidicos. 
Dedidisset, $ 266, 3. 
XXXIII.— Confirmatus ab omnibus. The sense requires tamen before confir 

matus, and with this the apodosis of the sentence begins. 
Cujus, i. e. ut ejus, $ 264, 5. 
Contra jus et injurias omnes. Justice was even more formidable to Ju- 

gurtha than injustice. 
De hoste supplicium sumi, sc.jubebat, " that he should be put to death as 

a public enemy," $268, R. 3. 
Ires, magis consulens, sc. Memmiu*. 
Romas Numidiceque, $221, R. 1. 
Quibus juvantibus, $ 229, R. 5. 
Egerit, $265. — Intelligat, $266, 3.— Velle, sc. ilium, i. e. populum Roma- 

num. — Fore, sc. se, $ 239, R. 2. 

XXXIV. Terrebat eum, sc. tribunum, "tried to terrify him." See Chap. 
XXVII, on Leniebant. 

XXXV. Quoniam ex stirpe Masinisscc sit, $ 266, 3—Petat, $ 262, R. 4. 
Invidiu cum metu, i. e. public odium and his own fears, $ 249, HI. 
Massiva agitare ccepit. The perfect indefinite is here, as in other passages 

of Sallust, followed by the historical present. '< 

Mala fama, i. e. the infamy consequent upon such a crime as the murder 

of Massiva. 
Maxime ocenlte, § 194, 6. — These words seem to be connected with 

Numidam interjiciat, rather than with paret. 
Egressus, sc. extra urbe aut domo. 
Ex eo numero, qui, instead of ex eorum numero qui, $ 207, R. 20, & $ 

206, (11.) 
Ex csquo bonoque. By the law of nations the persons of ambassadors and 

of their attendants were inviolable. To bring Bomilcar to trial, there- 
fore, was not strictly in accordance with this law. 
Regno magis. Before these words tamen is to be supplied, and with this 

the apodosis begins. 
Urbem venalem, $ 238, 2. 

XXXVI. Ante comitia, quod tempus, $ 206, (8.) 
Instanti, sc. Albino. 

Ac fuere qui — existimarent, $ 264, 6. 
X XXVII. Totius anni comitia. Not only the election of tribunes, but that 
of all the other magistrates, was delayed. 
Poliundi, $ 162, 20. 
X XXVIII. Imperitia legati, i. e. of Aulus. 
Ita dehUa, i. e. of x\ulus and of his army. Before itadelicla, supply dixit, 
$ 270, R. 2, (b.) 



Occultiora, " would be better concealed," i. e. from the senate and Roman 
people. The object of Jugurthti was to render treason in the army of 
Aulus easy by rendering it difficult of detection. 

Co^umpere for corrumpebat. On this transfugerent and desererent de- 

Confirmare. See the note on LeniebanL Chap. XXVII. 

Trepidare ; the historical infinitive. 

Sed ex eo numero, quos. See note Chap. XXXV. on Ex eo numero qui, 

Paucis gregariis militibus, § 205, R. 16, (c.) 

Nox atque prceda — remorata sunt, $ 205, R. 2, (2.) 

Fameferroque clausum. Zeugma, the participle being properly connected 
with ferro only, $ 323, 1, (2.) 

Tenet. In the oratio obliqua the indicative is employed to denote the cer- 
tainty of the thing in the mind of the author, in distinction from a fact 
resting upon the assertion or opinion of another. 

Uti — decederet, $ 273, 2, & 3. A verb of requiring or commanding is im- 
plied in verba facit. 
XXXIX. Timere libertati, " were apprehensive for their liberties," i. e. they 
feared lest the state should become the prey of its enemies 

Infesti, sc. erant. 

Ab sociis et nomine Latino. The socii are the same as the I'alici, i. e. all 
the Italians except the Latins. 

Uti par fuerat. The pluperfect is here used instead of the imperfect to 
denote that which had long been, and still was. 

Uti convenerat, " as had been agreed," i. e. in the treaty between Aulus 
and Jugurtha. 

Cognitis militibus. Supply tamen, with which the apodosis will begin. 
XL. In legationibus aut imperiis. A ulus the lieutenant of Albinus, Scaurus 
the lieutenant of Calpurnius Bestia, and Calpurnius himself were espe- 
cially aimed at by this law. 

Per amicos, $ 247, R. A.—Odio nobilitatis, $ 247, R. 2. 

Cut mala ilia, sc. prosecutions, banishments, &c. 

Supra docuimus. See. Chaps. XXVIII & XXIX. 
XLI. Rerum, qua prima, § 206, (11.). The general idea of things is denoted 
either by neuter adjectives or by res Here both constructions are 
united. Metus hostilis, $ 211, R. 4, (a.) 

Asperius acerbiusque, sc. rebus adversis. 

Repcrti sunt, qui anteponerent, $ 264, 6. The Gracchi are especially in- 
tended. See the next chapter. 
XLII. Quorum majores. The paternal ancestors of the Gracchi had ren 
dered important services to the state, especially in the Punic wars, 
and on their mother's side they were descended from the elder Scipio 

Spes societatis, i. e. of alliance with the nobles. 

Tribunum alterum, sc. Tiberium. 

Triumvirum coloniis deducendis, sc. Caium, § 275, III. R. 2, (2.) 

Sed bono vinci satius est, etc. Bono, sc. homini. This remark is under- 
stood by some commentators as a censure upon the Gracchi, by others 


as a reflection upon the nobles, p^a account of the unlawful and violent 

means resorted to by each for accomplishing their purposes. 
Ferro autfuga exstinxit, slew or banished, § 323, 1, (2.) 
Timoris. The fear felt by the nobility, not that inspired by them. 
Acerbius ulcisci, § 256, R. 9, (a.) 
Parent disserere, § 261, R. 3. 
XL1II. Alia omnia, sc. munera, " all the duties" of the consulship. 
Sibi cum collega, sc esse, — "belonged jointly to him and to lis colleague. 

While Metellus carefully assisted his colleague in all . the joint duties of 

their office, he considered the care of the war in Numidia as devolving 

especially upon himself. 
Reges ultro auxilia mittere, i. e. the kings in alliance with the Romans. 
Proconsulis. Albinus is here called proconsul, because he continued for 

some time to perform the duties of a consul as commander in chief of 

the army in Africa after the expiration of his year, while waiting the 

arrival of the new consul. 
XLIV. Prcedator ex sociis, $ 211, R. 2, (d.) 
Majorum discipline, § 249, II. 

Non egredi provincia. See Chap, XXXIX, at the end. 
Quantum temporis ccstivorum in imperiofuit; " as much of the time of the 

campaign as he continued in command." 
Palantes, sc. milites. 
Frumentum publice datum. Corn was usually distributed to the soldiers 

every month ; to each foot-soldier a little more than one bushel of our 

XLV. Tarda temperantia. The construction is here interrupted, but tanta 

relates to the following paragraphs, not less than it would have done, 

had they been made to depend upon ut, instead ofnamque. 
[gnavice sustulisse, sc. comperior. 
Ne quisquam, sc. dicens or edicens, " ordering," implied in edicto, $ 273 

2, 3d par. 
Quern alium, i. e. aliquem alium. See Alius in Diet. 
Ceteris, to other irregularities or indulgences. 
Artk, "strictly," but some consider, it as the ablative of ars, "by skill or 

contrivance, wisely." 
XLVI. Certior /actus Roma, $ 255. 

Qui — ipsi liberisque vitam peterent, $ 208, (4.) 

Legatos, alium abaliis diver sos, — separate one from the other. Alium, sc. 

Quce ex voluntate, sc. regis — Forent, $ 266, 1. 
Intento atque infesto exercitu, $ 249, III, Remark. « 

Ostentui, sc. esse. 

Insidiis locum tentari, sc. ab Jugurilia or ab hostibus. 
Propulsarent, sc. eos, i. e. equitatus. 
Pacem an bellum gerens, $ 323, 1, (2.) 
X.LVII. Hue consul, simul tentandi gratia, etc. The true reading is heie 

doubtful, and the sense uncertain. Those who adopt the reading in the 

text interpret it as follows, " Here the consul, both for the purpose"*of 



enticing (the inhabitants) to revolt, and on account of the advantageous 
ness of the place, if they would suffer (themselves to be thus enticed; 
placed a garrison." 
Id quod res monebat, $ 207, R. 22, & 206, (13.), (b.) 

Etjam paratis rebus, i. e. the supplies of provisions, &c. previously pro- 
vided (for the army.) 
Munimento fore, " would be a preservative," " would help to preserve.* 
Metello dedere, — " surrendered," i. e. offered or sought to surrender. See 

note on leniebant, Chap. XXVII. 
XL VIII. Urbs maxima, sc. Vacca. 
Quam Adherbal in divisione (sc. regni) possederat. See chap. XVI. 
Quce humi arido, § 205, R. 9. 
XLIX. Extenuata suorum acie> $ 205, R. 7, N. 1. 
Qua: ageret, $ 265. 
Propior montem, $ 235, R. 11. 
Turmas atque manipulos See note, Chap. XII. 
Monet atque obtestatur. The subjunctive, defendant, may depend upon 

either of these verbs,* the accusatives with the infinitive, certamen fore, 

and ducem non animum mutatum can refer only to monet. 
Subjugum miserint. See Chap. XXXVIII. 
Quce ab imperatore decuerint, sc. provideri. 
Omnia suis provisa. A double construction, the infinitive and accusative. 

and the subjunctive with uti. 
Parati—essent, $ 266, 2, R. 1. 
Locum superiorem, sc. provisum esse. 
Pecunia aut honore extulerat. Zeugma, $ 323, 1, (2.) 
Conspicatur, sc. eos, i. e. hastes. 
Humilitate arborum, i. e propter humilitatem arborum. See note on reipub 

licce magnitudine. Cat. XXXI. 
Agmen constituit, sc. Metellus. 
lncerti, quidnam esset. Incerti agrees with NumidcB. Quidnam esset, in 

stead of quidnam essent, the verb agreeing with the predicate nominative, 

§ 209, R. 9. Quidnam is in the neuter to denote the uncertainty attend 

ing the appearance, $ 205, R. 7. (2.) 
Ipsi atque signa — obscurati, $ 205, R. 2, (3.) 
Pauca — milites hortatus, $ 231, R. 5. 
L. Et quoniam armis diffiderent, $ 266, 3. 
Principes facti erant. Principes is not to be understood here of the rank 

of soldiers called principes, but simply of the troops in front. 
Primos suos, i. e. the left wing of Jugurtha's army, or that nearest to the 

Duum militum, $ 118, 1, R. 1. 
Ipsi modd, l. e. ipsi soli. 
Ita numero priores, sc. Numidce. 
Hostes deterrere, sc. Romanos. Hostis is continually used by Sallust not in 

reference to the opponents of the Romans only, but of that pany who 

ever it may be which happens to be the subject of discourse 
Consueti, i. e. accustomed to such places 


LI. Dispersi, sc. milites Romanu * 

Arma tela. See note on Cat. 11, bonus ignavus. 

Eorum, sc. militum Romaaorum, implied in cohortes legionarias, $ 206, V H.) 

Quum etiam turn eventus in incerto erat. The imperfect and pluperfect 
indicative after quum are of rare occurrence in Sallust. The historical 
present and perfect indefinite of the indicative mood, and likewise the 
historical infinitive after quum are of frequent occurrence in the apodosis 
of a sentence. 

Superioribus locis. The abl. of place without a preposition, $ 254, R. 3, 

Orare, i. e. orabat, sc. Metellus. — Ne deficerent, $ 273, 2. 

Neque illis casira esse, i. e. Romanis. Illis ; in the oratio directa, vobis. 
See Me in Diet. 
UI. Etjam die vesper erat, $ 90, Exc. 2. 

Adverso colle — evadunt, \ 254, R. 3, med. — Tutata sunt. The parti- 
ciple is here neuter, although both of Hhe nominatives are feminine and 
in the singular number. — Prcefectum, sc. esse. 

In oequumlocum, i. e. inplanitiem. See Chap. XLVIII 
LIU. JEquabilem, sc. pulverem. 

Imperabatur, sc. illis.- 

Auxilium, sc. esse. 

Obviam procedunt, sc. Metello. 

Nihil lavguidi neque remissi, $ 212, R. 3, N. 3. 

Admissum, sc. erat, $ 259, R. 4. 

Facinus miserabile, sc. an engagement between the two divisions of the 
Roman army. 
LIV. Quatriduo moratus. The ablative denoting duration of time is not of 
very common occurrence, $ 236. — Cum cura, § 247, 2. — More, $ 249, II. 

Qua levia sunt. The writer has here made the reason given by Metellus 
his own, and has accordingly employed the indicative, not the subjunc- 
tive mood, $ 266, 3, 2d clause. 

Sua quisque, $ 279, 14. 

Agit gratias, sc. iis referring to umversos. Two verbs belonging to the 
same subject, but requiring different cases after them, are frequently 
connected in such a manner, that the case depending on one of them is 
expressed, and that of the other is to be supplied. 

Gerant, $ 262, R. 4. 

Satis jam pugnatum, sc. ab illis, $ 184, 2, & $248, R. 1. 

Tnmen, i. e. though Metellus represented the war as virtually ended, " still.' 

Uti sese victus gcreret. Uti, i. e. quomodo. 

Agri ac pecoris magis qvam belli cultorem, $ 323, 1, (2.) 

Id ea gratia eveniebat. Id relates to the clause cogebat exercitum, $206, (13 ) 

Geri yin posset, $266, %—Ekformidine, $207, R. 20. 

gstfui cogebatur, sc. is. This omission of is occurs not unfrequently in 
Saliust For the usual construction, see $206, (3), (a). 

Romanos palantes, i. e. eos Romanos qui palabantur. 
h^i Ut seque—gereret. This and the following subjunctive clauses are in 
apfcssition with rebus, $204, R. 9; & $ 257, R. 8. 



Vktor tamen Tamen relates to quamquam implied in the phrase, in ad> 

verso loco. 
Niti—festinare ; historical infinitives. 
Effuso exercitu pradari, $ 249, III, Remark. So, Chap. LVI, exercitu 

LVI. Ratus, id quod, $206, (13), (b.) 
Hortatur moenia defendant, $ 262, R. 4. 
Quod genus ex copiis regis, $ 212, R. 2, N. 4. 
Quiafallere nequibat. The deserters from the Roman army fearing to 

fall into the hands of the Romans, would, for their own sakes, be faith- 
ful to Jugurtha. 
Siccam — quod oppidum, $ 206, (8.) 

Post malam pugnam, sc. near the river Muthul. Chaps. 50 — 53. 
Si idfecerint — sese cetatem acturos. In this sentence the tenses are the 

same as they would have been in the oratio directa, the persons of .the 

verbs only are changed. Si idfeceritis — ego cstatem agam. 
Elos in libertate. Illos in the change from the directa to the obliqua is 

used for vos, i. e. Siccenses. So, fortunam illis. 
Hostes urgent, i. e. Romani. 
LVII. Marius ad Zamam, $ 237, R. 2. 
Cuncta mania, a pleonastic expression for mania alone. See Mania in 

Exercitu circumvenit, § 249, III, Remark. 
Ubi quisque curaret, § 265. 
Pari periculo, sed fama impari — erant t $247. 
LVIII. Magna pars vulnerati, $ 205, R. 3. 
Sin Numida propius accessissent. Sin is opposed to tela eminus missa. 

Accessissent, $ 260, 1. 
Non amplius quadraginta, $ 256, R. 6. 

Propere — statim, " speedily — immediately."* The proper use of these ad- 
verbs denotes that Marius was first sent, and that the cavalry followed 

as soon as possible. 
LIX. Portas, sc. castrorum. — Proxima loca, sc. portis. 
In angustiis, sc. portarum. 
Qui in proximo, i. e. those whose station was nearest to Jugurtha, as he 

advanced to the attack. 
Ni pedites, sc. Numidarum. Cladem facer ent. The imperfect subj. is here 

equivalent to the English form, " had made and continued still to make." 
Quibus illi fretL Quibus, sc. peditibus. Uli, sc. equites ; illi referring to 

the rast antecedent on account of the relative quibus, see Ille in Diet. 
Expeditis peditibus suis, $ 247, R. 4, med. 
Hostes pene victos, sc. Romanos. 
LX. Ubi quisque — eo acerrime niti. Eo and ubi are here used like a relative 

and demonstrative pronoun, and are equivalent to in quo loco — in eo 

Niti, sc. Romani milites. 
Oppugnare aut parare. Some refer the former verb to the besiegers and the 

latter to the besieged ; and others, connecting them to agere, apply them 

to the besieged only. 


Ubi hostes, sc Romani.—Animadverteres, Gr. $260, II. 
Vitabundus—tela, $233, R. 2, Note. 
Diffidentiam rei, i. a of taking the city by force. 

Studio suorum, $211, R. 12. 

Una atque altera scales, $ 118, 2, R. 2. 

Magna pars confecti, $ 205, R. 3. 
LXI. Frustra jinceplum, sc. esse. 
Ab Zama discedit ; i. e. from the neighborhood of Zama. This is implied 
in the use of the preposition. 

Qua ad se defecerant, instead of qua ad eum, etc. $ 208, (6.), (b.) 

In provinciam, sc. Romanam, into that part of the Roman province which 
bordered upon Numidia. 

Sua omnia, "all his effects" which had been forfeited by his crime; see 
Chap. XXXV. 
LXII. Ubi primum opportunum fuit, sc. tempus. 

Monet atque obteslatur, uti provideat, $ 273. 2. — Liberis. The children of 
Jugurtha are again mentioned, Chap. LXXV, & LXXVI. 

Sese ■ In oratio directa, nos. — Victos, sc. esse, $ 270, R. 2, (b.) 

Caveat. In oratio directa, cave or caveto, the imperative being changed 
in the oratio obliqua into the subjunctive, $266, 2, R. 1, (6.) 

Facturum (esse), ac tradere are properly connected ; the former denoting 
what he will at all times thereafter do, the latter what he now does. 

Cunctos senatorii ordinis, $212, R. 2, N. 6, & $205, R. 12, (c.) 

More majorum. The custom here alluded to is that of being directed by 
the opinion of a council of war. 

Ad imperandum, $ 275, 1, R. 2. " to be directed, i. e. to receive orders or 
directions." Although the gerund may sometimes be translated pas- 
sively, it is probably always active in its signification, referring to an 
indefinite subject understood. 

Omnia bello potiora duceret. For the omission of esse, see note on Paste- 
riores se vident. Chap. LXXIX. 
LXIII. Agitabat. For the reason of the ind. mood, see note on Qua: do- 
mum Catilince frequentabat, Cat. XIV. 

Ageret, in oratio directa, agas, or age. See note on caveat, LXII. 

Alia omnia abunde erant. See Diet, article Sum. 

Animus belli ingens, domi modicus K $ 221, R. 3. 

Per omnes tribus declaratur, sc. tribunus, $210, R. 3, (3), (b.) 

Etiam turn alios magistratus plebes, sc. habebat or gerebat, implied by 
Zeugma in per manus tradebat. 
LXIV. Optanda bonis, $ 225, III. 

Primum, connect with mirari and monere. 

Commotus insolita re, — " by the novelty of the thing." An adjective, like 
a perfect participle, is sometimes used instead of an abstract noun, $ 274 
R. 5. So Res trepides, metus ingens, malum improvisum. J. 91. 

Debere illi res suas satis placere, $ 209, (7). For the use of ille in the oratio 
obliqua, see Ille in Diet. 

Postquam hac — dixit, neque animus Marii jlectitur, two constructions, the 


perfect and historical present, depending on the same particle, potljuam. 
See 1st note on Cat. XX 
Potuisset, $ 266, R. 4. 
Nefestinaret. In oratio directa, nefestina or nefestmes, $ 266, 2, R. 1, (6.) 

Cumjilio suo, § 208, (1). 

Annos natus circiter viginti, by the Roman law a consul was required to 
be at least forty-three years old. * 

Accenderat. The tense of this verb refers to that of the following verbs 
grassari, etc. 

Quod modb ambitiosum foret, § 263, 2. 

Criminose, has reference to Metellus: magnifice, to Marius. 

Sibi permitteretur, sc. si, so in English, " were half the army entrusted to 

Habiturum, sc. se, $ 239, R. 1. 

Ab imperatore consulto trahi, sc. bellum or res. 
LX.V. Uti settam juxta poneret, sc. sellam Metelli.-—Poneret, sc. Gauda. 

Petenti is followed first by a clause and then by a noun in the accusative, 

Eorum modo foret, sc. hones, " it belonged to those. only," $ 266, 3 

Contumeliosum foret, sc. in equites Romanos. 

Equites Romanos, milites et negotiatores, § 204, R. 10 

Sic illi, referring to Marium. See Hie in the Dictionary. 

Novos extollebat, sc. homines. 
LXVI. Omissa deditione. See the end of Chap. LXII. 

Cum magnet, curb,, $ 247, 2. 

Et eos ipsos, i. e. Romanos ipsos. 

Igitur Vaccenses, quo, — " where" instead of quibus, " among whom," $ 224 

Principes civitatis. In the course of this period the author has changed 
the subject ofconjurant, from Vaccenses, with which he began, to prin- 
cipes, $ 323, 3, (5). 

Domos suas, $ 237, R. 4, Note, (a.) 

In tali die. In is used with nouns denoting time when they are employed 
to mark, not merely the time, but the condition of things then existing. 
See In in Diet. 

Sine imperio, " without control." 

Tumultus ipse. See Ipse in Diet. 
JuX VII. Improviso metu, on account of the suddenness of the alarm* See 
note on commotus insolita re, Chap. LXIV. 

Presidium hostium, sc. erat. 

Caveri, sc. posse, i. e. poterat. — Resisti posse. These verbs are used im- 
personally, § 209, R. 3, (6.) 

Obtruncari, i. e. obtruncabantur. — Scevissimis Numidis, $ 257, R. 1 

Misericordiane hospitis, an pactione, $ 265, R. 2. 

Parum comperimus, nisi, .i. e. nisi hoc comperimus, " only I am certain of 
thia ' that whereas he preferred a dishonorable life, &c, he appears in- 
famAus and detestable. 
LXVIII. Ubi ira et csgritudo permixta sunt. His first feelings were those 
of grief) with these anger was soon mingled. 


Non amphus mille passuum abesse. Mille is in the afl <36 : see also 

$256, R. 6. 
In primo, sc. loco pr agmine, " in front." 
LXIX. Et eos, sc. esse. — Jugurtham, sc. esse. 
Cuncta poena aut prcedce fuit,—" served for," i. e. "was* wholly given up 

to punishment or plunder," $ 227, R. 2. 
Nam is civis ex Latio erat. The Porcian law was expressly limited in its 

operation to Roman citizens. See Porcius in Diet. 
' LXX. Quam metu deseruit. See Chap. LXIL— Ejus, sc. regis. 

Omnia tentando, " in resorting" or " while resorting to every expedient" 

Utriusque consilio, sc. Bomilcaris et Nabdalsce. 

Uti res poscerit, $ 266, 2. 

Hiberna Romariorum jussus, sc a. Jugurtha. 

Inultis hostibus, $ 257, R. 7. 

Timore socii anxius ; the subjective genitive denoting the fear felt by his 

associate, $211, R. 2; timore, i. e. timoris causa, ox propter timorem. 
Per quos juravisset, $ 266, 3. 

Reputaret, \ 266, 2, R. 1, (b.) In oratio directa reputes or repute 
Ceterhm sudne, i. e. Nabdalsas. 
LXXI. Uti cBgrum animum solet, sc. capere. Somnus cepit, sc. eum, i. c. 

&wper tali scelere suspectum, $213, R. 4, (4). 
LXXII. Qwos socios insidiarum cognoverat, sc. esse, 
/raw oppresserat. The author assigns this reason for the life of Nal> 

dalsa being preserved, that Jugurtha, after putting to death Bomilcai 

and many others, had smothered his resentment. 
LXXIII. Sibi parum idoneum, sc. esse, " unserviceable to him, or unsuited 

to his service." The reason is contained in the words, simul et invisum 

et effensum. 
Litteris — cognitis, see Chap. LXV. 
Volenti animo de ambobus acceperant, " with ready mind received (what 

was written) respecting both." 
In utroque, " in regard to each," i. e. Metello et Mario. 
Bona aut mala sua, i. e. plebis. Moderata, sc. sunt, " governed," " influ- 
enced," sc. plebem. 
Seditiosi magistratus, sc. tribuni plebis. 
Post multas tempestates, " after a long time." See Chap. LXIII, near the 

I£a res, i. e. this decree of the senate. 
LXX1V. In tanta perjidia. See In in Diet. 
Amorum aliquanto numero, hosfium paucorum potiti. Two constructions 

here follow potiti, $ 245, 1, & 220. 4. 
LXXV. Eafuga, i. e. propter earn fit gam, " in consequence of." 
Thesauri— cultns erat, $ 209, R. 12, (3. 1 
Quam plurimum potest domifi pecoris, $212, R. 3. 
Ed imponit, instead of ei pecori, " upon these.' 
Quisque aquce portaret, $262, R 4. 
Quam proximam, $ 206, (10.) 


Qud Numidis praceperat, sc. veniant. 

In novh deditione. See In tanta perfidih. Chap. LXXIV. 
JLXXVT. Nihil jam infectum. Participles of the perfect tense when they be- 
come adjectives, and adjectives derived from perfect participles are, not 
unfrequently, used in the sense of adjectives in bilis; as here, xnfectus 
impracticable ; J. 43, invictus, invincible; J. 91, coercitus — , restrainable — , 
J. 2, incorruptus, incorruptible. 

Quippe qui omnia, arma, tela, etc. $ 204, R. 10. 

Locos, places ; in which sense loca is more common. 

Ceteris, sc. hominibus or ducibus 

Ceterum, " but, i. e. but in fact.' 

Quam vitare posse celeritate putabat, sc. se, $ 239, R. 2 

Post dies quadraginta quam, $ 253, R. 1, Note 3. 
LXXVII. Capta Thalh, $ 274, R. 5. 

Hamilcarem quemdam, § 273, 3, (b.) 

Novis rebus, " a revolt," i. e. fromwthe Romans. 

Hominem nobilem, /actios urn. Asyndeton, § 323, 1, (1), & $ 205, R. 16, (6.) 

Suam salutem, sc. Leptiianorum, $ 208, (1). 

Hlorum socios, i. e. by synesis, $ 323, 3, (4 ) Romanorum. 

Societatemque rogatum, $ 276, II. 

Deinde, ubi ea, sc. amicitia societasque, $ 205, R. 7, (2). 
LXXVIII. In extrema Africa, (§ 205, R. 17,) i. e. towards the eastern ex- 

Proxima terrce, " the parts nearest the land." 

Alia in tempestate, " at another time." See In in Diet. 

Leges cultusque pleraque, $ 212, R. 3, N. 4. 

Procul ab imperio regis, " they were remote from the dominion of the 
king," i. e. the king of Numidia, "far from the seat of government," and 
consequently were permitted to enjoy their own laws. Some however 
interpret it, " far from regal government." 
LXXIX. Per Leptitanorum negotia, " on account of" — . 

Earn rem nos locus admonuit, $ 218, R. 1, & $ 231, R. 5. 

Qua tempestate. When the antecedent would be in the same case as the 
relative it is often omitted, § 206, (3 ) 

Una specie, $ 211, R. 6. 

Qui fines eorum discerneret, $ 264, 7. 

Nomen Philanis erat, § 204, R. 8, (a.) — Humo excitavit, § 255, R. 1. 

Morari iter, sc. solet. 

Posteriores se vident, sc. esse, which is usually omitted after video and after 
verbs of saying, judging, &c. So at the beginning of this chapter, non 
indignum videtur. 

Criminari Carihaginienses — digressos sc. esse, " accused the Carthaginians 
of having left home before the time," $ 229, R. 5, & 217, R. 5, (a.) 

Cvnturbare rem, sc. Cyrenenses, $ 209, R. 5. 

Grceci, i. e. the Cyrenians, who were a Grecian colony. 

Vel illi, in the oratio obliqua. See Hie in Diet. 

Ibi, i e. in tisfinibus or locis. 

Quern in locum vellent, sc. esse fines populo suo, i. e. Cyrenensibus. 


LXXX. lmpellit, sc. eum. 
Reges eo amplius ; i. e. " by so much the more," as they surpassed other 

men in riches. 
LXXXI. Hostes esse, $ 270, R. 2, (6.) 
Quis omnia regna adversa sint. Adversa is here used passively, and in 

like manner hoslem at the close of the sentence. 
Turn sese, sc. Romanis hostem esse. — Paulo ante Carthagimenses scfuisse* 
Aliis lalibus dictis, $ 205, R. 16, (c.) 

Ad Cirtam oppidum. A proper name denoting a town, river, or moun- 
tain, usually follows the appellatives oppidum, jiumen and mons. 
Ita Jugurtha ratus. For this use of ita, see lta in Diet. 
Si Romanics, sc. imperator. A patrial noun is often thus used to denote a 

leader or commander belonging to that nation. 
Sese, sc. Jugurtham el Bocchum. 
LXXXII. Copiam facit, sc. regibus. -v 

Cognilis Mauris ; i. e. quum Mauros cognovisset. 
Nam consul em factum, sc eum. 
Alii bonum ingenium, sc. censebant or dicebant, which are implied in ver- 

Qmod jam parta victoria ex manibus eriperetur. This clause has the same 

relation to accensum esse as the ablative contumelia. — Ex manibus eripe- 
retur, $ 266, 3. 
Injuria sua, $ 211, R. 3, (c.) 

Laturum fuisse, $268, R. 5.—Traderetur, $260, II. R. 2, Jin. 
LXXXIII. Stultitia; videbatur, sc. esse, $ 211, R. 8, (3). 
Alienam rem, sc. Marii. — Periculo suo. Suo relates to illi understood, 

Hostis populo Romano, $211, R. 5. 
Xncipere cuivis — licere. Incipere is here the subject of licere, $ 269, R. 3 

and cuivis depends on licere. 
Deponi, sc. bellum. Deponi like sumi depends on dixit understood. 
Ille probare, sc Bocchus. See Hie in Diet. 
LXXXIV. Multus atqueferox, $ 205, R. 15. 

Consulatum ex victis illis spolia cepisse, $ 230, R. 2. 

A populis et regibus, i. e. from subject states and kings out of the limits 

of Italy. — Sociis, sc Ilalicis. 
Fama cognitos, sc Mario. 
Neque plebi militia volenti (esse) putabatur. A Greek idiom equivalent to 

neque plebs militiam velle putabatur. — Et Marius, sc. putabatur t $ 271, 

Sese quisque — trdkebant. Two constructions here follow trahebanU $272. 

Non paulum. The figure Litotes, $ 324, 9. 
Omnibus — decretis, sc by the senate. 
LXXXV. Scio ego, $209, R. 1, (b.) — Iisdem artibus—gerere. The clause 

et gerere may be translated before the other, — " that most men, after 

they have obtained power, do not administer it in the same manner in 

which they sought to obtain it from you." 


\Iihi contra ea wdetur. " It seems to me otherwise," or " the opposite to 

this appears to me proper." 
tf/aw administrari debere, sc. mihi videtur. 

$um maximo beneficio vestro, " in connexion with the highest office in 
your gift," sc. the consulship.— Sustineam, $ 265. 

Quos nolis offender e, $209, R. 7, (a.) & g 264, 1. 

Et ea agere. Et has here the force of " and what is more." 

Omnia hcec prcesidia adsunt, $ 227, R. 2, & 3. — Mihi, $ 211, R. 5, (1.) 

Nam alia, sc. nobilitas, major um facta fortia, &c, infirma sunt (mihi), i. e. 
" in other things," as nobility, &c. f " I am weak." 

Et illud intelligo, $ 207, R. 22. — Favere, sc. mihi. 

Itocum invadendi, sc. me et vos, qui mihi favetis. 

Ut neque vos capiamini, sc. ab illis, that they may not get the advantage 
of you. 

Jjabores, pericula, Asyndeton, $ 323, 1. (1). 

Ita—fui, for talis fui. — Ad hoc cetatis, $212, R. 3. 

Ante vestra beneficia. See above, Cum maximo beneficio vestro. 

Non est consilium, sc. mihi. Uti deseram, $ 272? 1* 

Per ambitionem, " on account of" — . 

Num id mutari ; id. i. e. your choice of me as leader in the war a^amst 
Jugurtha.— Sit, $265. 

lllo globo nobilitatis. The term globus is used to denote the close union 
of the faction of the nobles. 

Scilicet ut ; ironically, " so that forsooth." 

Coeperint, $264, 1, (b.) 

Nam gerere quam fieri tempore posterius, re atque usu prius est. " To exe- 
cute is in point of time subsequent to being elected (to an office,) but 
really and practically it is antecedent." The expression is rendered 
designedly paradoxical by the use of gerere without an accusative ex 
pressed. In the first clause, gerere quam fieri tempore posterius {est ) 
magistratum or the like is to be supplied ; and the clause imports that * 
the discharge of the duties of an office is subsequent to one's election 
to such office ; but in the second clause, gerere quam fieri re atque usu 
prius est, rem or the like is to be supplied with gerere, and the meaning 
is, that one must be practised in affairs before he is qualified for election 
to an office, or, in other words, that experience is a necessary qualifica- 
tion for office. 

Comparate nunc cum illorum superbia me hominem novum. The Latin 
idiom often permits a comparison to be made, not only between two 
persons, or the properties or actions of two persons, but between a per- 
son and an attribute or action of another person ; " me and the pride 
of these men," instead of, " me and these proud men." 

Facta an dicta. Before facta an or num is to be supplied. See An in Diet 

Sed fortissimum. Sed in this passage, following quamquam, appears to 
have the sense oftamen, "still, notwithstanding." 

Ac si jam qumri posset, $261, 1. 

Faciant idem majoribus suis, $ 250, R. 3. 

Hujusce rei, sc. majorum gloria. — Id quod midto, $206, (13,) (6.) 


Peperisse, sc. met virtute. — Acceptam, sc a majoribus. 
Si jam mihi responded velint, $ 261, 2. 

In maximo vestro beneficio. See above Cum maximo beneficio vestro 
• Vera, sc. oratio. — Bene pradicet, $ 262, R. 4. 
Vestra consilia—qui, § 206, (12). 
Hastas, sc. pur as. 

Ha sunt rnecs imagines, hac nobilitas, $ 206, (10). Relicta, $ 205, R. 2, N. 
Ut ilia, sc imagines, triumphi et consulatus majorum. 
Ad virtutem doctoribus nihil profuerunt. By doctoribus is meant the Gre- 
cian nation in general, who had received from- their literature no such 

addition to their prowess, as to prevent the conquest of their country by 

the Romans. 
Gloriam meam is the predicate accusative, but placed before the subject 

for emphasis, $ 210, & $ 279, 16. ' 
Id est, § 209, R. 3, (5), (a.) Jin. — Dominum esse, sc. te, $ 239, R. 2. 
Seque remque publicam, § 278, R. 7. Double connectives occur frequently 

in Sallust in sentences resembling this. See Cat IX & XXXVI, & J 

Qua licebat—neque poterant. With each of these verbs supply relinquere. 
Coquum quam villicum-habeo. Habeo does not here signify to value, but 

" to have," " possess," " own.' 
Ubi — ibi. See Diet. 

Metus ccperit, $260, R. 6, 2d clause and (6.), and § 278, R. 3. 
Idem, " at once." — Qua si, " but even if this." See Qui in Diet 
LXXXVI. Hujuscemodi oratione. See note on hujuscemodi in Cat. LI. 
Reipublica subvenire decebat, § 259, R. 4. 
Non more majorum. The ancient custom here alluded to, was to summon 

the people to the Campus Martius, and having called them by centuries. 

to select from each such as were fit for military service. 
Ex classibus. The classes here intended are the first five, who alone were 

obliged to serve in war, as the sixth class, the capite censi, were by law 

excused, and in respect to military service were not considered as a class 
Uti cujusque libido. From this it appears that the levy made by Marius 

consisted of such as voluntarily enlisted. 
Inopia bonorum, sc hominmn, — " of the better classes." 
LXXXVII. At reges, sc. Jugurtha and Bocchus. 
LXXXVIII. Ex sociis, i. e. ex agro sociorum. 
Armis exuerat. Jugurtha had fled leaving his arms behind him. 
Qua postquam gloriosa modo — cognovit, " but after he had found that 

these things—." See Qui in Diet. — Gloriosa modo, sc. esse. 
Neque belli patrandi, " and not to tend to the terminating of the war/' 

$ 275, III, R. 1, (5). See also $ 211, R. 8, (3.) 
Viris aut loco — opportunissima, $ 250. 
Ita Jagurtham, supply putavit or some verb of similar signification, implied 

in statuit. 
Nudatum. The sense requires us to consider nudatum as a supine with 

iri understood, forming a future infinitive passive, but such an ellipsis is 




Nam Bacchus. Nam serves td explain the difference made by Marius in 

his treatment of Jugurtha and Bocchus. 
Vellepopuh Romani amicitiam, sc. se, $ 239, R. 2, & $ 270, R. 2, (&.) 
Ne quid ab se hostile timeret, $ 273, 3. — 3olitus, sc. sit 
LXXXIX. Aggredi tempus, $ 270, R. 1. 
Tempus, i, e. opportunum tempus. 
Apud Jugurtham, "under the government of Jugurtha. —Immunes sc 

Leu imperio, $211, R. 6— Ejus, sc. oppidi. — Potiundi, $ \&Z, 20. 
Cetera pluvicl, sc. aqua, " the rest of the water which they use is rain wa 

ter," or, " for the rest they use rain water." 
Id ibique, i. e. this scarcity of water, $ 206, (13). 
Quaprocul a mari incultius agebat. The predicate here applied to Africa 

is strictly applicable not to the country, but to its inhabitants. 
XC. Igitur con sul The verb of the predicate is exornat. 

Quod cumque, sc. frumenti. 
XCI. Castris levi munimento, $ 211, R. 6. 
Capere depends onjubet, and egrederentur on par atos esse. 
Onerare is connected by et understood to paratos esse. 
Proxima — tertia, sc. nocte. 

Et cum his. His refers by synesis to equitatum, $.323, 3, (4). 
Aditu difficilis, $ 276, III. 
XCII. Locupletes, sc.prada. Ad caelum ferre, sc. Marium. 
Socii atque hostes. The socii here spoken of appear to have been the in- 
habitants of the Roman province in Africa, which comprehended the 

former possessions of the Carthaginians. 
Acplerisque, "and most (of them) too." See Atque in Diet. 
Non eadem asperitate, " not equally perilous," " not attended with equal 

danger," $ 211, R. 6. 
Qua Capsensium. Capsensium depends on res understood, for which in 

English the pronoun that can be supplied. 
Summa vi, though placed before capere, qualifies intendit. 
Nam Castello, $ 226. 
Pro opere, i. e. vineis. Inter in the sense of intra, "within," "under 

cover of" 
XCIII. Promissa ejus cognitum, ($ 276, II), ex prcesentibus misit, sc. quosdam. 
Quorum uti cujusque ingenium erat, — nuntiavere ; instead of qui, uti cujus* 

que eorum ingenium erat, — nuntiavere. Quorum depends on cujusque 

as the sentence is now constructed, and nuntiavere agrees with ii under 

Quatuor centuriones. These centurions were attended by their companies 
XCIV. Sed ubi expr&cepto, sc Marii. 
Pergit, sc. Ligus. 
Succedere, sc. muris. 
Capite atque pedibus nudis, $ 257, R. 7. 
Facilius foret, instead offaciliorforet. See in Diet., Sum. 
Ponderis gratia. This kind of shield was of less weight than metallic ones 
Saxa et si qum vestustate radices eminebant, laqueis vinciebat. Radices is 


in the nominative by attraction, $ 206, (6) r \b), instead of Saxa et radices, 
si qua> vetustate eminebant — vinciebat. 
Tormentis, sagittariisque et funditoribus, $ 247, R. 4, last part 

Omnibus, Roma?ris hostibusque, § 204. So below, Cuncti, armati iner- 

His, sc. Romanis, — illis, sc. castellanis, $ 207, R. 23, 2d par. 
KCV. Equitatu, quos, by synesis, $ 323, 3, (4.) 

Neque enim alio loco de Suttee rebus dicturi sumus, $ 274, R. 6. It appears, 
however, that at a subsequent period Sallust was induced to change his 
purpose, and in his history, fragments only o£ which now remain, lie 
treated more at large of the affairs of Sylla. 

OptinU et diligentissime omnium, § 212, R. 4, N. 7. 

Persecutus, although treating of, § 274, 3. 

De uxore potuit honestius consuli. Sylla was five times married, and it is 
uncertain to which of his wives reference is here made. His wife Me 
tella he divorced when she was at the point of death, that a feast which 
he was celebrating might not be broken off by the occurrence of a death 
in his family. In his old age he married Valeria- a woman of infamous 
character, and during the whole of his life he addicted himself to open 
debauchery. Some therefere understand uxore in a general sense as re- 
ferring to his matrimonial affairs. Potuit, $ 259, R. 3. 

Blifelicissimo, § 226. 

Ante civilem victoriam, i. e over the party of Marius. 

Fortior anfelicior esset, $ 123," R. 2. 

Pudeat magis, an pigeat disserere, sc. me, whether I am more ashamed or 
pained — . 
XC VI. Per se ipse, $ 207, 28, of his own accord, " without solicitation," in 
distinction from what he gave to multis rogantibus. 

Ut illi, instead of ut sibi, which the construction regularly requires, the 
writer putting himself in the place of Sylla, whose thoughts and pur- 
poses were to be represented, $ 208, (7). 

Multusadesse, § 205, R. 15. 
XCVII. Postquam oppidum Capsam—amiserat. Respecting the construc- 
tion otposlquam with the pluperfect, see note on Chap. XL 

Magnampecuniam. Reference appears to be made to the treasures of the 
king lost at the fortress mentioned in Chap. XCII. ubi regis thesauri 

In Numidiam copias adduceret, $ 258, R. 1, $ 262, R. 4, & $ 273, 2. 

Tempus adesse, § 273, 3, last clause. 

Tpsique Mauro, sc Boccho. See note on Numida, Chap. CI. 

Pollicetur Numidice partem tertiam. These words contain the apodosis 
of the sentence in substance, but not in form ; as they are equivalent to, 
Pollicetur * sc. Numidim partim tertiam daturum ,-* the protasis of which 
is Si aut Romani Africa expulsi (forent,) &c., $ 266, 2, R. 4. 

Integris suisjlnibus, $ 257, R. 7, («.) 

Vix decima parte die, $ 90, Exc. 2. 

NuUo impediment, $ 227. NuUo, an ancient form for nulk, $ 107, R. 3. 


Sarcinas colligere. Before an engagement the baggage was collected inta 
one place. 

Signum is probably to be understood as comprehending both the signal 
by sound of trumpet and the watchword. 

Romani veteres, sc. milites. 
XCVIII. Quum tamen barbari nihil remitlere. The construction of quum 
with the historical infinitive is rare in Sallust, but less so in Livy and 

Neque minus Jiostibus conturbatis. Que " also" refers to Jiostibus, ne, i. & 
non, to minus. 

XCIX. Utiper vigilias solebant. Per, " on account of." In the camp the 
night was divided into four equal parts or watches, the termination of 
each of which was usually announced by sound of trumpet. 
C. Sulla cum equitatu. " Sylla attended by the cavalry." 

Apud dextimos curabat, " commanded on the extreme right." Both here 
and in .the next clause, curabat is used absolutely, but in the following 
clause its accusative is expressed ; prmterea cohortes Ligurum curabat, 
" and also commanded the cohorts of the Ligurians." 

Quasi nullo imposito, instead of quasi nullus impositus esset, $ 257, R. 10. 

Laudare, increpare merentes sc. laudationem aut vituperationem. 

Neque secus, atque iter/acere, casira munire. &c " he fortified the camp, 
&c, in the same manner as he performed the journey," i. e. with equal 
care and circumspection. 

Nan tarn dijjidentia, futurum, qua imperavisset. Futurum is here used as 
indeclinable, § 162, 13, (1.) : — "not so much through distrust of those 
things being done which he had ordered." Diffidentid futurum (esse) 
I 270, R. 1. 

Uti militibus exesquatus cum%mperatore labos volentibus esset i e. utimilites 
exasquatum cum imperatore laboremferre vellent. 

Pudore magis quam malo. Pudor here signifies the shame which the 
soldiers would have felt in failing to imitate the laborious and self- 
denying example of their general. 

Pars, sc. fieri aiebat. — Consuetam, customary (to him) i e. to which ht 
had been inured. — Habuisset, $ 266, 3. 
CI, Speculators citi, $ 205, R. 15, («.) 

Adversum omnia paratus. He was marching quadrato agmine and con 
sequently presented a front on every side. 

Ratus ex omnibus cequealiquos ab tergo Jiostibus venturos, "thinking that 
some (i. e. one of the four divisions) equally, from among them all, i. e 
with an equal chance (of effecting this object), would come upon the 
rear of the enemy:" in other words, "thinking that some of his troops 
(thus divided) would come upon the rear of the enemy, and that to each 
division the chances of doing this were equal." 

Ipse aliique, i. e. Sylla and the other leaders of the cavalry on the right 
Ming. See Chap. C. 

Ceteri, i. e. the other three divisions of the army (quadrati agminis) con- 
sisting of infantry. 


In loco, sc. suo. See Chap. C. 

Bocckus cum pedilibus — invadunt, $ 209, R. 12, (6). 

Neque in priore pugna — adfuerant; instead of et qui in priore pugna — non 
adfuerant, $ 206, (5). Concerning the former battle, see Chaps. XCVII 
— XCIX. 

Marius apudprimos; i. e. among the infantry in the front of the army. 

Vein Numida, sc. Jugurtha, a patrial being used, as in many other places, 
for the name of the leader or head of the nation. So Maurus for Boc* 
chus, king of the Moors: Chaps. XCVII, CVIII and CXIII. 

Adpedites. It has been doubted whether the infantry here spoken of was 
the Roman or the Numidian ; the former appears probable for many 
reasons, and especially as Jugurtha is said to have addressed them in 

Apiid Numantiam. See Chaps. VII — IX. — Loqui, sc. LatinL 

Nostros fruslra pugnare. Nostros, if the speech of Jugurtha was directed 
to the Romans, would have been in the orati* direcia, vos ; if to the 
Numidians, isti or Romani. 

Marium sua manu interfectum, $ 208, (1). 

Quos adversum. An anastrophe, § 323, 4, (1.) & $ 279, 10, (/.) 

Quuj/i Sulla — Mauris incurrit. Cum, though relating to time, takes the 
indicative especially of the present and perfect tenses when, in ani- 
mated narration it is found, not in the former but in the consequent 
member of the sentence. In such case jam, vix, or nondum is often 
found in the former member. Zumpt. Lat. Gr. 

Circumventus ab equitibus, sc. Romanis. 

Omnibus occisis, sc. equitibus regiis. See Chap. LIV. 

Niti modo, sc. surgere. 
Cll. Post diem quintum, quam, $ 253, Note 3. 

Legati—veniunt, qui—petivere : the historical present, followed by the per- 
fect indefinite. 

Petivere—mitteret, $ 262, R. 4,—velle, § 273, 3, (6.) 

Aversum — cupidum, i. e. si aversum — si cupidum esset. An adjective may 
thus, like a participle, (£ 274, 3, (a.) ), supply the place of a conditional, 
<fcc, clause. 

Cujusfacundia. See Chap. XCV. 

Rex Bocche. When an appellative and a proper noun are in apposition 
the appellative is usually placed last, $ 279, 9 & 16 It is customary 
also to place the vocative in addresses after one or more words. 

Magna nobis Icetitia est, $ 227, R. 3, & R. 4. 

Quum te — di monuere, $ 263, 5, " since the time when, or ever since." 

Neu te. As te is the object both of miscendo and of commaculares it is 
omitted before the latter, $ 229, R. 4. 

Demeres, sc. d\ monuere ut. 

Persequi, $ 270, R. 1. 

A principio, sc. imperii sui. 

Tutiusque rati, sc sunt. For the number of rati referring to populus, see 
$209, R. 11. 

In quo, $206, (13), (a.) 



Satis fuit, i. e. solet esse. See note on interfere, Chap. XVII 
Humanarum rerum—pleraque, $ 2 12, R. 3, N. 4. 

Cui scilicet placuisse. This infinitive depends on scilicet, i. e. scire licet 
Per illam licet, " it is allowed so far as depends on her." See Per in Die 
Nam refers to something to be supplied, as, I do not say that they ai 

never vanquished in war, for, &c. 
Bocchus placide et benigne, sc. respondit. 

Unde vi Jugurtham cxpulerit, $ 266, 3. This claim on the part of Boc- 
chus to that portion of Numidia, which was the seat of the war wa 

probably destitute of any valid foundation. 
Missis antea legatis. See Chap. LXXX. 
Omittere — missurum (esse). These infinitives, together with those in th* 

preceding sentences, refer to verba facit. 
Vein cdpia facta, i. e. of sending ambassadors. 
CIII. Qua sibi—venerant. In this, and in some similar passages, two con- 
* structions are blended. The writer in presenting his own thoughts 

would have said, Qum ei — venerant ; in presenting those of Bocchus he 

would have said, Quce sibi — venissent He has retained the reflexive 

pronoun with the indicative mood. 
Si placeat, sc. Mario. 
Nonpro vanis hostibus — habuit. In this clause habuit signifies " to reckon 

or consider," in the next clause accurate ac liberaliter habuit, it is made 

by Zeugma to signify " to treat." 
Ut meriti erant. " As they were fit to be treated," i. e. considering their 

appearance, sine decore. 
Nisipariter volens, sc. putabatur, " but he was thought equally benevolent.' 
Quce aut utilia, aut benevolentice (esse) credebant, $227, R. 2, & 3. "Which 

they thought useful or fitted to gain good will." 
Sulla omnia pollicito, $ 257, R. 6. 
CIV. Quis legatis potestas eundi Romam ab consule, inter ea inducim postula- 

bantur : i. e. quis mandatis, &c, " by which commission leave for the 

ambassadors to go to Rome was requested of the consul, — and in the 

mean time a truce." 
Ea, " these things, these requests." — Plerisque, i. e. the other members of 

the council of war. 
Impetratis omnibus, " having obtained every thing (they asked for.)" 
Mauri — tres — duo. This kind of apposition is common, instead of Mau 

rorum tres, etc. when the word denoting the whole is to be distinguished 

from some other word, as here the Mauri are opposed to the Romans 

previously mentioned, $204, R. 10. 
CV Cujus arbitratu, $ 249, II. 
Cum velitaribus armis. It is implied that such were not the customary 

arms of the Peligni. 
Quod ea, sc *ela hostium. 
Quinto denique die. Denique may imply that the Romans had expected 

Bocchus to send a guard previously to this time. 
Cum mille non amplius equitibus, instead of, cum non wnplius mille equitt 

bus, $256, R. 6. 

JUGURTH1NE "ft Aft. 313 

Numerum ampliorem vero, et hoslilem metum efficiebant. In the first clause 
efficicebant is to be translated, " rendered or caused to appear," in the 
second, " caused or occasioned." 

Timor aliquantus, sc. illisfuit. — Adversum eos, since opposed to those. 

Utl erat. The use of the indicative in Latin to denote that which actu- 
ally exists, renders the addition of such words as re vera, " in fact, in 
reality," &c. unnecessary. 
CVI. Volux adveniens. The present participle here as elsewhere denotes an 
unfinished action, "on coming up." 

A patre Boccho. As Sylla was unacquainted with Volux, the latter, in 
introducing himself as the son o^Bocchus, very properly places the 
appellative patre before the propir name Boccho, for the purpose of 
pointing out his connexion with mm. 

Obviam Mis simul, et prcesidio missum. Obviam and prcesidio have each 
the same relation to missum, and may therefore be connected by et, 

lUis, for vobis in oratio directa. See Ule in Diet 

Pbst, " afterwards," 1. e. post proximum diem. 

Satis credere. Credere depends on negat, which after a negative is often 
construed with an affirmative clause, " declares that he does not fear," 
&c. " that he has full confidence in the valor of his soldiers," &c. 

Mansurum potius, quam—parceret. The regular construction would be, 
quam parsurum. When in such cases the subjunctive follows, there 
appears to be an ellipsis as here, quam (id commissurum ut) parceret. 

Quos ducebat. This verb, considered as the language of Sylla m the ora- 
tio obliqua, should be in the subjunctive, $266, 3: but here, as in many 
other examples, the writer puts himself in the place of him whose lan- 
guage he is quoting, and believing the truth of what is alleged adopts 
the language as his own. 

Ceterum ab eodem, sc. Voluce. 

Camatos essejubet. Jubeo like volo often takes the infinitive of the perfect 
passive to denote an eager desire that something should be instantly 
accomplished. See Zumpt Lat. Gr. 

Quum equites Mauri nunciant. See note on Quum Sulla, etc. Chap. CL 

Vindicandum, sc. in Volucem. — Apud ilium, i. e. in illo. 
CVII. Eadem existimabat, sc se proditos a Voluce, etc. 

Hortatur uti gererent, $ 258, 2, R. 1, (a.) 

Pepercissent, $266, 2, R. i.—Armaverit, $266, 2. 

Facerel, $266, 3. — Videlicet speculanti, "doubtless on the watch." 

Cognitum esset, " had become known." 

Multitudinem haberet, sc Jugurtha. — Patre suo, $ 208, (1.; 

Credere, sc. se, i. e. Volucem* 

Solum cum Sulla, i. e. undoubtedly with Sylla and his Roman guards. 

Paucis strenuis — bene pugnatum, $ 225, II. 
CVTII Prcemissus — orator, et subdole speculatum Bocchi consilia. The pur- 
poses of pramissus are denoted by orator and speculatum, $ 204, It 1, 
and $ 276, II, and these are therefore properly connected bv et $ 2?8> as 
they have each the same relation to prcemissus. 


Postquam audierat. See note on Postquam, etc. Chap. XI. 

Prccterea Dabar, sc. multum etfamiliariter agebat. 

Diem—tempus. As tempus follows diem it must be taken in a more limited 
sense for " the time of day, the hour." 

Deligeret, $ 273, 3, & $ 266, R. 1. 

Consulta, " deliberated upon," viz. between Sylla and Bc*schus during the 
former visit of Sylla. — Sese habere, i. e. esse. See Habeo. 

Integra, " unchanged," i. e. unaffected by the influence of Jugurtha or 
other causes. 

Neu pertimesceret. See note above on deligeret. 

Quo res communis licentius gererehir. The true reading is here doubtful. 
Some suppose that admissum ofmccitum is to be supplied, and that quo 
denotes the purpose for which he%iad been invited by Bocchus, viz. lest 
Jugurtha should suspect the purpose of the conference, if conducted 
without the presence of an agent sent by him. For quo Gronovius pro- 
poses to read quiru Kritz suggests the supplying of remoto after quo. 
The passage will then signify, that the presence of this agent of Jugur- 
tha at the public audience of Sylla would allay his suspicions, and that 
afterwards their affairs might be discussed more freely in his absence, 
and without his knowledge. 

Caveri nequivisse, $ 209, R. 3, (6.) 
CIX. Pauca coram Aspare locuturum, sc. se, $ 239, R. 2, 

Edocet — responderentur, § 258, 2, R. 1, (a.) 

Quce sibi responderentur: i. e. by Bocchus in the presence of Aspar,for the 
purpose of misleading Jugurtha. 

Sicuti voluerat. It had been left to Sylla to determine the time and 
place of meeting. Chap. CVII. 

Ab eo. In oratio directa a te. See Is and Hie in Diet — Jubet sc. ilium. 

Etiam nunc. The oratio obliqua seems to require etiam tunc. See Tunc 
in Diet. 

Decrevisse, sc. se, $ 239, R. 2. Jubet containing the general idea of saying 
governs decernere. 

In sua castra, i. e. castra Sullce et Bocchi. These were doubtless distinct, 
though probably not very remote from each other. 

Ex sententia ambobus, $ 211, R. 5. 
CX. Nunquam ego ratus sum, " I could never have anticipated," $ 259, R. 4 
The protasis would be, si quis talis rei me admonuisset. 

In hac terra, sc. Africa. 

Fore uti—deberem, $ 268, R : 4, (b.) 

Et omnium, sc. regum. * 

Privato homini, a private citizen, in the vocabulary of Bocchiisi is one not 
possessing supreme power. 

Id imminutum, " that this (ability) is impaired," $ 206, (13.) 

Fuerit mihi, " let it be my fortune," $ 260, R. 6, 2d clause. 

Aliquando, " at last," i. e. after so long a period of prosperity and inde- 

Sume, utere. As these verbs govern one the accusative and the other 
the ablative, a pronoun as iis must be supp ied with the latter. , 


Putavens, $ 260, R. 6, 2d clause. 

Fines meos. Bocchus again alludes to his claim to a part of the territories 
of Jugurtha. See Chap. CII. 

Id omittoXe. fines meos tutari. 
CXI. Breviter et modice, sc. respondit. 

Patefecit, quod polliceatur. The present here depends on the perfect in- 
definite. See Cat. XLI. Prcecepit ut simulent. 

Hlorum magis quam sua retulisse, § 219, R. 1. Sua, $ 20& (3). 

Nunc peleret, tunc uhro. Nunc is here used in the oratio obliqua in marked 
distinction from tunc which follows. 

AJJmitatem. Jugurtha was his son-in-law. 

Cognationem. Of their relationship by blood nothing is known. 

Intervenisse. This verb can be connected to cognationem only by 
Zeugma . 

Ad simxdandam pacem, i. e. with" Jugurtha 
CXII. Condiiionibus, " upon conditions (previously stipulated ;") in distinc 
tion from an unconditional surrender. 

Regis sui ; i. e. Jugurthae. 

Frustrafuisse. These words constitute the whole predicate. Jugurtha 
alludes to such treaties as that made with Aulus, which was disan- 
nulled by the senate. Chap. XXXIX, 

Consultum et ratam {esse) pacem vellet. Volo often occurs with the per- 
fect infinitive. See Chap. CVI, Ccenatos essejubet, and note. 

Una ab omnibus veniretur, instead of omnes una venirentur, § 184, 2, (a.) 

Turn fore uti—fesdusfieret, $ 268, R. 4, (b.) 

Neque hominem nobilem — reliclum hi. The construction of the former 
clause would seem to require that this which is connected with it, 
should have been et homo nobilis — non relinqueretur. The author, how- 
ever, has resolved the first infinitive future, (Jactum iri,) into fore with 
the imperfect subjunctive, and left the other unresolved. 

Non sua ignavia sed ob rempublicam in nostium potestate. This is equiva- 
lent to the relative clause, Qui non sua ignavia sed ob "empublicam in 
nostium pote itate esset. The remaining words, neque nominem nobilem 
relictum iri, require, in order to constitute a complete proposition, the 
repetition of the words, in hostium potestate. 
CXIII. Secum ipse, $ 207, R. 28. So Ipsa stbi adversce. 

Cunctatus, sc, sit. 

In colloquium uti, by anastropne for uti in colloquium, $ 323, 4, (1.) 

Qua, i. e. quas res. — Scilicet— patefecisse. The infinitive with its accusa- 
tive here, as Chap. CII, depends on scilicet. 

Uti dictum erat, i. e. ut constitutum erat. 

Vinctus traditur. Sylla thought so highly of this service done by him to 
the state, as to cause it to be represented on his seal ; thereby occa- 
sioning great offence to Marius. 
CXIV. Per idem tempus. The capture of Jugurtha took place in the 
648th year of the city, 106 years before the Christian era, and Caepio 
and Manlius were defeated in the following year 


Gallos. The enemies here mentioned viz. the Cimbri and Teutones were 
in reality German tribes who entered Italy by the way of Gaul. 

Quo metu, § 207, R. 20. 

Cerlare. sc, se, $ 239, R. 2. 

Metritis consul absens /actus. To elect as consul one who was absent 
from the election was very unusual. 

Ea tempestate. Sallust intimates that public opinion respecting Marius 
wa* afterwards greatly altered. See Chap. LXIII. 


L Omnes homines. In most editions of Sallust and occasionally in editions 
of other Latin works, the accusative plural in is or in eis is found in 
many words of the third declension whose genitive pi. ends in ium ; as, 
here omnis homines, $ 85, Exc. 1, & $ 114, 2. 

Qui sese student prceslare, $ 271, R. 4, med. Sese student precsfare is 
used rather than student sese prcestare, as a substantive pronoun seldom 
stands at the beginning of a proposition, unless it is intended to be 
emphatic. — Decet, $ 269. — 

Ate vitam transeant, £ 273, 1. 

Veluti pecora, § 278, R- 1. 

Sed nostra. Sed marks a distinction about to be made between our 
powers, {nostra vis), and those of other animals, which are naturally in- 
capable of any thoughts or efforts but such as have relation to the body. 

Omnis vis, " whole powers, entire nature." A part of our natural powers, 
viz. the corporeal, are the same as those of the other animals, but our 
whole nature includes the mental as well as the corporeal powers. 

Animi imperio — utimur. We make use of the dominion of the mind, i. e. 
from the mind we derive dominion. — Corporis servitio magis utimur. But 
we use rather the servitude of the body, i. e. to the body we are rather 
in servitude. The meaning of the whole is, From the mind we derive 
dominion ; but that which we derive from our corporeal nature is rathet 
servitude than dominion. Utimur is connected with servitio by Zeugma. 

Alterum — alterum, the former, i. e. animi imperium, the dominion of the 
mind,— the latter, i. e. corporis servitio, the servitude of the body. 

Quo, " by so much," i. e. by as much as the nature of the gods is superior 
to that of the beasts, $ 256, R. 16, & (2.) 

Videtur. For the ellipsis of esse with videtur, see note on Posteriores se 
vident, J. 79. 

Memoriam nostri, " the memory of us," memoria nostra would signify M our 
memory," " the memory which we exercise," $ 211, R. 3, (a.) 

Incipias, § 263, 3. See also $ 209, R. 7. 

Consulto — mature* facto, the former belongs to the mind, the latter de 
pends especially on the body, $ 243, R. 1, (a.) 

Utrumque — alterum alterius, sc. vis corporis, et virtus animi, $ 205, R 7, 
(2.) For the construction of utrumque and alterum with eget, see Gr. 
$204,R 10. 



£1. Igitur, " accordingly," refers to the sentence Diu magnum inter mortales 
certamen fuit. 

Reges— pars— alii, $ 204, R. 10. 

Sine cupidiiate, sc alieni, " of what belonged to others." 

Agitabatur. Sallust often makes use of frequentative -verbs in place of 
their primitives. 

Sua cuique, $ 208, (7), & $ 279, 14. 

In Asia Cyrus. Sallust appears to have considered as fabulous the ac- 
counts of earlier conquerors. 

Causam belli, $ 230, R. 1. 

Maximam gloriam, sc. esse, " to be, to consist ;" $ 270, R. 3, & note J. 79, 
on Posleriores se vident. 

Periculo atque negotiis, " by danger and difficulties." 

Imyeralorum animi virtus, $ 211, R. 10. 

Voter et — haberent, $ 261, 1. 

Cerneres, $ 209, R. 7, (a.) 

Fortuna, sc regum atque imperatorum. 

Ad optimum quemque. Power has thus been transferred not only from 
one prince or chieftain to another, but from kingdom to kingdom, as for 
example, from the Assyrians to the Persians, from the Persians to the 
Greeks, and from the Greeks to the Romans. 

Quce homines arant, navigant ccdificant, lit, " what men plough, navigate 
and build " an uncommon form of expression equivalent to, " what 
men do in cultivating, navigating and building," or more con 
cisely, " agriculture, navigation and architecture," in a word *" the arts 
of peace." 

Virtuti omnia parent, " are all subject to, i. e. depend upon the intellectual 

Quibus refers to multi mortales. 

Quibus — voluptati, $227. 

In magnh copi&. See in Diet article in near the end. 

Iter ostendit, i. e. to acquire reputation. 
111. Benefacere reipublicce, $ 223. 

Haud absurdum est, i. e. by litotes, est magnce laudi, $ 324, 9. 

Vet pace vel bello, $253. 

Clar *im fieri Hcet, sc. homini or alicui; with clarum supply se, $239, R. 1. 

Dicta pdtant, sc. esse. 

De magna virtute — memores. See De in Diet. 

Supra ea, i. e. quce putat esse supra ea, " what he supposes to be beyond 
that," i. e. beyond what he thinks easy for himself to do. 

Sicuti pUrique, sc. adolescentuli, " as most persons are while in their youth." 

Ibique, " and there," i. e. in my political career. 

Tametsi animus, sc. meus. 

Me — nihilo minus honoris cupido eademque, quce ceteros,fama atque invidia 
vexabat, " still the desire of preferment and (as a consequence) the same 
calumny and hostility, which is wont (in such case) to disquiet others, 
disquieted me (also.) In most editions the que which follows eadem is 
wanting, and in that case fama and invidia are by some supposed to be 


in the nominative, and by others in the ablative. The sense is in each 
case essentially the same. The reading in the text was suggested by 
Cortius and adopted by Kritz. 

IV. Nonfuit consilium — conterere, $209, R. 3, (5.) 
Ag rum colendo—intentum, $ 275, III, R. 2, (1.) 

Se/vilibus ojficiis, in apposition with agrum colendo aut venando. $ 204, & 

$ 148, 2, (a.) # (b.) "~ 
Intentum, sc. me. 

Eddem, instead of ad idem inceptum studiumque. 
De conjuratione — absolvam. See Be in Diet. 
Novitate, i. e. propter 7iovitatem, on account of the novelty. See note oil 

Reipublicm magnitudine, Chap. 31. 

V. Nobili genere. The gens Sergia was accustomed to trace back its de- 

scent to Sergestus, a companion of ^Eneas. 

Magna vi, $ 211, R. 6, & R. 8, (2.) 

Huic — bzlla intestina, cades, etc. grata, $ 205, R. 2, (2.) 

Cujus rei libet, for cujuslibet rex, $ 323, 4, (5.) 

Supra quam. Supra gives to a positive degree the force of a compara- 
tive, $ 127, 6. 

Satis eloquential, sc. Mi fuit, " he had eloquence enough," i. e. he was 
tolerably eloquent. In most editions we find loquentia, but in almost all 
the manuscripts eloquentica is read, $212, R. 4. 

Post dominationem, " ever since — ." ^ 

Qua utraque. The plural relative is here neuter, although both the ante- 
cedents are feminine and in the singular number, " both which things." 

Dispari genere, etc. $211, R. 6. — Coaluerint, $265. 

Hortari — admonuit, sc me. — De moribus, $ 218, R. 1. 

Majorum, sc. nostrorum. 

Disserere. The subjunctive clauses introduced by quomodo, quantum, and 
uU as well as the accusative instituta depend on disserere, $ 229, R. 5. 

VI. Sicuti ego accepi. Sallust here relates the traditions, respecting the 
origin of the Roman empire, without vouching for their truth. 

In una mania, $ 118, 2, Rem. 2. 

Res eorum, i. e. Romanorum, the same as res Romana. See Res in Diet 

Aucta, increased, improved, enlarged, $ 323, 1, (2.) (a.) 

Invidia, sc. regum et populorum. — Ex opulentia, sc. Romanorum. 

Tentare, $209, R. 5, & $269, {a.) Jin. 

Auxilio esse, $ 227, R. 2, & 3. . 

Annis infirmum, $ 247. — Sapientia validum, $ 250. 

Vel aslate vel curat similitudine, i. e. propter cstatem, etc. See note on Novi- 
tate, Chap. IV. 

Conservanda libertatis fuerat, had tended to the maintenance of liberty, 
$275, III, R. 1,(5.) 

Bmosque imperatores, sc. consules. 

Eo modo. The causal particle nam. is here omitted. 

VII. Sed ea tempestate. Sed in this and in other parts of this chapter de- 
notes transition. 

Ccepere se quisque, $ 209, R. 11, (4.) 



J uventua— pattens eraU—discebat, kabebant, $209, R. 11, (2.) 

Sic se qmsque. Properabat is here construed like cupio, tyc, J 271, and 

Eas divitias, earn bonam famam—putabant, " this" (viz. this eagerness to 
encounter the enemy, &c.) " they accounted riches," &c. $ 206, (10 ) 
When, as in this case, the pronoun refers to a sentence as its antece- 
dent, it always agrees with the following noun. 

Possem—ni traheret, $ 261, 1. 

Fuderit—ceperit, $265. 

VIII. Sed profecto. Sed is here adversative, and marks the want of corre* 
spondence between the merits and fame of the ancient Romans. 

Quam. For the omission of magis before quam. See Magis in Diet. 

Ego existimo, $ 209, R. 1, (b.) 

Scriptorum magna ingenia, " great talents of writers," instead of " writers 

of great talents :" by metonymy of the property for the substance, $ 324i 

2. So in the next sentence, Prceclara ingenia. 
Earn, sc. virtutem. The more common reading is ea, sc. facta. 

IX. Igitur domi ; igitur marks a return to the subject of the seventh chap- 

Jurgia, discordias, simultates, these words denote domestic or civil con- 
tentions, and the meaning of the author is, that the malevolent feelings 
often exercised in civil society, were by the ancient Romans,, turned 

# against the public enemies. M 

In amicisjideles. In with the ablative here signifies " in regard to," and 
consequently does not differ essentially from in amicos, "faithful to 
their friends." 

Ubi pax evenerat cequitate. Exact correspondence with the preceding 
clause would have required aquiiate in pace, 

Hac habeo, " these facts" or " circumstances," — viz. those mentioned in 
the subsequent part of the chapter, $ 230, R. 1. 

Quique tardius, $256, R. 9, (a.) 

Quam qui, i. e. quam in eos qui: quhm relates to s&pius. 

Ignoscere quam persequi, sc. earn. 

X. Sed, ubi — respublica crevit, § 259, R. 1, (2), (d.) All the verbs in this pe- 

riod, from crevit to patebant inclusive, forming the protasis of the period, 

depend upon ubi ; the apodosis commences at saivire. In the protasis 

the imperfect is properly connected with the perfect, since the latter is 

used for the pluperfect. 
Rtges magni, sc. Syphax, Phillip, Antiochus, Perse3, Pyrrhus and Milh 

Optunda:, $ 205, R. 2, Exc 
Alias. These things, which in themselves are good and desirable?, proved 

at that time a source of evil to the Romans. 
Ea quasi. Ea " these things," " these vices refers to pecuniae cupido, and 

imperii cupido, avarice and ambition. 
Materies omnium malorum, i. e. of all the evils of which the author is 

speaking,— the evils which came upon the Roman empire in conse* 

quence of the general corruption of manners. 


Superbiam- ymnia venalia habere. Two constructions are here united 

$ 229, R. 5 & 2d clause. 
Ingenium bonum as opposed to vultus bonus signifies " a good heart.* 
HcBcprimd, "these vices" — . 

XI. Bonus ignavus. In uniting things opposite, when they are said to occur 
equally or to be mingled promiscuously, the conjunction is often omit- 
led. See in Jug. 51, arma tela, equi viri, hostes cives permixti. 

Bonis initiis, $ 257, R. 7. i. e. quum ejus initia bona essent. . 

Huic quia bonce artes desunt, — contendit : i. e. hie, quia ei bonce ai te$ desunt, 
— contendit. Hie, which in reference to ei may be considered as its 
antecedent, is attracted into the case of its relative ei, and the latter is 
omitted, $206, (6), (fi), &$209, R. 2, (1), (b). 

Ea, sc. avaritia. 

Corpus animumque virilem, $ 205, R. 2, Exc. 

L. Sulla, armis recepta republica. L. Sylla freed the state from the domin- 
ation of Marius, Cinna and Carbo, but became in his turn a cruel tyrant 

Hue accedebat, qudd, $ 273, 6. Hue, i. e. ad hoc 

Tlli, sc. milites Sullani. 

Corruptis moribus, $ 211, R. 6. 

XII. Postquam divitice honori esse ccepere. In the protasis of this period the 
imperfect is connected with the perfect, because the latter is used in the 
sense of the pluperfect after postquam, § 259, R. 1, (2), (d.) See the 
first note, Chap. X. 

Sequebatur, $209, R. 9. 

Innocentia pro malevolentia. Innocentia is here the opposite of avaritia. 
Malevolentia ; i. e. as evidence of malice towards those who had ac- 
quired wealth by their rapacity. 

Ex divitiis, " in consequence of—." The ablative without a preposition 
commonly denotes the immediate cause, with ex a remote cause. 

Cum superbia, $249, III. 

Victores hostibus, i. e. metis. 

Id demum, $ 207, R. 22.—Esset, $ 263, 3. 

XIII. Nam quid ea memorem, $ 260, II, R. 5.22a. $ 207, R. 22. 

Subversos montes, etc. Reference seems to be made especially to the 
fish-ponds of Lucullus, which were supplied with water by means of 
tunnels cut through mountains, and were so large that they might weD 
be called seas. 

Honeste habere, i. e. honeste uti, in opposition to abuti. 

Abuti, sc. Us. 

Libido ganece. Their love of luxurious feasts, s illustrated by the sub- 
sequent clause vescendi causa — exquirere. 

Ceteri cultus. This is illustrated in a variety of particulars by the clauses, 
dormire prius — luxa antecapere. 

Exquirere, dormire, etc. historical infinitives. 

XIV. Id quodfactu, $ 206, (13), (b.) 
Aliertum ces grande, $205, R. 16, (c.) 

Quos manus atque lingua ; this relates to such as were employed as assas- 
sins and false witnesses. 



Petfurio aut sanguine civdi. Perjurio refers. to lingua, and sangvaiu 
civili to manu by the figure chiasmus, which coribists in such an 
arrangement of four words that the third corresponds to the sewiid 
and the fourth to the first, like the extremities of the letter chi X 
Alebat—exagitabat, § 209, R. 12, (2.) 
Ex (state. See note on ex divitiis^ Chap. 1$. 
Qui ita existimarenU $ 266, 1. 
Qua} domum Catilincefrequentabat, $ 266, R. 5. 

Ex aliis rebus, " from other circumstances," especially from the profligate 
character of Catiline, of which the author treats at large in the ntA* 
XV. Cum virgine nobili, cum sacerdote Vesta, the name of the former is 
unknown, the latter was Fabia, the sister of Terentia, the wife of Cicero, 
and subsequently of Sallust. 
Nihil unquam bonus laudavit, " a good man never," — or, " no good man 

ever" — . * 

Privignum, a son of Catiline by a former marriage, who would have be- 
come the step-son of Orestilla, on her marriage with Catiline. 
Vacuam domum. Cicero, Cat. I. 6, charges Catiline with the crime of 

murdering his wife also for the same purpose. 
Facinoris, sc. the crime of conspiracy against his country. 
XVT. Ul supra diximus, see Chap. XIV: 

Commodare, sc. Us, quibus testes falsi, etc. opus essent. 
Habere — majora alia imperabat. A double construction, § 229, & R. 5. 
The historical infinitive commodare in this period is followed by the im- 
perfect indicative imperabat. Sometimes the order of these constructions 
is reversed, as in the first period of Chap. XXI. 
Cireumvenire, jugulare, i. e. by the agency of these associates, $ 209, R. 5. 
Victoria veteris memores, sc. over the party of Marius. 
In extremis terris, sc. in Pontus and Armenia, where he was engaged in 

the Mithridatic war. 
Ipsi, sc. CatiliiKB. 
Nihil sane intentus. Nihil for non. See Diet. 

XVII. Quibus in otio. The demonstrative ii is here omitted though com 
monly expressed when its case would be different from its relative 
$ 206, (3,) (a.) Quibus is in the plural referring to the collective noun 

Vivere copia erat, § 270, R. 1. 

Fuere — qui crederent, $ 264, 6. 

Quia Cn. Pompeius. Before this clause the causal particle nam, as in 

many other cases, is omitted, for this clause contains the reason of the 

opinion mentioned in the preceding one. 
Voluisse, i. e. crederent eum (sc. Craasum) voluisse. 
Apud illos, sc. conjuratos, Gr. § 323, 3, (5,) & § 206, (11.) 

XVIII. Antea. The conspiracy here spoken of occurred A. U. C. 683, three 
years before the principal Catilir arian conspiracy. 

De quo. The reading in most editions is de qua, referring to conjuratlo 
supposed to be implied in the verb covjuravere* $ 206. (11.) The neuter 


quo which is found in several manuscripts is adopted by the Bipont 
editors and by Kritz, and exhibits a more common Latin idiom, 
$ 206, (13.) 

Designate coKtutis, the consuls were elected in July, and entered upon 
. the duties of their office in the January following. 

Lcgibus ambitus, by the Calpurnian law, enacted A. U. C. 686 those who 
were convicted of bribery were removed from the senate, excluded from 
the consulship, and subjected to a fine. 

Pecuniarum repetundarum. Catiline was accused of extortion after his 
return from Africa, where he had been a praetor. While he stood ac- 
cused of this crime the laws did not permit him to become a candidate 
for the consulship. 

Calendis Januariis, sc at the inauguration of the consuls, Cotta and Tor- 
quatus, who had been elected after Autronius and Sylla were set 

Ipsi, sc. Catiline and Autronifls. 

Ea re cognita, " this plot" — . 

Ea res, " this circumstance," i. e. Catiline's giving the signal prematurely 

XIX. Adnitente Crasso, see Chap. XVII, near the end. 
Infestum inimicum Cn. Pompeio, $ 211, R. 5, (1.) 
Invitus dederat, $ 205, R. 15, (a.) 

Presidium in eo, i. e. a security against the formidable power of Pompey. 
Etjam turn. Et here introduces an explanatory clause, " and even then," 

i. e. " for already." 
Sunt qui ita dicunt. Est qui is followed by the indicative whenever the 

writer would represent the person referred to as well known to him, 

$ 264, 6, Rem. 4. 

XX. Cadlina — videt—secedit — habuit. In Sallust the historical present $ 145 
1, 3, is often connected with the perfect indefinite. 

Paulo ante memoravi, see Chap. XVII. 

Multa scspe egerat, " had often discussed many topics" relating to the con- 

Ni virtus — speciata forent, — res cecidisset, § 261, 1. 

Per ignava aid vana ingenia, by metonymy for per ignavos aut vanos 
Jiomines, " by means of cowardly or faithless men," in which reference 
is made to virtus Jidesque, in a preceding clause, or to fortes fdesque, 
in a subsequent one. 

Multis et magnis tempestatibus. For this use of et see Multus in Diet 

tdem vette atque idem nolle. Ea, $206, (13), (c.) — See a correspond- 
ing passage Jug. 31, Quos omnes eadem cupere, eadem odisse, eadem 
metuere in unum coegit; sed hac inter benos amicilia. inter malos /actio 
est, $ 324, 13. 

Sled ego qua mente agi.avi. As this clause contains the past thoughts of 
the speaker indirectly referred to, its vert might have been in the sub- 
junct. (§ 266, 3, & 2, R. 2,) had it not been the intention of Catiline to 
imply that he had really entertained such designs, $ 266, R. 5. 

Ceterum mihi, $ 211, R. 5, (1.) 

Qua conditio vitmfutura sit, $ 265. 



Nosmet ipsi, $ 207, R. 28. In constructions of this kind ipse agree* with 
the subject or with the object of the verb, accoiding as either is ern 

Vulgusfuimus, "were accounted the rabble." — Ubi Mi volunt, sc. eas esse 

A nnis atque divitiis, " in consequence of age and riches," i. e. of luxury 
induced by riches. 

Omnia, ' all their powers." 

Cetera res expedief, " the rest the thing itself will bring about,' i. e. the 
revolution, which we contemplate, needs but to be begun, and it will of 
itself go on to a successful termination. Cetera, ace. pi. 

Montihus cocequandis. See Chap. XIII, at the beginning. 

Nova diruunt, alia mdificant, sc. ccdificia. 

En ilia, ilia. An example of the figure epizeuxis, $ 324, 20. 

Prcemia posuit, $ 230, R. 2. 

Vel imperatore, vel milite me, $ 204, R. 1. 

Nisi forte me animus fallit : i.e. in rega*d to the opinidh which 1 have 
formed respecting your preference of power to servitude. 

Et vos servire. Et here introduces an explanatory clause. 

XXI. Magna merces videbatur. See note J. 79, on Posteriores se vident. 
The subject oividebatur is quieta movere. 

Quce helium atque libido victorum fert, — " bring with them." 

PrcBterea esse, § 270, R. 2, (6.) — This omission of dico, &c, is most 

common when a verb which may imply it has preceded, as in this place, 

Petere consulatum C. Antonium. Antonius was indeed elected consul, but 

as colleague of Cicero, and instead of aiding Catiline, he commanded 

the army by which the conspirators were defeated. 
Hominem et familiar em. The poverty as well as profligacy of Antonius 

were such as might have rendered him a fit associate of Catiline. 
Increpat—laudare—admonebat. This historical present is here connected 

with the historical infinitive and with the perfect indefinite. 

XXII. hide, i. e. deinde, " then," an adverb of time. 
Degustavissent, sc. sanguinem vino permixtam. 

Dictitare,fecisse; dictitare for dictiiabant, referring to the same persons aa 
fuere qui dicerent, " some" — . Fecisse, sc. Catilinam. 

Alii tantifacinoris conscii, $ 222, R. 3. Conscii, $ 204, R. 10. Tanti fa* 
cinoris, i. e. the crime of drinking human blood. 

Ciceronis invidiam, $ 211,,R. 12. 

XXIII. Natus hand obscuro loco, § 324, 9. 

Neque dicere, neque facere quidquam pensi habebat, instead of neque in 

dicendo, neque infaciendo. — 
Quoque modo, i. e. et quo modo. 
JEstudbat et—credebant, $ 209, R. 11, (2). 

XXIV. Comitus habitis, " the election bellg over, i. e. at the close of the 

Concusserat. The pluperfect is here used where the perfect indefinite was 
to have been looked for. The author appears to have been led to the 
use of this tense, by comparing in his mind the subsequent perseverance 


ol the conspirators, with the check at first felt by them, in consequence 
of the election of Cicero to the consulship. 
Plura agitare, " he set on foot new plans." 

XXV. Litteris Greeds— docta, $ 250. 

Multa alia, " many other accomplishments." Alia is in tne ace. # 23,1, I* 
depending, together with the abl. litteris, and the infinitives psallere and 
saltare, upon docta. A variety of constructions, depending upon the 
same word, is not unusual in Sallust. 

Qua instrumenta luxurim sunt, " which contribute to luxury." 

Cariora semper omnia, quam decus atque pudicitia fuit, $209, R. 12 (3). 

Haud facile decerneres, $ 209, R. 7, (a.) 

XXVI. Nihilo minus — consulaturn petebat. Nihilo minus appears to refer to 
the defeat, which he had suffered the preceding year, when a candidate 
for the consulship, and against the recurrence of which he had now 
made great, preparation. See Chaps. XXIV and XXV. 

In proximum annum, i. e. A. U. C. 692. 

Pactione provincice. It was customary to assign by lot, the province 
which each consul was to govern the year after the expiration of his 
consulship. On this occasion Cisalpine Gaul had fallen to- Anton ius 
and the rich province of Macedonia to Cicero. The latter, in order to 
secure to the state the fidelity of his colleague, made a voluntary ex 
• • change of provinces. 

Dies comitiorum. The day originally appointed for this election was (he 
21st of October, but a postponement was afterwards made until the 
28th of the same month. See Cic. in Cat. I. 3. On the day last men- 
tioned D. Julius Silanus and L. Licinius Murena were chosen consuls. 

In campo, sc. Martio. See Cic. in Cat. I. 5. 

XXVII. C. Manlium Fcesulas. Manlius had probably come to Rome, to 
assist Catiline in the consular election. 

Item alios jubere, sc. cum telo esse 

Agitanti, sc. UK. 

Per M. Porcium Lacam. It was at the house of Laeca that the heads of 

the conspiracy assembled. See Cic. in Cat. I. 4. 
Ibique, i. e. in illo conventu. 
Paraverat, $ 266, R. 5.—Facerent, $ 264, 5. 

XXVIII. Domi sues, $221, R. 3, (1.) 

Egestate simul, ac dolore injuria, " as well from poverty, as from resent 

ment on account of injury." * 

Ex Sullanis colonis. Sylla had distributed to his soldiers the land of 

those Etrurians who had favored the cause of Marius. 

XXIX. Ancipiti malo, i. e. by the danger to be apprehended from the conspi- 
rators remaining in the city, and from the army of Manlius. 

Privato consilio. In opposing the designs of Catiline. Cicero had hitherto 
relied upon his own resources and those of his friends- and had made 
no use of his consular power. 

Quo consilio, $211, R. 6.—Quodplerumque, $206, (13), (a.) 

Darent operam, $262, R. 4.— -Pc* senatum, $247 R 4 


Maxima, permittitur^ i. e. est maxima quce permittitur. 
Ea potestas — helium gerere, coercere, etc. $ 204, R. 9. 
Nulh earum rerum consuli jus est, " no consul has authority to do these 

XXX. Fccsulis, see Chap XXVII. 

Allatas sibi dicebat, sc. esse. See note J. 79, on Posteriores se videnU 

Script urn erat, $ 205, R. 8. 

Ante diem sextum calendas, i. e. in diem sextum ante calendar, $ 326, (8.) 

" on the 27th of October." 
Simula id quod, $ 206, 13, (6.) 
Portenta. These are mentioned by Cicero, 3d oration in Cat 8, and by 

Pliny, Hist. Nat. II, 51. 
Conventus fieri, arma portari, $ 145, N. 3. 
Servile helium moveri, sc. by C. Julius ; see Chap. XXVII. 
Sed prcetores, sc. missi sunt. 

Prcemium— servo lihertatem, $ 204, R. 1, & $ 230, R. 2. 
Ejusrei, $211, R. 12. 

XXXI. Lcetitia atque lasavia, quce, $ 206, (15), (a.) 

Diuturna quies. The last civil commotions in Rome, previous to the con- 
spiracy of Catiline, were those excited by Sylla, nearly twenty years 

Reipublicce magnitudine, " on account of the greatness — ." The ablative * 
without a preposition in the sense of propter with the accusative oc- 
curs frequently in Sallust. 

Eadem ilia, " the same designs." 

Et ut, " and as if." 

In senatum venit. This occurred on the 8th of November, A. U. C. 691. 

Oralionem habuit, sc. the first oration against Catiline. 

Eafamilia ortum, sc. se, $ 239, R. 2. — Perdita repuhlica, $ 274, R. 5. 

lnquilinus civis. Cicero had removed from Arpinum to Rome. 

Quum earn servaret — " was trying to preserve it." See note Jug. XXVII 
on Leniehant. 

Ruina restinguam, — " by the destruction of the commonwealth. * 

XXXII. Neque insidia consuli — et, $278, R. 7. Insidia consuli, $211, R. 5 
Optimum factum, instead of optimum, sc. esse, the subject of which is ex* 

ercitum augere, etc., and the predicate optimum factum $210. 
Priusquam legiones scriherentur, $ 263, 3. 

Quce hello usuiforent, $266, 1. — Opes factionis confirment, $262, R. 4. 
Sese propediem, sc. dicit, which is implied in mandat. 
Ex suo numero, instead of, ex suorum numero, $ 207, R. 20. 
Marcium Regem, see Chap. XXX. 
aXXIII Qui miseri, $ 206, 12. 
Vlerique patrice, sed omnes Jama atque fortunis expertes. Expertes is here 

limited first by the genitive patriae, and afterwards by the ablatives/ama 

and fortunis, $ 213, R. 5, (2), & $ 278, R. 2. 
Cuiquam nostrum, $ 212, R. 2, N. 2. 
Legs uti, reference appears to be made to a law enacted, A. U. C. 429 in 


consequence of the shameful oppression exercised by a usurer named 
Papirius, by which law it was provided that the persons of debtors 
should not be subject to restraint on account of their debts. 

Preetoris, sc. urban?, the judge before whom civil causes were tried. 

Argentum cere solutum est, i. e. instead of a silver sesterce, an as of copper 
of one fourth the value of the former, was paid, § 327, R. 3. 

Scepe ipsa plebes — secessit, a secession of the common people is said to 
have thrice occurred. Ipsa plebes, " the people on their part,' in dis- 
tinction from majores vestrum, the patricians. Measures designed for 
public relief had originated sometimes with the senate and sometimes 
with the common people. 

XXXIV. Si quid ab senatu petere vdlent, ah armis decedant. The imperfect 
followed by the present is an u iusual construction. 

Ab €0 ; eo it will be observed is in the singular, though referring both to 

senatum and populum, which appear to be here spoken of collectively aa 

one body. 
Discedant—proficiscantur, $ 266, R. 1. Not only the mood but the tense 

of the oratio direcla is here retained. 
Ea mansuetudine atque misericordia, § 211, R. 8, (2.) 
Litteras mittit is followed by the infinitive with the accusative, in the same 

manner that scribit would be, § 272. 
Non quo sibi land sceleris, conscius esset, $ 262, R. 9. 

XXXV. Re cogniia, " ascertained" or " proved by deeds" or " actual services," 
" known by experience." Catiline had been defended by Catulus when 
accused of a capital crime in reference to Fabia. See Chap. XV 

Graiam—fiduciam, " a pleasing confidence." 

In magnis meis periculis, " while exposed to great perils." 

Commendalioni meco, I e. to his commendation of Orestilla to the care 
of Catulus. See the close of this letter. The common reading of the 
whole sentence, is, Egregia tua fides, re cognita, grata mihi magnis in 
meis periculis fiduciam commendalioni mem tribuit. If for re cognita, we 
were allowed to read recognita, " recollected," the passage might be 
translated, the recollection of your faithful attachment (so) pleasant to 
me while exposed to imminent perils, gives, &c." In this way, magnis 
periculis, might be understood either of his present dangers, or of those 
in which Catulus had formerly assisted him. 

Quambbrem, i. e. on account of his reliance upon the friendship of Catulus, 

In novo consilio, " in my new enterprise." 

Non statui parare, for statui non parare, as non, though modifying an in- 
finitive, is placed before the verb on which the infinitive depends. 

Satisfactionem. Supply sed. 

De culpa, instead of the gen. culpa, 

Quam, sc. satisfactionem. Licet cognoscas, § 262, R. 4, " you may be as- 
sured " — Veram, sc. esse. 

Statum dignitatis, i. e. the consulship. — Mi is nominilus, sc. factum? sive 
contractum. — Ex pos&essionibus, sc. meis. 

Ahenis nominibus, sc. ccs alvmum. 

Quum et, I e. quum etiam 


Non dignos homines. He probably refers especially to Cicero, a novus 

Pro meo casu, " considering my unfo tunate condition." 

Plura quum scriberem. The pretence of personal danger, on account of 
which this letter closes thus abruptly, appears to have been intended by 
Catiline to serve as an apology, for not opening his heart more fully to 
one, in whom he professed to place implicit confidence. 
XXXVI. CondemnatisAs in the dative connected by prceter in the sense of 
prater quam to its understood referring to multitudini, which depends on 
liceret, $ 278, R. 1. 

Vuobus senaii decretis, $ 257, R. 7, " notwithstanding two decrees of the 
senate," for the former of these, see Chap. XXX. 

Neque — quisquam omnium, $ 207, R. 31. 

Tanta vis morbi, the moral malady here referred to, was the excessive de- 
sire of a change in public affairs. See the beginning of Chap. XXXVII. 
XXXVII." Aliena, " alienated," sc. from the government. 

Quibus opes nullce sunt, bonis invident sc. ii. When the demonstrative 
would differ in case from the relative it is commonly expressed. See a 
similar example in Chap. XIII, quippe quos,etc. 

Ea vero ; ea in this passage, though-pleonastic in its construction, serves 
to distinguish emphatically the populace of the city from the common 
people of the empire in general, whose disaffection is mentioned at the 
beginning of this chapter. 

Prccceps ierat, i. e. into the revolutionary designs of Catiline. 

Primiim omnium, the principal classes into which the populace of the city 
was divided, and the causes of dissatisfaction in each are mentioned un- 
der the five general divisions, marked by primiim omnium, deinde, 
prcclerea,prceterea, ad hoc.The first general division is subdivided into three 
classes by qui ubique, item alii and postremo 

Alios senatores, sc. esse or fieri. 

Privatis atque publicis largitionibus, a monthly distribution of corn was 
made to the populace at the public expense, in addition to the largesses 
of wealthy and ambitious citizens. 

Juxta ac, "just as," i. e. " as badly as," " no better than." 

Prmterea quorum, sc. ii, $ 206, (4). 

Jus libertatis imminutum. Sylla had ordered that the children af those 
whom he had proscribed, should be held ineligible to office, and in this 
respect they were still deprived of the common rights of citizens. 

Miarum partium erant, $ 211, R. 8, (2.) "who belonged to another party.' 

Atque senati, i. e. atque senaii partium. 

Qu&m minus valcre ipsi, " than to have less power themselves." Before 
valere supply se, $ 239, R. 2. Ipsi, $ 207, R. 28. 

Id adeb malum. The alarming evil here spoken of arising frcan the bit- 
terness of party spirit, had on many previous occasions threatened the 
ruin of the state. 
XXXVIII. Tribunicia potestas, the power of the tribunes had been greatly re- 
stricted by L. Sylla, but was restored in the consulship of Pompey and 
Crassus. A. U. C. 684. 


Stanmam potestatem nacti. The tribunicial power is here referred to, though 

this power in its proper use was not the highest power in the state. 
Senati specie, i. e.senati magnitudinis specie, "for (the advancement oi/ 

their own power, under the semblance (of promoting that) of the 

XXXIX. Bettum maritimum, this war, called also helium piraticum, was 

carried on by Pompey, A. U. C, 687, against the Cilicians, who had 

filled every sea with piratical vessels, and had even plundered some of 

the Italian cities. In forty days the war was brought to a successful 

termination. In consequence of this eminent success, Pompey was 

appointed to the command of the war against Mithridates. 
Ceteros, i. e. other patricians who were supposed to court the favour of the 

people or to belong to the popular party, as Crassus, Caesar, <fcc. 
Quiplebem. The reading of Kritz. Others read Quoplebem. 
Tract arent, $ 266, 3. 
Animos eorum sc plebis. 

Neque illis, i. e. neque tamem illis. See Neque in Diet. 
Tamen, "notwithstanding" these considerations. 
Parens necarijussit, under the Roman law fathers had the power of putting 

to death their children. 
XL. Bellicosa esset, § 266, 3. 
Facile eos. The subject ofadduci posse was understood with oppressor 

but after the parenthesis prceterea quod etc. is repeated. So in Chap. 

XXXVII. ea vero. 
Plerisque principibus civitatium, sc Gallicarum. 
Alque eos noverat, $ 183, 3, N. 3.— Civitatis, sc. Allobrogum: — Ejus, sc. 

Quern excitum tantis malts, $ 211, R. 5. 
Postquam videt. Postquam is often found in Sallust with the historical 

Miseriis suis remedium. The objective dative, $ 211, R. 5. 
Exspectare. Before this verb, which depends on dicentes understood, wc 

must supply se. 
Viri esse vultis, $ 210, R. 6. 

Hcec ubi dixit, $ 259, R. 1, {2), (d.)-Tam difficile esse, % 270, R. 2. 
Dum ea res. Ea res is used here and in other places instead of id ; tne 

general idea expressed in English by thing, being expressed in Latin 

sometimes by res, and sometimes by adjectives in the neuter gender. 

and hence a transition is often made from one of these modes to the 

Ah Roma aberat, $ 255, R. 2. — Pollicitos operam suam, & 208, (7). 
Domum dimittit. Domus here signifies not their native country, but 

their place of residence at Rome. 
XLL In incerto hdbuere, quidnam, &c, $ 229. R. 5. 
in altera parte. The motives on the part of the ambassadors and theii 

countrymen to engage in the conspiracy are first mentioned. 
In spe victories, " in the hope of victory," i. e. in the victory hoped for. 
At in altera. The advantages of betraying the conspiracy are next cor 


eidered, and these appear to be personal to the ambassadors, rather than 
to their countrymen in general. 
Majores opes, "greater power and influence," to be enjoyed by the 
ambassadors, as a reward from the Romans for betraying the con 
Vena pramia. Specific rewards had been offered by the senate to any one 
who would give information respecting the conspiracy (see Chap. XXX,)- 
but these are probably not referred to in this place. 
Cujus patrocinio. Most nations subject to the Romans had some one 
among the senators who took the oversight of their affairs, and whom 
they called their patron. This patronage was hereditary. 
Prcccepit ut — simulent. The historical perfect followed by the present is 
unusual, § 258, 2, (2). See J. XIII, & CXI. 
XLII. Quos antea Catilina dimiserat. See Chap. XXVII. 
Ex eo numero. See Numerus in Diet. 
Item in ulteriore Gallia C. Murasna, sc. complures in vincula conjecerat. 

See Item in Diet. 
Vt videbantur, "as they appeared," instead of paratis copiis, quce videban- 
tur magnce, i. e. satis magnce. The impersonal videbatur is more com- 
monly employed in this sense. 
XLIII. Lentulus cum ceteris — constituerant, § 209, R. 12, (6). 
Cetera multitudo conjurationis, " the rest of the multitude concerned in the 

Hoc modo, i. e. tali modo. 

Quo tumulta, i. e. ut eo tumultu, " that by the tumult which this would oc- 
casion," $ 207, R. 20. 
Alius autem alium, sc. aggrederelur. 
Inter, hcec parala atque decreta, $ 274, R. 5. 
XLIV. Exprcccepto Ciceronis. See Chap. XLI, near the end. 
Quod signatum ad cives perferant, § 264, 5. 
DanL sc. jusjurandum signatum. 

Eo brevi venturum,i.e. into the country of the Allobroges. 
Mittit uti confirmarent. The imperfect depending upon the historical pre- 
sent, § 258, 2, R. 1, (a.) 
Quis sim. Cicero, who had the intercepted, letter in his possession, has 
given it in 3d Cat. 12, as follows : Qui sim, ex eo quern ad te misi, cog- 
nosces. Cura ut vir sis, et cogita quern in locum sis progressus, el vide 
quid jam tibi sit necesse. Cura ut omnium tibi auxilia adjungas, etiam 
Faccogites, $2*V2, R. 4, & $267, R. 3.— Et memineris, $ 183 3, N- 3. 
XLV. Cetera, " as for the rest," i. e. in regard to details. 
Ita agant, sc. ut, $ 262, R. 4. 
Homines miliiares, sc. Flaccus and Pomptmus. 
Pmsidiis collocatis. See 3d oration against Catiline, Chap. V. 
Ad id loci, $ 212, R. 3. — Et simul, i. e. et simul ac. 
XLVI. Quibus rebus confectis, these events occurred on the night Detween 
the 2d and 3d of December, A. U. C 691. 
Consult, sc. Ciceroni> 


Panam illorum, sc. videbat )r verebalur, the latter of which may be im- 
plied in anxius erat. 

Sibi oneri, " would bring a weight of odium upon him." 

Perdendce reipublicce, $ 275, III, R. 1, (5). 

Ipse manus tenens. This was intended as a mark of respect to the official 
character of Lentulus. 

jEdem Concordia. In this temple, built by Camillus, upon the side of the 
Capitoline mount, the senate that day assembled, and in a private apart- 
ment of this temple the conspirators seem to have been detained, until 
they were introduced into the senate. 

Magna frequentia, $257, R. 7, (a.) 

Vollurcium cum legatis. Cum in this place does not imply any very close 
connection of time, as it appears from Cicero, (Or. in Cat. Ill, 4,) that 
Volturcius was introduced apart from the Gauls. It is equivalent to et. 
XLVII. Quid,aut qua de causa, consilii habuisset, "what design he had 
entertained, or for what reason he had entertained it." 

Fingere alia, i. e. other than what pertained to the conspiracy. 

Nihil amplius scire quam legatos. This expression is thought by some to 
be ambiguous. Its more obvious meaning is that " he knew nothing 
more than the ambassadors knew." Kritz and Herzog however inter- 
pret it to mean that " he knew nothing more than," or taking nihil for 
neminem that " he knew none besides the ambassadors:" i. e. none of 
the conspirators besides. If we translate docet, " he shows," the com- 
mon translation may perhaps be sustained, for it is obvious from Chap 
XLVIII, that he disclosed many things relating to the conspiracy, 
though most of them may have been known to the ambassadors also. 

Cinnam atque Sullam antea, sc. urbis potitos esse. 

Ab incenso Capitolio. The burning of the Capitol here referred to occur- 
red A. U. C. 671. 

Decernit uli — haberentur, $ 258, R. 1. — C, Ccesari, i. e. C. Julio Ccssari. 
XLVIII. Alia belli facinora prcedce, sc. sibi, $227. 

Quum se diceret indicaturum. Respecting this position of se, consult note 
on Sese student prcsstare, Chap. 1. 

Indicaturum (esse,) — data esset, $ 266, 2, R. 4. 

De itinere hostium, i. e. of the conspirators, towards Rome. 

Missum a M. Crasso. See Chap. XVII. 

Lentulus, Cethegus, aliique deprehensi, " the arrest of Lentulus," &c 
$274, R. 5, (a.) 

TerrerenU sc. eum, i. e. Catilinam. 

Et Uli — eriperentur sc. Lentulus, Cethegus, alii. 

Tanta vis hominis, instead of homo tantce vis. 

Deque ea re, i. e. concerning the truth or falsehood of the testimony of 

Consulente Cicerone, sc. senatum. 

Neque amplius potestatem, i. e. indicandi, " of giving testimony." 

Qui existimarent, $ 264, 6. 

More suo. This custom of Crassus, of patronizing the meanest and vilest, 
is mentioned by Plutarch also. 




XLIX Sed iisdem temporibus. In what follows, Sallust appears to aim a\ 
defending Cicero irom the charge brought against him by Crassus ; but 
in doing this he brings a very improbable charge against Catulus and 
Piso, for the purpose of screening from censure Caesar, his, personal 

Nam uterque exercebant, $ 209, R. 1 1. (4.) 

Piso oppugnatus injudicio, etc. sc. inimicitiam exercebat. Oppugnatus ac 
*a Ceesar e. 9 

Propter cujusdam Transpadani supplicium. These words are to be con 
nected to oppugnatus, not to pecuniarum repetundarum. In a prosecu 
tion against Piso for extortion Caesar made an attack upon him for 
unjustly punishing a certain individual. 

Pontificatus, sc. maximi. 

Ab adolescentulo Ccesare. Ceesar, though at this time thirty-six years old. 
is called adolecentulus in reference to the more advanced age of Catulus 

Opportuna videbatur, i. e. for Caesar, on account of the magnitude of his 
debts, and this consideration caused the accusation to be more readily 

Privatim—publice. These adverbs belong not to debebat, but to liberali* 
tate and muneribus. 

Qua se — mudisse dicerent, instead of quce audissent ut dicebant, $266, 3, 3d 

Qud stadium suum, etc. These words relate to Casari gladio minita- 
L. Qui in custodiam traditi erant, $ 266, 2, R. 5. 

Primus sententiam rogatus, $ 205, R. 17. 

Sententiam Tiberii Neronis. Tiberius Nero had proposed that the con- 
spirators then in custody should be strictly guarded, until Catiline and 

. his army were vanquished, and that the whole subject should then be 
referred to the senate. 

Hujuscemodi verba. From the use of this expression, in relation to the 
speeches of Ceesar and Cato, it is evident that we have their sentiments 
only, and not their language. 
LI. Haud facile, etc. This sentence contains the reason of the preoeding 
but the causal particle nam or enim is here as in many other places 

Valet, sc. animus. 

Male consuluere, sc. sibi ac reipubliccs, i. e. " pursued an injudicious course, 
adopted wrong measures." 

Populi Romani opibus creverat. The Rhodians had received from the 
Romans, in recompense for services rendered the latter in the war 
against Antiochus, a large part of Lycia and Caria. 

fmpunitos eos dimisere. The Rhodians were however deprived oi the 
provinces previously bestowed upon them. 

Quid in Mis,—" in their case," " in respect to them.*' 

Novum consilium. The new measure here alluded to, was the punish- 
ment of a Roman citizen with death, as proposed by Silanus. 

His utendum, sc. poenis. e. g. imprisonment, exile, &c. 


Quce belli savitia esset, qua victis acciderent enumeravere. Enumeravere 
can be connected with sccvitia only by zeugma, but if is appropriate to 
qua victis acciderent. "have shown what would be the savage charac 
ter of the war, and enumerated the evils which would befall the van- 
Rapi Virgines, sc. dixerunt, which is implied in enumeravere. 
An, uti vos ; after an supply eo pertinuit. 
Injuria sua, $208, (7), (a.), & § 211, R. 3, (c.) 

Gravius aquo, $ 256, R. 9, — habuere, i. e. solent habere. The perfect is 
often found in this indefinite sense, in Sallust as well as in other writers 
In imperio, i. e. in those who command. 
Paulo severior, $256, R. 9, (a.), med, 
Eos mores — cognovi, " such I know to be" — . 
Injuria, i. e. " the wrong," " the nature of the wrong," " the enormity of 

the crime." 
Consulis, i. e. Ciceronis. 
Ultra, sc. mortem. 

An, quia gravius est, i. e. in sententiam non addidisti, uti, etc., quia gra- 
vius est ? 
Sin, quia levius, i. e. sin in sententiam non addidisti, etc., quia levius, sc 

est verberari, etc. 
Tempus, dies, fortuna, sc. reprehendent, literally, " a time, a day," i. e. 
" some future time, some future day, will censure (the decree) and so 
likewise will fortune." — " Will censure," i. e will show to have been 
unwise. Tempus, dies, $ 324, 22. 
Quid in alios statuatis, i. e. other than these conspirators. 
Ex bonis, sc. exemplis. — Ab dignis, sc. poena. 
Devictis Atheniensibus triginta viros imposuere, $ 224. 
Invidere bonis. According to Cortius and Kritz, institutis is to be sup- 
plied ; according to Gerlach and Herzog, hominibus. With the latter 
bojd will signify those excelling in knowledge of any kind. Invidere 
which requires a dative is here connected with imitari requiring an ac- 
cusative. In such a connection the noun or pronoun is in general 
repeated in that case which each verb requires. 
Tractarent, $ 264, 5.— Ea populus latari, $ 232, (2.) 
Merito dicere fieri, sc. ea, from the preceding clause. 
Ubipaulatim licentia crevit, $259, R. 1, (2,), (d.) 
Stultce latitia, $211, R. 12. 
Turn lex Porcia. Here the apodosis of the sentence begins, the protasis 

commencing with postquam. 
Quibus legibus. The noun is repeated with the relative, sometimes for 

the sake of perspicuity, and sometimes for emphasis. 
In primis magna, $ 127, 2. 

Qui ea bene parta. The reader might expect, instead of ea, id referring to 

imperium. Sallust has made use of the plural " these things," to de« 

note separately what was previously expressed collectively by imperium. 

Publicandas eorum vecunias, — neu quis referat, a double construction fol- 


lowing censeo, $ 273, 3. In the following clause senatum existimart the 

original construction is resumed. 
L1I. Postquam Gccsar— fecit, § 259, R. 1, (2,) (<?.) 
Alius alii varie assentiebantur, i. e. they signified their agreement in sen 

timent with Silanus, Nero or Caesar. Verbo assentiebantur. The opin 

ion of the senators was given either viva voce or by a division, {diwes- 

sione.) Sallust has omitted all notice of the speeches of Catulus and 

Cicero, delivered on this occasion. 
Uli mihi disseruisse videntur. Cato states the real question to be, not 

what punishment is suitable for the conspirators, but what means shall 

be resorted to, to prevent the success of their conspiracy. 
Persequare, §209, R. 7, (a.) 
Si ista cujuscumque modi sunt. The severity of Cato's manners led him 

to speak contemptuously of the luxuries prized so highly by many of 

his hearers. 
De sociorum injuriis: an objective genitive, $211, R. 2. 
In hoc ordine, i. e. in senatu. 
Sed ea, sc. verba. # 

Non id agitur, $ 207, R. 22. 
Cujus hceccumque modi; tmesis, $323,4, (5,) for cujuscumque modi haec 

Hostiumfutura sint, $ 211, R. 8, (3). 

Hie, " here," i. e. " in this state of things," " such being the facts." 
Hie mihi quisquam. Reference is here very evidently made to Caesar, but 

the reference is the more severe from the use of the indefinite pronoun 

quisquam, "some one." Miiller reads it interrogatively, "does any one?" 
Malarum rerum audacia, $211, R. 12. 
Sint sane, $ 209, R. 2, (2), & $ 260, R. 6. 
Misericordes infuribus. In this sense of in, it is commonly followed by 

the accusative, but see Chap. LI, quid in illis, and In in Diet. 
Perditum eant, $ 276, II, R. 2. 
Diverso itinere malos, &c, i. e. existimans falsum esse diverso itinere malos 

a oonis, etc. — " that the wicked, their rout being different from (that of) 

the good, inhabit," &c. Before diverso, etc. nempe, " to wit," may be 

supplied, $ 207, R. 22. 
Si periculum ex illis metuit, sc. C. Cmsar. 
Sin — solus non timet. If Caesar alone entertained no apprehension, he 

might well be suspected of having a connection with the conspirator* 
Multo pulcherrimam, $ 127, 3. 
Qua nobis nulla sunt, " none of which," — 
Omnia virtutis pr amiia. Such as civil and military offices, and other pub 

lie honors. 
Hie pecuniae, i. e. in senatu. 
Apprehensis hostibus faciatis, $ 250, R. 3. 
Misereamini censeo,§ 262, R. 4, spoken ironically. 
Scilicet res aspera est, etc. The matter in itself is formidable. 
/V«n voti", supply sed. 


Prosper a omnia cedunt, $210, R. 1. 

Bello Gallico. According to Livy and other historians, this event occui 

red in the war against the Latins. 
Nisi iter urn patriot bellum fecit. Cethegus had oeen concerned in the civil 
wars, first as a follower of Marius, and afterwards of Sylla and of Le- 
Si—peccato locus esset, " if there were any room for error." 
More majorum, i. e. according to the custom in use before the enactmerit 
of the Porcian law. 
LIII. Alii alios increpantes timidos vocant, " chiding they call each other"— 
Sustinuisset, " had sustained," i. e. had enabled the Roman people to 

Contendisse, sc. populum Romanum. 

Fortunes violentiam. Reference appears to be made to the great disasters 
v which had occasionally befallen the empire. 
Sicuti effeta parente, multis, &c, as if the parent (viz. Rome) was no longer 
capable of producing offspring, $ 257, R. 10. The common reading is 
Sicuti effeta parentum, multis, &c. Others read effetce parentum — . The 
reading adopted in the text is that suggested by Miiller. 
LIV. Igitur his genus, cetas, eloquentia prope cequalia fnere, $205, R. 2, (2). 
The Porcian gens was plebeian, the Julian patrician, but both had en 
joyed in an equal degree the honors of the state. 
JEtas. At this time Cato was thirty-three, and Caesar about thirty-seven 

years of age. 
Sed alia, sc. gloria. — Alii is used though referring to two persons only, on 

account of the preceding alia, that the words might correspond. 
Casar dando, sublevando, ignoscendo, $ 275, III, R. 4. 
Intentus, sua negligere; the historical infinitive, $209, R. 5 
Novum bellum exopfabat, " was always wishing for some new war," i. e. a 

perpetual succession of wars. 
Eo magis sequebatur, i. e. gloria eum sequebatur. 
LV\ Idem Jit ceteris, $250, R. 3. 

Est locus— quod, $ 206, (10). 
LV1. Pro numero militum, " according to the number of his soldiers," i. e. 
he put an equal number into each maniple, &c, intending to fill up the 
legion as new recruits joined his standard. 
Est sdciis, sc. conjurationis, " of the conspirators." 
Numero hominum, sc. justo. * 

Hostibus, i. e. to Antonius and his army. 
Servitia repudiabat, cujus, sc. generis hominum, $206, (11). 
Videri, sc. se, $ 239, R. 2. 
LVII. Nuntius pr.rvenit, i. e. nuntiatum eM, and hence it is construed with 
the inf. and ace. $ 272. 
l)e Lenlulo, Cethego, ceteris. For the omission of et, ac, &c. before e<pteri 

etc., see Et in Diet. 
In Galliam ; probably into the country of the Allobroges. 
Eadem ilia existimans — Catilinam agitare, i. e. a retreat into Gaul. 
Utpote qui—sequerctur, Gr. $264, 8, (2.) 

29 * 


Qui magno^euoercitu, $ 249, III, Remark. 

lnfuga, sc. Catilincs ejusque mililum. 
CVTLI. Causam mei consilii aperirem, i. e. of his resolution to risk ah en- 
gagement with Antonius. 

Quoque modo, i. e. et quomodo. 

Unus ab urbe sc. Antonii. — Alter a Gallia, sc. Metelli. 

t Utiforti atque parato animo sitis, $ 211, R. 6, & R. 8, (2.) 

Commeatus abunde, sc. erunt. For this use of abunde, see Sum in Diet. 

Non eadem nobis et illis necessitudo impendet. The meaning is, " they 
are not under the same necessity as we," or, they are under no neces- 
sity, as we are. 

Nos pro patria, etc. These words express trie necessity imposed on the 
conspirators, and are contrasted withthe words following, which denote 
the circumstances under which the troops of the state would fight. 

Supervacaneum. This word stands opposed to necessitudo, in the pre- 
ceding sentence. 

Quia ilia, i. e. the degrading conditions mentioned above. 

Viris, is used emphatically. 

Hcbc sequi decrcvistis, " these measures," — " this course" — . 

Ea vero, $ 206, (13), f (c.) ^ 

Me hortantur, sc. ut magnam spent habeam 

Cavete — amittatis, $ 262, R. 6 
LIX. Ab deortera, rupes aspera. An anacoluthon, § 323, 3, (5) , the regular 
construction of the sentence requiring, rupem asperam. 

Ab Jiis, i. e. ab reliquis signis. — Armatum, see Chap. LVI. 

Et eolonis, sc. from the colonies planted in this region by Sylla. 

Propter aquilam, etc. See Cic. in Cat. I. 9. 

Bello Cimbrico. See Jug. Chap. 114. 

Pedibus cBger, $ 250. Dio represents Antonius as feigning sickness, that 
he might avoid a personal encounter with those whom he had once 
favoured. See Chap. XXI. 

Me — Ipse, sc. Petreius. See Hie in Diet. 

Aroplius annos, $ 256, R. 6, (a.) 

Plerosque ipsos—noverat, " knew most of them personally." See Ipae in 
LX. Veterani, i. e. the veterans under the command of Petreius. 

Mi, i. e. the troops of Catiline. 

Haud timidi! Litotes, $ 324, 9. 
LXI. Sed confecto pralio. The ablative absolute here serves as the protasis 
of the sentence, the apodosis beginning at turn. 

Turn cerneres, $ 260, II. 

Quos medios, $ 205, R. 17. See%bove Chap. LX, Cohortem prceioriam in 
medios hostes indued. 

Juxta pepercerant, " had spared equally," i. e. " had spared neither," "had 
equally disregarded." 

Multi autem—alii, pars, § 204, R. 10. 

Pars reperiebant, $ 209, R. 11.